Chapter 29

 

 

SITES

 

 

 

 

AUSTRIA

 

 

NAME         Magdalensberg

TYPE         Iron Age settlement

REGION       Carinthia - S of St Donat at Willersdorf

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      A large Celtic settlement was excavated below

  the summit of the mountain and objects of iron, bronze,

  clay and glass were recovered.

 

 

NAME         Warmbad Villach

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Carinthia - Villach

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The radioactive waters of the hot springs are

  82Ί F (29Ί C) and are still used in the treatment of

  circulatory disorders, nervous diseases and rheumatism.

 

 

NAME         Grosskirchheim

TYPE         tracks

REGION       Lienz - S of Heiligenblut

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Horseback rides over some of the ancient Celtic

  tracks can be arranged through the proprietor of the

  Schlosswirt Hotel.

 

 

NAME         Baden bei Wien

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Lower Austria - S of Vienna

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      These sulphur springs were used by the Celts and

  would have been named after a goddess.

 

 

NAME         Carnuntum

TYPE         town

REGION       Lower Austria - near Hainburg SE of Vienna

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This ancient Celtic town on the Danube became a

  Roman outpost in BC 30.

 

 

NAME         Nibelungengau

TYPE         sacrificial stone

REGION       Lower Austria - Maria Taferl

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This was the site of a Celtic sanctuary but all

  that remains is a ritual stone in front of the church.

 

 

NAME         Hallein

TYPE         salt mines / hot springs

REGION       Salzburg - S of the city of Salzburg

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      In BC 700 the Celts were working the salt mines.

  Now visitors can slide into the mines on a polished tree-

  trunk.  The town also boasts hot springs.

 

 

NAME         Rauris

TYPE         gold panning

REGION       Salzburg - SE of Zell am See

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The streams provide excellent places for gold

  panning.  The mineral springs of Bad Gastein and Bad

  Hofgastein are in the next valley.

 

 

NAME         Bad Ischl

TYPE         warm brine baths

REGION       Salzkammergut - E of Salzburg

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The baths help relieve the aches from sore

  muscles and are reputed to help cure some causes of

  childlessness.  Ischl is a centre of salt mining.

 

 

NAME         Gmunden

TYPE         settlement

REGION       Salzkammergut - NE of Salzburg

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Gmunden was mined for its salt by the Illyrians

  between BC 1000 - 400 when the Celts captured it.  The

  essential salt was shipped down the Traun river to the

  Danube and on to waiting communities.

 

 

NAME         Mineralbad Mehrn

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Tirol - Brixlegg, NE of Innsbruck

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The hot calcium sulphate waters are reputed to

  cure a variety of complaints.  The area is also known for

  its abundance of copper and silver.

 

 

NAME         Bad Hall

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Upper Austria - W of Steyr

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The hot springs are known for their treatment of

  eye conditions.  The water contains a mixture of iodine and

  bromine.

 

 

NAME         Bad Schallerbach

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Upper Austria - NW of Wels

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The sulphur springs are still used for treating

  rheumatism.

 

 

NAME         Hallstatt

TYPE         burial site (Iron Age) / salt mine

REGION       Upper Austria - on the Hallstatter See

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The village of Hallstatt gave its name to the

  early Iron Age culture that was discovered when

  archeologists excavated the area in 1846.  The Hallstatt

  culture existed from about BC 1300 to BC 450.

       The Iron Age cemetery and the salt mine are open to

  visitors and the local museum has a collection of

  artifacts.  The body of a fully-clothed miner was found

  preserved in salt.

       A landslide had covered some of the Celtic miners and

  research on the bodies has shown that they were Alpine

  Caucasians living a pastoral life.  Their diet included

  barley, millet, broad-bean porridge and meat from their

  herds.

 

 

NAME         Oberzeiring

TYPE         silver mine

REGION       Western Steiermark

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      In BC 900 the Illyrians who worked the mine were

  conquered by the Celts.

 

 

 

 

BELGIUM

 

 

NAME         Han

TYPE         caves

REGION       Ardennes - near Rochefort

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There are a number of caves which can be toured

  by kayak, tram or on foot.  The Han Nature Park contains

  many animals which once roamed wild in the area.  One can

  see aurochs, bison, brown bear, and horses.

 

 

NAME         Rochefort

TYPE         caves

REGION       Ardennes - at Rochefort

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The Lomme River crosses the Rochefort caves

  which are less developed than the tourist caves at Han.

  They give more of an idea what was available to the Celts

  for their religious activities.

 

 

NAME         Spa

TYPE         curative springs and mud baths

REGION       Ardennes, SE of Liθge

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Spa has been known for its healing waters and

  mud since ancient times, giving its name to this type of

  treatment center.  The waters and mud are both high in

  iron, carbon dioxide, alkaline and low sodium and have been

  used in the treatment of arterosclerosis, heart troubles,

  rheumatism and varicose veins.

 

 

NAME         Stalactite Cave of Remouchamps

TYPE         caves

REGION       Ardennes - SE of Liθge

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The river caves can be toured by boat.

 

 

NAME         Frasnes-lez-Buissenal

TYPE         spring

REGION       Hainaut

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      A bucket containing two gilded torcs and 50

  coins of the Nervii tribe was found as a votive deposit in

  this spring.

 

 

NAME         Tongres (Tongeren)

TYPE         sculpture of Ambiorix

REGION       Limburg, NW of Liθge

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Out of respect for the great Celtic hero

  Ambiorix, the Belgians erected a statue in the centre of

  the market-place of Tongres during the 19th century.

 

 

 

 

CANADA

 

 

NAME         Milk River

TYPE         pictographs

REGION       Alberta - Milk River

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site has a pictograph of an antelope with

  the Celtic name for the animal, as well as a depiction of

  the Danann deity Goibhniu with the name included in finger

  ogham.

 

 

NAME         Writing-on-Stone Provincial Park

TYPE         pictographs

REGION       Alberta - on the Milk River near Coutts

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The park has numerous pictographs and examples

  of ogham that were left by the Celts and old Norse when

  they passed through the area in ancient times.  A hoodoo

  has bad omens carved in ogham writing on the northwest,

  west and southwest faces, and good omens on the others.  A

  pictograph has an inscription to the Celtic deity Byanu in

  fringe ogham.

 

 

NAME         John Corner's site 6

TYPE         pictographs / ogham inscription

REGION       British Columbia - Stien River

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The pictographs and the ogham inscriptions refer

  to the capture and shearing of bighorn sheep by the Celts.

 

 

NAME         John Corner's Site 68

TYPE         pictograph / ogham inscription

REGION       British Columbia - Vernon

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site has a pictograph of two runners

  accompanied by an ogham inscription in Gaelic.

 

 

NAME         Lake Superior Copper Mines

TYPE         ancient copper mines

REGION       Ontario / Minnesota

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      From the north coast of the Canadian-Americian

  lake Superior and the island Ile Royale, scientists have

  estimated that approximately 250,000 tons of copper were

  removed from 5000 different mines between BC 2000-1000.

       The Amerindians in the area had never developed a

  Bronze Age and were still in the Neolithic Age when

  European settlers arrived in AD 18th century.  The only

  explanation is the Nordic-Amerindian wool-for-copper trade

  carried on through Peterborough, Ontario.

 

 

NAME         Petroglyphs Provincial Park

TYPE         calendar (sun/zodiac) / pictographs / solar

             observatory

REGION       Ontario - Peterborough

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site at Petroglyphs Provincial Park in

  Ontario is believed to have been a base camp for Bronze Age

  Nordic traders.  From around BC 1700, Europeans traded

  woolen goods and finished products to the native Americans

  for copper from around Lake Superior.

       The old Norse high chieftain Woden-lithi might have

  been the builder of the celestial calendar that pointed out

  the equinoxes and solstices.

       One hypothesis is that the design of the site was

  calculated by the marking of two concentric circles into

  the rock.  The north/south meridian could then be

  established by placing a vertical shaft in the center of

  the circles and watching the shadows of the sun as it

  reached and passed high noon.  When the shadow reached its

  shortest length, its direction would show the meridian.

  Right angles would give the east/west direction.  The

  cardinal point could then be marked.  The vernal equinox in

  March would be when the sun rose over the eastern marker.

  The summer solstice could be marked by watching the sun at

  midsummer.

       The site has pictographs of various constellations:

  the Big Dipper - wagon wheel, plow or Wain; Pegasus -horse-

  sign (Epona the horse goddess to the Celts); Cancer -

  lobster; Gemini - the mighty twins; Aries - bear; Taurus -

  moose; Leo - lynx; Virgo - virgin; Scorpio - scorpion;

  Sagittarius - archer; Capricorn - sea-goat; Aquarius -water

  carrier; Pisces - fish.  The constellation Libra was not

  used before BC 300.

       Several ogham inscriptions have also been found in the

  park.

 

 

 

 

CHANNEL ISLANDS

 

 

NAME         Les Hougettes

TYPE         industrial site / settlement

REGION       Alderney

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Excavations of the site indicate a thriving

  industry of pottery manufacturing, including some in the

  Hallstatt style.  Bronze Age articles such as tweezers and

  razors were found at the site, and radio-carbon suggests a

  date of about BC 500.

 

 

NAME         Jerbourg

TYPE         promontory fort

REGION       Guernsey -- S and E from St Peter Port

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The promontory fort had three massive ramparts

  and ditches, with the original inner rampart faced with

  stone.  The site was in use from BC 500 - BC 50 and was

  upscaled from a smaller earlier site.

 

 

NAME         La Gran'mere (The Great Mother)

TYPE         standing stone (sculpted) / Beltane offerings

REGION       Guernsey -- S of St Peter Port at St Martin's

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The stone figure which stands at the gate of St

  Martin's churchyard is a Neolithic sculpture which at some

  time was modified by a Celtic stone carver.  In the 19th

  century it was broken into two by an overly-enthusiastic

  churchwarden on an evangelistic crusade.  The sculptured

  menhir was repaired and many locals still venerate the old

  deities with offerings of flowers and libations of wine

  around May 5th or 6th.

 

 

NAME         The Tranquesous

TYPE         Iron Age settlement

REGION       Guernsey -- St Saviour

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site covers 17 acres (7 ha) of land with

  over 15 hut circles visible.  The site appears to have been

  occupied between BC 50 and AD 75.  Metal working and salt

  distillation were major industries and the site was

  probably occupied by the Curiosolites tribe.

 

 

NAME         Le Catel de Rozel

TYPE         promontory earthwork

REGION       Jersey - between Rozel and Bouley bays

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      A steep valley and a single rampart 20 ft (6 m)

  high, 33 ft (10 m) wide and 650 ft (200 m) long cuts off

  the point from the remainder of the island.  The site is

  thought to date from around BC 1st century and the large

  quantities of coins found suggest that it may have been a

  mint of the Curiosolites tribe.

 

 

NAME         Fremont Point

TYPE         earthwork

REGION       Jersey - north shore near St John's

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fortress has two ramparts, a ditch and a

  causeway entrance.

 

 

NAME         La Hougue Bie

TYPE         passage grave (Neolithic)

REGION       Jersey -- NE of St Helier

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There is a mound 40 ft (12 m) high and 177 ft

  (54 m) in diameter.  The chamber is 65 ft (20 m) long with

  3 inner cells and was constructed of granite uprights with

  roof slabs and some drywall.

 

 

NAME         La Sergentι

TYPE         passage grave

REGION       Jersey - west coast

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This is a Neolithic passage grave with a

  corbelled dome.

 

 

 

 

CZECH REPUBLIC

 

 

NAME         Prasklice

TYPE         settlement

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site was used by the Unetice culture and

  dates as far back as BC late 3rd millenium.

 

 

NAME         Giant's Springs

TYPE         sacred springs

REGION       Bohemia - Duchcov (Dux) SW of Teplice

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This unusual find dating from around BC 300

  consisted of 2000 pieces of bronze and iron jewelry in a

  bronze cauldron.

 

 

NAME         Hradiste Nad Zavisti

TYPE         Iron Age fortress

REGION       Bohemia - Stradonice, Beroun district

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fort covered a large tract of land and was

  in use during BC 1st century.

 

 

NAME         Hrazany

TYPE         Iron Age fortress

REGION       Bohemia - Sedlcany

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fortress was built close to the Elbe river.

 

 

NAME         Mseckι Zehrovice

TYPE         sacred site

REGION       Bohemia, near Prague

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site was in use during BC 3rd century and a

  stone head with torc has been uncovered outside the stone

  enclosure.

 

 

NAME         Planany

TYPE         settlement

REGION       Bohemia

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The settlement was in use during BC 3rd century

  and an filigree armring has been found.

 

 

NAME         Ptenν

TYPE         settlement

REGION       Mahren

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site was still being used in BC 1st century

  and finds include a amulet pendant which has a human with

  arms and legs extending to a circle showing the number 5.

 

 

NAME         Byci skala

TYPE         sacred cave

REGION       Moravia - Blansko district N of Brno

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      During BC 6th century the limestone cave was

  used for religious rites and many remains have been found

  of humans and animals as well as Hallstatt artifacts,

  including a human head made into a drinking vessel, a

  cauldron, a wagon and a cast bronze bull.

 

 

NAME         Polesovice

TYPE         settlement

REGION       Moravia - Uherskι-Hradiste district

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Bone tools for engraving pottery have been

  unearthed at the site.

 

 

NAME         Sakvice

TYPE         settlement

REGION       Moravia - Breclau district S of Brno

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The settlement was in use during BC 4th century

  and pottery shards with repetitive stamped designs have

  been uncovered.

 

 

NAME         Starι Hradisko

TYPE         fortress

REGION       Moravia - Prostejov district, Mδhren

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      A coin stamper, graffiti, bronze decoration for

  a sword-hilt and glass stores have been found on the site.

 

 

NAME         Libkovice

TYPE         settlement

REGION       Most - near Duchkov (Dux)

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site was in use during the early La Tθne and

  pottery with animal motifs have been uncovered.

 

 

 

 

DENMARK

 

 

NAME         Raevemosen

TYPE         sacrificial site

REGION       Jutland - Raevemosen, Aars

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The well-known gilded silver Gundestrup Cauldron

  was uncovered from this peat bog.  At the time the cauldron

  was sacrificed the area was a swamp with a sacred spring.

 

 

NAME         Rynkeby

TYPE         sacrificial site

REGION       Jutland - Rynkeby on the island of Funen

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      A fragment of a bronze cauldron depicting a

  torc-wearing woman's head, bulls' heads, a triskele and two

  other animals was uncovered from the present-day peat bog.

 

 

NAME         Dejbjerg

TYPE         sacrifical site

REGION       West Jutland - Dejbjerg Mose, Ringkobing

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Elaborately ornamented bronze votive wagons

  dating from BC 1st century were found at the site, which is

  now a peat bog.

 

 

 

 

ENGLAND

 

 

NAME         Cadbury Camp

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Avon - NW of Nailsea

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The triple-rampart fort overlooks the Bristol

  Channel and surrounding countryside.

 

 

NAME         Grim's Ditches

TYPE         Bronze Age / Iron Age earthworks

REGION       Berkshire / Oxfordshire boundary - near Chilton

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The earthworks consist of a bank and a ditch,

  and may have been constructed for defensive purposes.

 

 

NAME         Icknield Way / Berkshire Ridgeway

TYPE         track

REGION       Berkshire / Oxfordshire / Norfolk

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The ancient track can still be walked from east

  of Silbury Hill to a hillfort southwest of Luton.  It is

  said to follow one of the longest ley lines in England,

  running from St Michael's Mount (Cornwall) to Norwich,

  including Avebury and Glastonbury on its line.  The name

  Icknield may derive from the Iceni tribe, whose stronghold

  Venta Icenorum lay at the northeast end of the track.

 

 

NAME         Flag Fen

TYPE         Bronze Age crannog

REGION       Cambridgeshire - eastern outskirts of

             Peterborough

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Flag Fen was a Bronze Age settlement built on an

  artificial island in what was then a lagoon accessed by a

  wooden causeway.  The site covers an area of 2 acres (0.8

  ha) and consisted of rectangular timber houses.  Excavation

  has revealed that a number of them had sod roofs.

       There is an on-site museum and one can also visit a

  display area which preserves a portion of the excavation

  under water.

 

 

NAME         Wandlebury Ring

TYPE         Bronze Age / Iron Age fortress

REGION       Cambridgeshire - just S of Cambridge

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fortress had a double rampart and ditch

  defence system and sits on the Gogmagog Hills.

       Iman Wilkens presents solid arguments for locating

  ancient Troy at this site rather than in Turkey.  His

  thorough research on the subject presents a totally new and

  believable conclusion.

 

 

NAME         Bosigran Castle

TYPE         promontory fort

REGION       Cornwall - near Zennor W of St Ives

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fort sits on an impressive cliff-site and is

  protected from the mainland by a stone wall.  The

  inhabitants of the region are still known for their healing

  powers.

 

 

NAME         Carn Euny

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort / sacred wells

REGION       Cornwall - W of Penzance near Sancreed

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      In BC 5th century, the site was settled by

  Celtic people who built timber houses.  Three centuries

  later, the settlement was reconstructed with multiple-room

  stone houses with courtyard.

       On the site is a underground clochan (beehive hut)

  with the roof missing but with a long well-preserved fogou

  that leads to the outside.  There are also 2 sacred wells

  nearby which are renowned for their capacity to heal

  wounds.

 

 

NAME         Castle Dore

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Cornwall - SE of Bodmin

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      A circular fortress with double ramparts

  enclosed round wooden huts.  The fortress is thought to

  have been connected with the story of Tristan and Eseult.

 

 

NAME         Castle-an-Dinas

TYPE         hillfort

REGION       Cornwall

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There are two well-defended hillforts of the

  same name in the area, one with 3 walls of stone and the

  other with four ramparts.  Both were strategically located

  to guard a network of tin mines, the rare and essential

  ingredient of tools and weapons during the Bronze Age.

 

 

NAME         Chun Castle

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Cornwall - NW of Penzance, inland from Morvah

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fortress has two well-made drystone

  defensive walls with granite facings.  Within the 280 ft

  (84 m) diameter inner wall are the remains of hut circles

  and a well.  The site also contains the remnants of a

  smelting furnace and slag heaps of tin and iron.

       At the foot of the hill are the remains of a

  settlement with multiple-room stone houses.

 

 

NAME         Chysauster Settlement

TYPE         Iron Age settlement

REGION       Cornwall - N of Penzance, near Gulval

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The Chysauster Settlement is a fine example of

  multiple-room stone houses with central courtyards.  The

  site contains five well-defined homes and traces of others.

  There are remnants of above-ground passageways and below-

  ground fogous as well as hearths and drains.

 

 

NAME         Dupath

TYPE         sacred well

REGION       Cornwall - Dupath, near Callington NW of

             Plymouth

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The clear waters of the spring, now housed in a

  16th-century well chapel, are recommended for whooping

  cough.

 

 

NAME         Land of Lyonesse

TYPE         drowned land

REGION       Cornwall - between Land's End and the Isles of

             Scilly

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The memory of the land which sunk below the

  water at some point in prehistory is kept alive by the

  local knowledge of its name.

 

 

NAME         Madron

TYPE         sacred wells

REGION       Cornwall - Madron, W of Penzance

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There are 2 wells outside this village: one in

  the old ruins of a baptistry and the other now housed in a

  circular stone framework.  The clear waters from both are

  recommended for many skin, nerve and muscle ailments.

 

 

NAME         Men-an-Tol

TYPE         stones (fertility / healing)

REGION       Cornwall - NW of Penzance

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      A circular-holed stone disk stands between two

  phallic standing stones.  The stones are associated with

  fertility and healing.

 

 

NAME         Rough Tor

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort / springs

REGION       Cornwall - Bodmin Moor S of Camelford

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Although the ramparts of Rough Tor are in a poor

  state of repair, there are three springs and a heavy

  concentration of hut circles and compounds.

 

 

NAME         Rumps

TYPE         Iron Age promontory fort

REGION       Cornwall - near Polzeath

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fortress has triple ramparts and sits high

  on a neck of land jutting into the sea.  Excavation has

  revealed an active community involved in trade, suggested

  by the finds of bones from domesticated animals, spinning

  whorls, grinding stones, glass and metal ornaments, and

  some Mediterranean wine amphorae.  The circle huts were of

  wood with thatch roofs; thatch weights have also been

  found.

 

 

NAME         Scarlett's Well

TYPE         sacred well

REGION       Cornwall - Bodmin, on Scarletts Well Road

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The waters of Scarlett's Well were renowned for

  their general healing properties.  The popularity of the

  well incurred the wrath of some local authorities a few

  centuries ago, but the water is again accessible.

 

 

NAME         St Cuthbert's Well

TYPE         sacred well / cairns / settlement

REGION       Cornwall - SW of Newquay at Holywell

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This holy well is located at the mouth of one of

  three adjacent seaside caves, and the approach is subject

  to tidal conditions.  The waters were known for their

  healing qualities on immersion, and in the case of sickly

  children it was customary to pass them through a hole in

  the stones after immersion.  There are remains of an

  ancient settlement in the vicinity.

 

 

NAME         St Levan's Well

TYPE         sacred well

REGION       Cornwall - St Levan at Porthgwarra Beaches near

             Land's End

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The well is surrounded by small walls and is

  situated on a dramatic coastal site.  Its waters are

  recommended for eye and tooth ailments.

 

 

NAME         St Martins Pipe Well

TYPE         sacred well

REGION       Cornwall - Liskeard, on Well Lane

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The healing waters of the four springs have been

  somewhat contaminated due to the arrangement of the old

  well house, where the waters from each spring are

  channelled through four lead pipes.

 

 

NAME         St Mary's

TYPE         Iron Age settlement / cairn

REGION       Cornwall - Isles of Scilly, near St Mary's

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There are visible remains of hut circles near

  the Neolithic Bant's Cairn.

 

 

NAME         St Non's Well

TYPE         sacred well

REGION       Cornwall - S of Liskeard outside Duloe, on

             Hobbs Lane

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The well is housed in a small old well house

  with carvings, and flanked by an ash and an oak tree.  The

  clear waters are recommended for soothing restless souls.

 

 

NAME         Tintagel {Tin-taj-ell}

TYPE         Iron Age promontory fort

REGION       Cornwall - Tintagel, W of Camelford

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site, which may have been the headquarters

  of the Dumnonii tribe, is now dominated by a medieval

  fortress.  The story of Arthur is linked with the site.

 

 

NAME         Tregeare Rounds (Castle Dameliock)

TYPE         ring-fort

REGION       Cornwall - SW of Tintagel near Pendoggett

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fortress was the site where Gorlois, head

  chieftain of Cornwall, defended himself against Arthur. The

  defences consisted of three earth rings 1345 ft (410 m) in

  diameter.

 

 

NAME         Tregenna Chapel Well

TYPE         sacred well

REGION       Cornwall - Tregenna, near Blisland

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The surrounding lands of this ancient spring

  were long considered sacred.  The well itself is now in the

  ruins of an old chapel.  The clean waters are recommended

  especially for eye ailments.

 

 

NAME         Treryn Dinas

TYPE         promontory fort / rocking stone

REGION       Cornwall - near Penwith at St Levan

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The large promontory fort with multiple ramparts

  is also the site of a rocking stone.

 

 

NAME         Trevelgue

TYPE         Iron Age promontory fort

REGION       Cornwall - near Newquay

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The ancient fortress has lost much to the sea

  but there are still seven ramparts across the neck and a

  part of the fortress is now an island.  There are also

  ruins of a Roman signal station.

 

 

NAME         Castle Rigg

TYPE         stone circle

REGION       Cumbria - just E of Keswick

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This stone circle, unlike a henge, is formed

  from small uncut stones placed close together to form a

  large circle on the mountaintop.  An off-center rectangle

  of stones inside the circle and a single standing stone

  positioned 300 ft (90 m) away suggest that the site may

  have had a special function.  It is dated to the late 3rd

  millenium BC.

 

 

NAME         Aquae Arnemetiae

TYPE         sacred springs (curative)

REGION       Derbyshire - at Buxton

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The sacred mineral springs are presided over by

  the Celtic goddess Arnemetia.  The springs are recommended

  in the treatment of gout, rheumatism and sciatica.  The

  springs are located in what used to be the territory of the

  Cornovii tribe.

 

 

NAME         Bakewell (Boudicca's Well)

TYPE         curative sacred springs

REGION       Derbyshire - at Bakewell

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The chalybeate warm springs were originally

  named after Boudicca, and are renowned for their healing

  qualities.

 

 

NAME         Dartmoor National Park

TYPE         Bronze Age / Iron Age settlements

REGION       Devon - between Exeter and Plymouth

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The park covers a large tract of land with many

  stone huts in varing states of preservation.  There are

  also many standing stones, cairns and wild ponies.

 

 

NAME         Hembury

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Devon - SW of Exeter near Ashburton

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site was occupied since the New Stone Age.

  The Iron Age hillfort shows a well-defined entrance passage

  and evidence of a hut site.

 

 

NAME         Totnes

TYPE         town

REGION       Devon - Totnes, W of Torquay

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Totnes is the site where Brute and his allies

  first settled in Britain when they landed 109 years after

  the fall of Troy.

 

 

NAME         Valley of the Rocks

TYPE         Iron Age settlement

REGION       Devon

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There are remains of an impressive walled

  village with circular huts and the valley itself is worth

  seeing.

 

 

NAME         Badbury Ring

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Dorset - NW of Bournemouth past Wimbourne

  Minster

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The large oval hillfort covers 18 acres (7 ha)

  and boasts 3 ramparts with staggered entrances.

       There are 3 Bronze Age round barrows nearby and the

  Ackling Dyke touches the outer rampart.

 

 

NAME         Cerne Abbas Giant

TYPE         chalk drawing

REGION       Dorset - Cerne Abbas, N of Dorchester

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The outline of the giant is 180 ft (55 m) long

  and he is holding a 120 ft (36 m) club in his right hand.

  The giant has a 30 ft (9 m) long erect penis.  At the top

  of the hill is a rectangular enclosure (called the Frying

  Pan) which was used for fertility rites.  The date when

  this figure was cut is not known but Celtic mythology has

  many club-wielding hero-gods.

 

 

NAME         Hambledon Hill

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Dorset - near Blandford Forum

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site, which was occupied since Neolithic

  times, covers an area of 30 acres (12 ha) enclosed by

  triple ramparts with three entrances.  Inside are

  indications of hut circles and an extremely large long

  barrow.

 

 

NAME         Hengistbury Head

TYPE         industrial site / promontory fort

REGION       Dorset - just E of Bournemouth

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fort, across from Christchurch, overlooks a

  natural harbour and is defended by double ramparts dating

  from BC 700.  Excavation reveals that the site, in the

  Durotriges territory, was active in trade.

       Glassware, coins and metal objects were produced on

  the site and presumeably exported, and imports of jewellery

  and pottery have been dated to BC 150.  There are also

  Bronze Age barrows on the promontory.

 

 

NAME         Hod Hill

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Dorset - just NW of Blandford Forum

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Hod Hill was a large rectangular hillfort

  destroyed by the invading Romans in AD 43.  Finds at the

  site include a decorated shield boss.

 

 

NAME         Maiden Castle (Mai dun)

TYPE         Bronze Age / Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Dorset - SW of Dorchester

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      In Neolithic times a settlement was established

  on the hilltop.  The next major construction began in BC

  8th century when it was thought to be controlled by the

  Durotriges tribe.  Over the centuries the site was enlarged

  to 120 acres (48 ha) with four massive ramparts, the inner

  rampart having a circumference of 1.5 mi (2.5 km).

       During the Roman invasion of AD 43-44 it is believed

  the fortress was populated by survivors of the Veneti tribe

  from Brittany.  When the Romans finally gained entrance,

  they slaughtered every man, woman, and child.  Excavations

  at the site uncovered stores of 20,000 sling-stones and the

  remains of a Celt shot in the back by a Roman catapult.

 

 

NAME         Pilsdon Pen

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Dorset - NW of Bridport

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fortress is situated on a 900 ft high (275

  m) hill giving it a commanding view of the surrounding

  area.

 

 

NAME         Camulodun (Fort of Camulos)

TYPE         Iron Age settlement

REGION       Essex - Colchester

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      In BC 15 Addedormarus, head chieftain of the

  Trinovantes, moved his tribal center from Braughing to this

  site.  Around AD 10, Cunobel of the Catuvellauni conquered

  the territory of the Trinovantes and other tribes and moved

  his headquarters to the site, honoring their war god

  Camulos by naming the site after him.  In AD 43 the

  invading Romans destroyed Camulodun and built Colchester.

  In AD 61 the great Iceni chieftain Boudicca burnt

  Colchester to the ground and slaughtered its inhabitants.

       The 12 sq mi (31 sq km) site was bounded by the Colne

  and Roman rivers and by earthworks now called Grymes' Dyke,

  Lexden Dyke and Triple Dyke.

 

 

NAME         Bagendon

TYPE         Iron Age earthworks

REGION       Gloucestershire - N of Cirencester

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The earthworks define a 200-acre site which was

  the center of the Dobunni tribe.

 

 

NAME         Bredon Hill

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Gloucestershire - between Tewkesbury and Evesham

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The Belgae hillfort was the site of a fierce

  battle in AD 1st century.  The entranceway once displayed

  the skulls of the enemies that were taken in different

  battles.

       The small fort of Conderton Camp to the SE may have

  originally been a cattle enclosure for Bredon Hill.

 

 

NAME         Crickley Hill

TYPE         Neolithic - Iron Age settlement / promontory

             fort

REGION       Gloucestershire - near Cheltenham

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site was established around BC 4000 and in

  BC 8th century, the natural defences of the promontory site

  were supplemented with ramparts and a well-defined

  entrance.  Excavation revealed that the original huts were

  rectangular but the later huts were of the circular style.

 

 

NAME         Lydney Park

TYPE         Iron Age earthworks

REGION       Gloucestershire - near Lydney

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The Celtic sanctuary to the god Nodons situated

  on the Severn Estuary was turned into a commercial venture

  by the Romans.

 

 

NAME         Uley Bury

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Gloucestershire - Cotswolds E of Dursley

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This is an impressive site for a double-rampart

  hillfort covering 32 acres (13 ha).  The fortress had three

  entrance tunnels and dates from BC 4th century.  There is a

  Neolithic long barrow (Hetty Pegler's Tump) nearby.

 

 

NAME         Beacon Hill

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Hampshire - S of Newbury

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fort was built in the shape of an hour-glass

  with an interesting entrance.  Circular hut depressions

  still remain.

 

 

NAME         Butser Hill (Queen Elizabeth Country Park)

TYPE         settlement (Iron Age reconstruction)

REGION       Hampshire - South Downs near Petersfield

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This site is a working reconstruction of an Iron

  Age farm.  The house, barns, outbuildings, animals, and

  crops are all reminiscent of the old Celtic way of life.

 

 

NAME         Danebury

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Hampshire - near Stockbridge, SW of Andover

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The triple rampart fortress was developed over a

  period of four centuries or more.  Excavations reveal that

  the inhabitants were involved in the making of wood, metal

  and clay objects as well as farming.  Skulls of horses were

  found in the underground storage area.

 

 

NAME         Mizmaze

TYPE         turf maze

REGION       Hampshire - NW of Fordingbridge

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The ancient turf maze is approximately 90 ft (27

  m) in diameter and is surrounded by yew trees.

 

 

NAME         Whitsbury

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Hampshire - NW of Fordingbridge

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site covers 16 acres (6 ha), has 3 ramparts

  and ditches and at one time had circular timber huts.

 

 

NAME         Arthur's Stone

TYPE         long barrow (Neolithic)

REGION       Hereford & Worcester - by Dorstone, W of

             Hereford

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This dolmen has a large capstone supported by

  nine upright slabs to form the chamber.  The reference to

  Arthur in naming dolmens is common in southern England.

 

 

NAME         Croft Ambrey

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Herefordshire - near Bircher, SW of Ludlow

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fortress had multiple ramparts which enclose

  a site of 40 acres (16 ha).  The hillfort was in use

  between BC 5th and AD 1st centuries and underwent several

  changes.

 

 

NAME         Hereford Beacon

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Hereford and Worcester - near Little Malvern

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The multiple ramparts of this large hillfort

  follow the contours of the ridge site, creating an elegant

  design.  Hut sites are now visible only as depressions in

  the ground, and the medieval castle built inside the

  circular inner ramparts interferes with the evocation of

  Iron Age times.  Another hillfort lies a few miles south of

  the site.

 

 

NAME         Kilpeck Church

TYPE         sheila-na-gig

REGION       Herefordshire - Kilpeck SW of Hereford

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The figure of a sheila-na-gig is carved into the

  church.

 

 

NAME         King Arthur's Cave

TYPE         cave (settlement)

REGION       Hereford & Worcester - near Whitchurch, NE of

             Monmouth

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The cave has two large chambers and overlooks

  the river Wye.  It has served as a home to many wild

  animals as well as humans from the Mesolithic to the Iron

  Age.  Finds from the site include bones of bison, Irish

  elk, lion, mammoth and woolly rhinoceros, as well as tools

  and  weapons.

 

 

NAME         Devil's Dyke / Slad / Beech Bottom

TYPE         earthworks

REGION       Hertfordshire - near Wheathampstead

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The three earthworks are reputed to have been

  used by Cassubellaunos to enclose his headquarters during

  the Roman Invasion.  The massive earthworks have ditches up

  to 130 ft (40 m) wide and 40 ft (12 m) deep.

       There is also a hillfort just east of Wheathampstead

  which would have belonged to the Catuvellauni tribe.

 

 

NAME         Prae Wood

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Hertfordshire - St Albans

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Prae Wood was a Catuvellauni stronghold against

  the invading Romans.  After it fell, the Romans built the

  town of Verulamium at the foot of the hill.  During the

  Iceni revolt against Rome in AD 59, Boudicca and her

  warriors slaughtered the inhabitants and destroyed the

  site.

 

 

NAME         Burrough Hill

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Leicestershire - S of Melton Mowbray near

             Somerby

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The hillfort was contructed 600 feet above sea-

  level and its double walls filled with rubble.  It was

  probably a centre of the Coritani tribe.  The fort had a

  long passageway into the fort which increased the danger to

  any attackers.  Grinding stones and bones of domesticated

  animals have been excavated from the site.

 

 

NAME         Cockley Cley

TYPE         sacred spring / Iceni village (reconstructed)

REGION       Norfolk - S of Swaffham

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Cockley Cley is a reconstruction of a mud-and-

  wattle Iceni village from the time period of Boudicca.  The

  village has a defensive palisade with a wooden gateway

  displaying the skulls of slain enemies.  There are

  reconstructions of circle huts, a sacrificial pit and a

  sacred spring with very cold water.

 

 

NAME         Warham Camp

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Norfolk - N of Fakenham near Warham

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The well-preserved circular hillfort had its

  large double ramparts bisected by the River Stiffkey when

  it was diverted a couple of centuries ago.

 

 

NAME         Thornborough Henges

TYPE         earthworks

REGION       North Yorkshire - N of Ripon

REMARKS      Three earth circles of about 800 ft (250 m) in

  diameter are evenly spaced on a NW/SE axis with their

  entrances in alignment.  The structures were originally

  faced with gypsum crystals.

 

 

NAME         Celtic Community

TYPE         community

REGION       Northumberland

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Dr. Anne Ross claims to have discovered a

  community which still venerates some of the Celtic deities.

  In respect for the inhabitants the location is not

  disclosed.

 

 

NAME         Dod Law

TYPE         hillfort / stone circle / cup-and-ring markings

             / sacred well

REGION       Northumberland - Doddington Moor, near Wooler

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The hillfort has double ramparts which enclose a

  small area with hut circles and another area suspected to

  have been the barnyard.  Nearby is a larger field also

  protected by a rampart with a funnel entrance, probably for

  animals.

       A sacred well, a stone circle, and several rocks with

  cup-and-ring markings are in the vicinity.

 

 

NAME         Hadrian's Wall

TYPE         defensive stone wall

REGION       Northumberland - from Newcastle to Solway Firth

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The wall was built by the Romans in an attempt

  to keep the free wild Celtic tribes out of the conquered

  and domesticated territory to the south.

 

 

NAME         Southwell / Norwell

TYPE         sacred wells

REGION       Nottinghamshire - W of Newark-on-Trent

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      These two towns 7 miles (11 km) apart gained

  their names from the sacred waters there.

 

 

NAME         Uffington Castle

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Oxfordshire - E of Swindon

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      It is believed that the hillfort was occupied by

  the Catuvellauni tribe of the Belgae.  The rampart was

  faced with sarsen stone reinforced with timbers. (See also

  White Horse of Uffington.)

 

 

NAME         White Horse of Uffington

TYPE         chalk drawing

REGION       Oxfordshire - E of Swindon

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The 375 ft (115 m) outline of a horse is cut

  through the turf to expose the chalk underneath, creating a

  drawing highly visible from a distance.  It is believed

  that the Catuvellauni tribe from the nearby Uffington

  Castle were responsible for the cutting, or at least

  continued the upkeep of the drawing, as a symbol of their

  deity Epona. (See also Uffington Castle)

       Others believe the chalk drawing originated in the

  Bronze Age because of its style.  Another opinion claims

  the drawing depicts the white dragon and the Horse of

  Tysoe, once visible near Banbury, Warwickshire, depicts the

  red dragon.

 

 

NAME         Caer Caradoc

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Shropshire - just NE of Church Stretton

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This is the most likely site where Caratacus

  made his last stand against the invading Roman imperialists

  in AD 50 after 8 successful years of guerilla warfare.

 

 

NAME         Old Oswestry

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort / dykes / sacred well

REGION       Shropshire - just N of Oswestry

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The hillfort in the territory of the Cornovii,

  dating from BC 5th century, boasts five ramparts most

  likely constructed in three stages.  A later earthwork,

  Wat's Dyke, passes by the outer ramparts and Offa's Dyke

  passes a few miles to the west.

       St Oswald's Well in nearby Oswestry has long been

  known for its healing powers.

 

 

NAME         The Portway

TYPE         track

REGION       Shropshire - The Long Mynd, W of Church Stretton

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The trackway, dating from Neolithic times and

  passing many Bronze Age cairns, was doubtless used by the

  Celts such as those living at nearby Caer Caradoc.

 

 

NAME         Wrekin

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Shropshire - W of Telford

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fortress was the center for the Cornovii

  tribe and overlooked the Welsh Marches.  The fortress has

  two ramparts and outer defences.

 

 

NAME         Cadbury Castle

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Somerset - South Cadbury, NE of Yeovil

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The well-preserved hillfort has four ramparts

  and is believed by some to be the site of Camelot.

 

 

NAME         Glastonbury

TYPE         Bronze Age crannog

REGION       Somerset - Glastonbury

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This artifical island community is a good

  example of a crannog.  It covered an area of 3.5 acres (1.5

  ha) and enclosed 90 wattle-and-daub huts up to 35 ft (10 m)

  across.

      The name Glastonbury indicates that woad, a plant whose

  dye was used for body tattooing, was cultivated in the

  area.  Finds at the site include turned wooden bowls, saws,

  carts and dug-out canoes.

 

 

NAME         Tarr Steps

TYPE         bridge

REGION       Somerset - Tarr, in the southern region of

             Exmoor Park

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The ancient bridge was constructed around BC

  1000 with massive flagstones to provide a crossing over the

  River Barle.  The name might relate to the deity Taranis,

  who was referred to as Taran in England.

       A similar bridge exists in the province of A Corunna,

  Spain at Estraeio.

 

 

NAME         Wells

TYPE         springs

REGION       Somerset - city of Wells

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The abundant natural springs at the site were

  extremely sacred to the Celts.  The conquering Christian

  religion, in an attempt to divert the veneration, built a

  monastery and monumental cathedral.  The main springs,

  called St Andrew's Well, are in the gardens of the Bishop's

  Palace.

 

 

NAME         Wookey Hole

TYPE         cave (settlement) / well

REGION       Somerset - Wookey Hole, SW of Cheddar

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The Axe river flows through a Celtic settlement

  that was still in use after the Roman conquest.  Fourteen

  skulls from humans between 25 and 30 years old were found

  in the sacrificial well on the site.

 

 

NAME         Worlebury

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Somerset

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The hillfort has remains of grain pits.  It was

  attacked by the invading Romans who slaughtered the

  inhabitants and destroyed the fortress.

 

 

NAME         Thor's Cave

TYPE         cave

REGION       Staffordshire - Peaks district near Wetton

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The cave was used by Iron Age Celts for a

  settlement.

 

 

NAME         Pilgrim's Way

TYPE         track

REGION       Surrey / Kent

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The ancient track went from the Celtic

  settlement of Winchester (Venta Belgarum) through another

  Celtic village at Canterbury (Durovernon) to the coast. The

  pathway then continued through France and crossed over the

  Pyrenees into Spain and on to the sacred Celtic site of

  Cabo Fisterra in Galicia.  Pilgrim's Way has numerous yew

  trees growing along it and is only one of a newtwork of

  paths dating back to Neolithic times connecting many sacred

  sites.

       Many of the sites had Christian structures erected in

  order to eliminate the Celtic religion but some have been

  rediscovered as the old paths are being revived.

 

 

NAME         Chanctonbury Ring

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Sussex - just NW of Steyring

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The 800 ft (250 m) elevation of this site gives

  it commanding views of the surrounding downs and the sea.

  The inner rampart encloses an oval-shaped area of 400 x 500

  ft (120x150 m).  There are other defences farther down the

  hill.  After the Roman invasions there was a Celto-Roman

  temple built on the site.

 

 

NAME         Cissbury Ring

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Sussex - just N of Worthing

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site started out as a Neolithic flint mine

  around BC 3600.  All that remains now are depressions

  marking the collapsed shafts.

       In BC 5th century a large rampart was erected to

  enclose 50 acres (20 ha), making it one of the largest

  forts in England.

 

 

NAME         Itford Hill

TYPE         Bronze Age settlement

REGION       Sussex - SE of Lewis

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The settlement dates from BC 12 century, and

  contained circular timber-framed houses of 20 ft (6 m) in

  diameter.

 

 

NAME         Kingley Vale

TYPE         forest (Yew)

REGION       Sussex - Stoughton, NW of Chichester

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This is a living example of a yew forest and is

  one of the largest remaining in Europe.  The walk leads by

  some barrows and to the east on the other side of the

  highway is a hillfort called The Trundle.

 

 

NAME         Mount Caburn

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Sussex - Lewes Station

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The 3.5 acre (1.5 ha) site has a single rampart

  and ditch.  The fort overlooks the Ouse valley and dates

  from BC 500.  There are many tumuli in the area.

 

 

NAME         Wolstonbury Hill

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Sussex - Pyecombe Church, N of Brighton

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fortress is unusual in that the ditch is on

  the inside of the rampart.  The site may have been

  connected with the Wealden iron ore find.

 

 

NAME         Avebury

TYPE         Neolithic henge

REGION       Wiltshire - W of Marlborough

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Construction on this impressive henge began

  around BC 3300 with the placement of 100 sarsen stones.

  There are two smaller stone circles within it and it is

  surrounded by a bank and a ditch with a diameter of over

  1300 ft (400 m) and a combined height of 55 ft (17 m).

       Two sinuous avenues join it with 2 other stone

  circles.  One of the two is named The Sanctuary and is

  located on Overton Hill.  Its design was 2 concentric stone

  circles (still visible) and 3 inner concentric circles of

  wood (now disappeared).  Skulls and Bronze Age implements

  have been uncovered at the site.

 

 

NAME         Figsbury Rings

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Wiltshire - NE of Salisbury

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      A single rampart with inner ditch encloses a 15

  acre (6 ha) site with a commanding view of the vicinity.

 

 

NAME         Old Sarum

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Wiltshire - just N of Salisbury

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Old Sarum was a Celtic hillfort overlooking the

  Silbury Plain.  It was later occupied by the Romans, then

  the Saxons.

 

 

NAME         Silbury Hill

TYPE         Bronze Age mound

REGION       Wiltshire - just S of Avebury

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Silbury is the largest known artificial mound in

  Europe, being 135 ft (40 m) high, and 550 ft (170 m).  The

  mound was begun in BC 22nd century and has gone through

  four stages of enlargement.  Inefficient probing has

  discovered nothing and has weakened the structure.

 

 

NAME         Stonehenge

TYPE         calendar / stone circle (Bronze Age henge)

REGION       Wiltshire - N of Salisbury

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The construction of Stonehenge was begun between

  BC 3100-2800 when a circular ditch with a rampart was

  built.  Cremation burials pits were dug inside the

  enclosure.

       In BC 2600 the axis of the megalithic site was changed

  and a double circle of bluestones was added.  Four station

  stones were also put into position to aid in astronomical

  observations.

       In BC 2300 the site was again altered when the

  bluestones were taken down.  An outer ring of sarsen stones

  linked with lintels and an inner ring of trilithons were

  erected.

       The final stage of Stonehenge was completed between BC

  1600-1500 when the bluestones were re-established in an

  oval shape within the outer circle of sarsen stones.  Holes

  were dug outside the circle and the avenue was lengthened

  to reach the Avon river.

       The calendar uses the formula of 19+19+18=56 years to

  coordinate solar and lunar movements including eclipses.

  The sun god Belenos was said to visit the site every 19

  years (18 years 11 1/3 days) and perform on his harp.

 

 

NAME         Wessex Shire Park

TYPE         Iron Age Farmstead

REGION       Wiltshire - Salisbury

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The park illustrates Iron Age farming methods

  using horses.  It also has a collection of traditional

  breeds of animals.

 

 

NAME         Windmill Hill

TYPE         Neolithic / Bronze earthwork

REGION       Wiltshire - just NW of Avebury

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Windmill Hill is a Neolithic earthwork dating

  from BC 3500 with continuous use throughout the Bronze Age

  when round barrows were constructed.  Flint tools, hide

  scrapers, pottery, carcasses of whole young pigs and goats,

  and an amulet with ogham letters are among the finds from

  this site.

 

 

NAME         Yarnbury

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Wiltshire

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The hillfort contains a 30 acre (12 m) site with

  its triple ramparts and two ditches.

 

 

NAME         Ingleborough

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Yorkshire - near Chapel le Dale

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The hillfort was a Brigantes stronghold covering

  a 15 acre (6 ha) site and was protected by crags, a steep

  approach and a stone wall defence.  Many of the hut circles

  are still visible when the fog lifts.  There is a path that

  starts at a pub by the highway.

 

 

NAME         Noonside Rock of Brimham

TYPE         sacred site

REGION       Yorkshire - Brimham

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site was a center for druidical activities.

  Great fires were lit on top of the rock for the festivals.

 

 

NAME         Staple Howe

TYPE         Iron Age settlement

REGION       Yorkshire

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The original farmstead had a stone house, later

  replaced by two wooden ones and a granary.  There is a path

  leading to the hilltop where the site is laid out.

 

 

NAME         Tofts Hill

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Yorkshire - Stanwick-St-John

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The hillfort was used by Venutios when he fought

  against his wife Cartimandua and her Roman allies.  The

  site was originally a few acres in size and had a single

  rampart.  The Brigantes enlarged the defences to protect an

  area of over 700 acres (300 ha).

 

 

 

 

FRANCE

 

 

NAME         Mont Bego

TYPE         pictographs

REGION       Alpes-Maritimes - France/Italy border, near

             Tende -- Vallιe des Merveilles - Fontanalba -

             Sabbione Pass

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The remote region contains some 50,000 rock

  drawings dating from the Neolithic to the Iron Age.  The

  drawings depict weapons, horned animals, snakes, human

  figures and various images more difficult to decipher.

 

 

NAME         Verdoline

TYPE         dolmen

REGION       Alpes Maritimes - W of Nice near Grasse

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The dolmen is located just south of the village

  St-Vallier-de-Thiey.  The area contains numerous Bronze Age

  relics.

 

 

NAME         Mont Ste-Odile

TYPE         mound / defensive wall

REGION       Alsace-et-Lorraine - near Ottrott

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There is a 2500 ft (760 m) mound surrounded by a

  6 m (10 km) wall which is 12 ft (3.5 m) high and several

  feet thick in some places.

 

 

NAME         Bourges

TYPE         battlefield

REGION       Auvergne - Bourges

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The city was the capital of the Bituriges tribe.

  In BC 52 the Romans attacked the oppidum and almost all of

  the 40,000 Celts were slaughtered.

 

 

NAME         Glanon

TYPE         sacred spring

REGION       Bouches-du-Rhτne - S of Avignon near St-Rιmy

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Glanon is a sacred spring at the heart of a

  ravine in the Alpilles mountains.

 

 

NAME         Roquepertuse

TYPE         sanctuary (hilltop)

REGION       Bouches-du-Rhτne - NW of Marseilles

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      To enter the sanctuary a person had to pass

  through the gateway of the pillars of skulls entering into

  The Otherworld of the gods and death.  This was the end of

  the line for sacrifices and a chance for the warrior to pay

  his or her debt to the deities.

       The sanctuary shows evidence of having been in

  existence from BC 6th century until it was destroyed by the

  Romans.  The stone of the sanctuary contained reliefs of

  horses, a carving of a janiform head separated by a goose,

  and depictions of crosslegged warriors.

 

 

NAME         Carnac

TYPE         standing stones

REGION       Brittany - Quiberon peninsula, E of Lorient

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      At the north end of Quiberon Bay stands the

  early Bronze Age megalithic monument dating from around BC

  4500.  There were close to 3000 standing stones, falling

  under three alignments -- Menec, Kermario and Kerlescan.

 

 

NAME         Erdeven

TYPE         standing stones

REGION       Brittany - south coast, by Carnac

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The alignment of Erdeven had 1129 standing

  stones arranged in 13 rows.

 

 

NAME         Fontaine de Jouvence / Tombeau de Merlin

TYPE         sacred spring / cairn

REGION       Brittany - Les Forges de Paimpont W of Rennes

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The modern-day fountain is supplied with water

  by a sacred spring that is reputed to have rejuvenating

  qualities.

       Nearby is the Tombeau de Merlin, where the two visible

  flat rocks are reputed to cover the grave of Merlin, and if

  water from the Fontaine de Jouvence is sprinkled on them it

  is said to sometimes cause thunder.

 

 

NAME         Fountain of Barenton

TYPE         sacred spring

REGION       Brittany - near Trehorenteuc in the Forκt de

             Broceliande

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      A druidic spring, now a fountain, is reputed to

  clear the mind of turmoil.  The area played an important

  part in the history of Arthur.  The region even boasts its

  own modern-day druids who are no doubt as ignorant of the

  ancient knowledge as those in England and Wales.

 

 

NAME         Ile de Gavrinis

TYPE         tumulus / stone circles

REGION       Brittany - the island of Gavrinis (boat from

             Larmor-Baden) near Lorient

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This is one of the most impressive megalithic

  sites in Brittany.  The stone for the roof is a piece of

  the same stone used on the Merchants Table.  The inside is

  of the tumulus is marked with many symbols.  Someone opened

  the top of the grave site in 1981 and caused considerable

  damage.

       There are two stone circles that can be viewed from

  the island, and one is underwater which is interesting

  viewing for those who can swim.

 

 

NAME         Ys (Is)

TYPE         sunken city

REGION       Brittany - near Douarnenez

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This is claimed to be the sunken capital of the

  Celtic territory of Cornouaille (Cornwall) and may be the

  site sacked by Odysseus known as Ismarus.

 

 

NAME         Keriaval

TYPE         dolmens

REGION       Brittany - N side of D768

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There are three dolmens at this site and the one

  still standing is incribed in symbols.

 

 

NAME         La Roche Tremblante

TYPE         rocking stone

REGION       Brittany - Huelgoat village

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The rock is a huge 100 ton boulder in the Parc

  Regional d'Armorique moves when pushed.

 

 

NAME         Lanrivoare

TYPE         cursing stones

REGION       Brittany - NW of St-Renan near Brest

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The graveyard was built around 8 cursing-stones

  which mark the graves of 7777 people from a 5th century

  massacre.  Curses are evoked over the stones, then they are

  turned around seven times.

 

 

NAME         Locronan

TYPE         sacred hill

REGION       Brittany - NW of Quimper

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      At Locronan there is a path that circles a

  sacred hill.  It has 12 stones along it and every 7 years

  the participants start in the west and head north, then to

  the east,  climb the hill and then descend toward the south

  where there is a massive stone which is to be circled 3

  times.

 

 

NAME         Men-Marz (Stone of Miracles)

TYPE         standing stone

REGION       Brittany - Brignogan-Place on the Cτte des Abers

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The 30 foot (9.5 m) stone was such a powerful

  healing stone to the Celts of the local area that the

  Christians disfigured it with a cross in an attempt to de-

  paganize it.

 

 

NAME         Menhir de Kerloas

TYPE         standing stone (fertility stone)

REGION       Brittany - near Brest 5 km NW of St-Renan

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      In a field on the old Plouarzel road stands the

  tallest menhir in Europe, still 37 ft (11 m) high after

  being decapitated by lightning.

 

 

NAME         Mortier

TYPE         sacred area

REGION       Brittany

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Breton folklore abounds here, and the "White

  Lady" is said to hover over the misty marshes still. Those

  who follow her voice may never return.

 

 

NAME         Point de Lostmarc'h

TYPE         promontory fort

REGION       Brittany - Bay of Douarnenez NW of Quimper

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There are ruins of a promontory fort on the

  peninsula, probably belonging to the Osismii tribe.

 

 

NAME         Quimper

TYPE         town

REGION       Brittany - Quimper

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Quimper was founded by the Celtic chieftain

  Gradlon when Ys sank beneath the sea.  It was built at the

  confluence of two rivers: the Odet and the Steir.  Old

  Quimper houses the Celtic Shop (Ar Bed Keltiek) and the

  Breton music shop (Keltia-Musique).

 

 

NAME         Roche-aux-Fees (Fairies' Rock)

TYPE         standing stones

REGION       Brittany - near Esse S of Rennes

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The standing stones form a passage some 65 ft

  (20 m) in length.  It is said that on a full moon if lovers

  can reach reach the same tally when counting the stones

  they will have exceedingly good luck.  Some of the boulders

  weigh up to 40 tons.

 

 

NAME         Sein Island

TYPE         sacred island (Land of the Dead)

REGION       Brittany - Baie des Trepasses (Bay of Souls)

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This is The Land of the Dead for the Celts of

  the area.  Local lore says that druids are buried there.

 

 

NAME         Table des Marchands

TYPE         dolmen / pictographs

REGION       Brittany - near Locmariaquer E of Lorient

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The dolmen has numerous etchings on it.  The

  carvings include depictions of a solar ship, double axe and

  other symbols.  The dolmen used to be on top of the ground

  but was reburied for its protection.

       Recent discoveries have shown that the roof stone is

  only one piece of a larger stone whose pieces were used as

  roof stones for three other sites.   This is an active

  archaeologists' site but can be explored by the public.

 

 

NAME         Tumulus of Barnenez

TYPE         long barrow (Neolithic)

REGION       Brittany - Finistθre

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Plouezoc'h at the mouth of the Morlaix river has

  the Tumulus of Barnenez which is dated to the late 5th

  millenium.  It is one of the most impressive megalithic

  structures in France.

       The tumulus was discovered in the mid-20th century

  when locals began to remove stones from the mound for

  roadbuilding.  The eleven burial chambers are covered by

  remarkable drystone walls measuring 246 x 82 x 26 ft

  (75x25x8 m).  Legend says that a tunnel reaches out under

  the sea.  There is a small on-site museum.

 

 

NAME         Tumulus St-Michel

TYPE         tumulus

REGION       Brittany - near Menec (Carnac)

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The oval-shaped tumulus 400 ft (120 m) long has

  been disfigured by the addition of a small chapel.

 

 

NAME         Venus de Quinipily

TYPE         sculpture (stone fertility goddess)

REGION       Brittany - by Baud NE of Lorient

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This ancient lady was the center of attraction

  for the local pagans.  Christians, offended by her naked

  body, attempted to drown her a number of times but she was

  always rescued.  Finally in an attempt to appease those

  offended by certain parts of her body, someone sculpted

  clothing onto her and so far this seems to have calmed them

  down.

 

 

NAME         Alesia

TYPE         Iron Age fortress

REGION       Burgundy - NW of Dijon at Mont Auxois, Alise-

             Ste-Reine

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fortress belonged to the Mandubii tribe and

  was the site of the last stand by the Gauls under

  Vercingetorix against the hordes of Imperial Rome in the

  year BC 52.  The fortress was built on a hill and was

  surrounded by a wall with a rampart and ditch lower down

  the hill.  Excavations at the site uncovered bronze wheels

  as well as small pots in groups of 9.  The Ose and Oserain

  rivers flow past the ruins.

       A modern full-scale reproduction has been constructed

  near Beaune in the same region.

 

 

NAME         Quarre-les-Tombes

TYPE         burial site

REGION       Burgundy - near Avallon

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      A ring of empty prehistoric tombs surround a

  little church.

 

 

NAME         Cevennes Mountains

TYPE         chestnut forest / sacred site

REGION       Cevennes - Mediterranean side

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There are still many chestnut trees of the once

  large forests which supplied food, baskets, wood etc. for

  the local Celts.  Until 1868 a Celtic festival was held

  beside a lake in the mountains.  Sacrifices and votive

  offerings were made to the deities of this area which

  contains the headwaters of 8 rivers.

 

 

NAME         Beire-le-Chatel

TYPE         curative spring

REGION       Cτte-d'Or - NW of Dijon

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The spring was the site of veneration for

  Ianuaria, the deity who would play soothing music to help

  augment the healing effect of the waters.

 

 

NAME         Sources-de-la-Seine

TYPE         sacred site / spring

REGION       Cτte d'Or - near Dijon

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There is a sacred spring called Fontes Sequanae

  in a grove at the headwaters of the Seine where the Celts

  worshipped the goddess of the river.  At one time it

  contained an oak-shaded shrine to the goddess Sequana.  The

  Celts left carvings of their bodies or the afflicted parts

  of their bodies.

 

 

NAME         Vertault

TYPE         excavation

REGION       Cτte d'Or

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site presents an example of the construction

  of a Celtic defence which was typical as far back as BC

  1000.  Timbers were laid out in criss-cross fashion and

  then filled with rocks and faced with cut stone.  A earthen

  slope was built on the inside to allow easy access.

 

 

NAME         Borie du Bois Dolmen

TYPE         dolmen

REGION       Dordogne - Quercy, Causse de Limogne

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This is one of the most impressive dolmens in

  the region.

 

 

NAME         Dordogne

TYPE         Clochans (beehive huts)

REGION       Dordogne

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Clochans, ideal for meditation, self-hypnosis or

  even saunas, are found in many Celtic areas from Ireland

  through the continent to the Mediterranean.

 

 

NAME         Gouffre de Padirac

TYPE         cave

REGION       Dordogne - Haut Quercy, W of St-Cere

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The area has an impressive series of caves and

  underground streams.

 

 

NAME         Grotte du Pech-merle

TYPE         caves

REGION       Dordogne - Figeacois - NE of Cahors

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      A two-hour walk leads through impressive

  prehistoric galleries of paintings and petrified

  footprints.  On site is the Amedee Lemozi Museum.

 

 

NAME         Puy d'Issolud

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Dordogne - Haut Quercy, 14 km E of Martel

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This hillfort is located on top of a volcanic

  cone and is surrounded by ramparts and a drystone wall.

  This is reputed to be the site of Uxcellodunum, although

  the town of Capdenac-le-Haut makes the same claim.  Finds

  from this site are in the Musee de la Raymondie.

 

 

NAME         St Antonin-Noble-Val

TYPE         spring

REGION       Dordogne - NE of Montauban

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Besides the sacred spring, there is a museum of

  local history and prehistory to visit.

 

 

NAME         Vesone

TYPE         sacred well

REGION       Dordogne - Perigueux

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The Petrocorii tribe built their center close to

  this sacred well.  The site of the original Gaulish

  settlement is now called La Citι.

 

 

NAME         Chartres

TYPE         sacred well

REGION       Eure-et-Loir - Chartres

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site on the Eure river where the druids

  gathered each year was confiscated by the Christians who

  erected a cathedral over it.  The well which was used in

  the Druidic ceremonies can still be reached through the

  crypt.

 

 

NAME         Nages

TYPE         village

REGION       Gard - W of Nξmes

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site of a hillfort settlement that was the

  chief oppidum of the Volcae Arcomici tribe.  At one time

  there were 24 settlements in the area.

 

 

NAME         Nξmes

TYPE         sacred site

REGION       Gard - Nξmes

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The spring was an important site where the deity

  Nemausos was venerated.

 

 

NAME         Bourbonne-les-Bains

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Haute-Marne - Bourbonne-les-Bains

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The hot springs which are high in sodium

  chloride are known for their treatment of rheumatism.  They

  were sacred to the Lingones tribe, Goidel Celts who moved

  into the area by BC 6th century.

 

 

NAME         Parc Asterix

TYPE         park (theme)

REGION       Ile de France - Plailly, 32 km N of Paris

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The theme park centers around the cartoon

  character Asterix and his cohorts, presenting a witty and

  amusingly accurate portrayal of Celtic life at the time of

  the Roman occupation.

 

 

NAME         Dax

TYPE         hot springs / mud baths

REGION       Landes - at Dax on the Adour river

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The hot springs are recommended for rheumatism.

  The mud contains a radioactive algae and is also reported

  to have healing qualities.

 

 

NAME         Cahors

TYPE         sacred spring

REGION       Lot - Cahors

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The sacred spring, once in the territory of the

  Cadurci, is now known as the Fontaine des Chartreux and

  still supplies holy water for the town.

 

 

NAME         La Gorge Meillet

TYPE         chariot grave (reconstruction)

REGION       Marne - Somme-Tourbe NE of Chβlons

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This site provides the opportunity to see a

  reconstruction of a chariot grave which was common in the

  region.  A bronze helmet decorated with coral was one of

  the artifacts uncovered at the grave.

       Chariot burials of the 2-wheeled and the more common

  4-wheeled wagon burials have been found as early as BC 3rd

  millenium on the Ukranian steppes.  The practice lost

  popularity during the Bronze Age when the Urnfield culture

  was predominant but regained importance for warriors and

  chieftains during the Hallstatt period.

 

 

NAME         Bagnθres de Luchon

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Midi-Pyrenees - SE of Arreau

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The hot sulphur springs, known since ancient

  times, are reputed to be good for vocal cords.  They are

  situated in a valley of the Pyrenees.

 

 

NAME         Chκne a la Cuve

TYPE         oak tree

REGION       Normandy - Forκt de Brontonne

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This unusual oak would have delighted any druid

  because it has four distinct trees growing from one trunk

  just above ground level.

 

 

NAME         La Haye-de-Routot

TYPE         yew tree / fire festival

REGION       Normandy - La Haye Du Routot

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The giant yew trees in the churchyard are over a

  thousand years old.  The church has tried to divert their

  pagan connotations by building a chapel in one and an

  oratory in the other.  The village also celebrates a fire

  festival on July 16th with bonfires and fireworks.

 

 

NAME         Mont Dol

TYPE         sacred mountain

REGION       Normandy - near Dol-de-Bretagne

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site was a holy place to the ancient Celts

  and as with many important Celtic holy sites it has been

  marred by the construction of a Christian building.

 

 

NAME         Aix-en-Provence

TYPE         curative spring

REGION       Provence - N of Marseilles

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There are warm mineral spring with curative

  powers that were held sacred to the local Celts (Salyes and

  Salluvii).

 

 

NAME         Entremont

TYPE         Iron Age sanctuary

REGION       Provence - 3 km N of Aix-en-Provence

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Built around BC 300, Entremont was the seat of

  power for the Celtic-Ligurian Salyes tribe.  The stone

  sanctuary built on the top of the hill was also used by

  their clients the Salluvii.  The town was sacked by the

  Romans in BC 124, spelling the end of their tribal power.

  The finds at the site include a stone structure with carved

  skulls, niches for real skulls and carvings of severed

  heads.

 

 

NAME         Source-de-la-Roche

TYPE         sacred springs

REGION       Puy-de-Dτme - S of Clermont-Ferrand at

             Chamaliθres

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Mabon, a deity of healing, was venerated at this

  site in the region of the Arverni tribe where 2 mineral

  springs gushed from the ground forming a pool in a sacred

  valley.  Offerings found at the site included over 2000

  wooden carvings, mostly focussing on the eyes and head.

 

 

NAME         Lyon (Lugdunum - fortress of Lug)

TYPE         fortress

REGION       Rhτne - Lyon

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The old Celtic fortress  belonging to the

  Segusiavi tribe was strategically situated at the

  confluence of two rivers, the Rhτne and Saτne, and named

  after the god Lugh (Lion).  The area is also called The

  Hill of The Ravens.  Ravens were known as Lugh's

  messengers.

 

 

NAME         Bibracte

TYPE         Iron Age settlement

REGION       Saone-et-Loire - Mont Beuvray,  W of Autun

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      In 1867 excavations on the summit of the 2700 ft

  (820 m) mountain revealed the site of an industrial

  settlement belonging to the Ζdui tribe.  In BC 1st century

  the town was flourishing with the activities of smiths,

  saddlers, weavers and enamellers working their arts.

       Approximately 3 miles (4.5 km) of nailed timber-framed

  and timber-laced ramparts enclosed an inner area of 60

  acres (24 ha).  Excavations revealed iron and bronze tools,

  smiths' tongs, crucibles, balances, horse trappings,

  jewelry and coins.

 

 

NAME         Ecuisses

TYPE         village

REGION       Saone-et-Loire

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The village was originally settled by Irish who

  called it Scotiae.

 

 

NAME         Bories

TYPE         village

REGION       Vaucluse - near Gordes

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      An ancient village of corbelled roofed huts that

  were only vacated in mid 19th century.  The village has

  been restored and is open to the public. The site was

  probably in the territory of the Vocontii or the

  Tricastini.

 

 

 

GERMANY

 

 

NAME         Cambodunum Archeological Park

TYPE         hot springs / sacred site

REGION       Bavaria - Kempten

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This was a Celtic settlement before being taken

  over by the Romans.  There are also Gallo-Roman remains of

  a temple.

 

 

NAME         Manching

TYPE         Iron Age industrial settlement

REGION       Bavaria - Ingolstadt district

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Manching was the capital of the Vindelici tribe,

  and covered an area of almost 1000 acres (400 ha) encircled

  by over 4 miles (6.5 km) of timber-framed timber-laced

  ramparts strengthened with iron nails at the joints.  A

  tributary of the Danube which formed one of the boundaries

  of the site guaranteed an ample water supply and would have

  aided in transport of goods and materials.

       Objects of iron, bronze, gold, glass, clay, leather

  etc. were mass-produced and coins were minted.  It was

  destroyed in AD 15 by the Romans who were fearful of its

  capacity for such mass production.

 

 

NAME         Mόnsterhόgel

TYPE         fortress (oppidum)

REGION       Rhine - near Basel

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      A hoard found nearby on the banks of the Rhine

  included two gilded torcs and coins, including some from

  the Boii tribe.

 

 

NAME         Niederzier

TYPE         fortified settlement

REGION       Rhineland - W of Cologne

REMARKS      Finds at the site included three torcs and 50

  coins, some of the Ambiani tribe.

 

 

NAME         Steinsburg

TYPE         Iron Age fortress

REGION       Romhild - Thuringia

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fortress is near the headwaters of the

  Weisser river.

 

 

NAME         Rennstieg

TYPE         track

REGION       Thuringia

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This ancient track followed the ridge of the

  Thuringer Wald and was the northern boundary of the Celtic

  homeland, separating them from the territory of the German

  tribes.

 

 

NAME         Greater Heuneburg

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       upper Danube, near Siegmaringen

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The defenses of the hillfort follow the contour

  of the hill.  Nearby are several graves, such as those of

  the Hohmichele long barrow dating from   BC 6th century in

  which the occupants were sent to The Otherworld with all

  the necessities: wagon, longbow,  basket, cauldron, jewelry

  and a robe embroidered with Chinese silk.

 

 

 

 

IRELAND

 

 

NAME         Grand Canal

TYPE         canals

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      It is possible to take a boat down the Grand

  Canal from Dublin to the tidal locks at St Mullins then

  down the Shannon river to the Atlantic.

       An intersection at Robertstown allows a boater to

  connect up with the river Barrow which leads south to

  Waterford.  There are also the Royal and Anllan canals as

  well as many interesting waterways to travel throughout

  Ireland.

 

 

NAME         Fairy Hill (Tieveragh Hill)

TYPE         mound

REGION       Antrim - N of the village of Cushendall

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The artificial hill was built to a height of 450

  ft (140 m).

 

 

NAME         Giant's Causeway

TYPE         stone (underwater causeway)

REGION       Antrim - N of Bushmills

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The underwater causeway runs from the north

  coast of Ireland to Fingal's Cave on the Isle of Staffa in

  Scotland.  A lower water level would explain how the

  ancients knew of the existence of the geological formation.

  The spectacular causeway is made from basalt lava that

  cooled and cracked into polygonal pillars.

 

 

NAME         Lough na Cranagh

TYPE         crannog

REGION       Antrim - E of Ballycastle

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The man-made island is reinforced with a

  protective wall.

 

 

NAME         Ossian's Grave

TYPE         burial site

REGION       Antrim - N of the village of Cushendall

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This is thought to be the grave site of Oisin, a

  chieftain of the Munster Fianna, although another version

  places his burial at Ben Edair at Howth.

 

 

NAME         Clochan-na-Carraige

TYPE         clochan (beehive hut)

REGION       Aran Islands - Inishmore, near Kilmurvey

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This structure is a well-preserved example of a

  large clochan.  The hut has two small low doors, two air

  holes in the roof, a wall 4 ft (1 m) thick at the base and

  allows a headroom of 8 ft (2.5 m).

 

 

NAME         Dun Aonghusa / Dun Aengus

TYPE         Iron Age coastal fort

REGION       Aran Islands - Inishmore just outside Kilmurvey

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fortress was built in BC 1st century by the

  Firbolg on a 250ft (80 m) cliff.  The fortress covers an 11

  acre (4.5 ha) site and it is claimed that on certain days

  Hy-Breasail is visible from its vantage point.

       Three stone walls contributed to its defences,

  although the cliff is now eraoding and the fort is falling

  into the sea.  The inner wall is 20 ft (6 m) high, with a

  walkway on top and passages and chambers inside.  Outside

  the outer wall are dragon's teeth (upright pointed stones)

  which made it very difficult to approach.

 

 

NAME         Dun Conchuir / Dun Fearbhai

TYPE         Iron Age fortresses

REGION       Aran islands - on Inishmaan

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The well-preserved oval-shaped fortress of Dun

  Conchuir had a massive wall with a commanding view of the

  valley.  Nearby is a smaller fortress called Dun Fearbhai.

 

 

NAME         Dun Duchathair

TYPE         promontory fort

REGION       Aran Islands - on Inishmore, S of Kilronan

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fort has the remains of several stone huts

  circles and a massive stone wall.  There are dragon's teeth

  (upright stones) embedded in the ground outside the wall to

  make approach more difficult.  The cliffs are eroding and

  the gateway has disappeared.

 

 

NAME         Dun Eochla

TYPE         fortress

REGION       Aran Islands - on Inishmore, S of Eoghaill

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The circular fort is enclosed by a wall wide

  enough for a walkway, and at 400 ft (120 m) it sits on the

  highest part of the island.  The buttresses are later

  additions.

 

 

NAME         Dun Eoghanachta

TYPE         fortress

REGION       Aran Islands - Inishmore, near Kilmurvey

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fortress has a circular wall 16 ft (4 m)

  thick that encloses the remains of stone hut circles. Stone

  steps lead to the top of the wall, providing a stunning

  view of the surrounding mountains.  The Eoganachta tribe

  came to Ireland from Gaul around AD 200.

 

 

NAME         Saint Kieran's Well

TYPE         well

REGION       Aran Islands - Inishmore by Teampall Chiarain

REMARKS      The U-shaped spring is set in a relaxing

  atmosphere of natural surroundings.

 

 

NAME         Armagh (Ard Macha)

TYPE         cairn

REGION       Armagh

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      On the hill at the protestant cathedral is a

  cairn which is thought to be the burial place of Macha, a

  famous female warrior chieftain who ruled Ireland from

  Ulster.

 

 

NAME         Navan Fort -  Emain Macha (Isamnium)

TYPE         Bronze Age / Iron Age fortress

REGION       Armagh - W of Armagh

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site, now called Navan Fort, was originally

  a Neolithic settlement.  The fortress was established by

  Macha, and is thought to be her burial place. Archeological

  evidence puts its heaviest use around BC 700. It was the

  capital of the ancient province of Ulster (Coiced Ulaid /

  Uloth) and continued to be the seat of the chiefs of Ulster

  until AD 355 when it was destroyed.

       The oldest structure was a round building on top of

  the hill with a large enclosure beside it.  Around BC 100

  it was replaced by 5 circles of oak posts with an extremely

  large oak pole in the middle that was a beacon for miles

  around.  There were 275 poles surrounded by an outer wooden

  wall 36 yd (33 m) in diameter.  The spaces between the

  wooden rings were filled with limestone rocks and at some

  point the structure was fired.  It was then covered with

  clay sod to make a high mound.  Signs at the site indicate

  the significance of the visible earthworks.

 

 

NAME         Slieve Gullion (Sliabh gCuilinn)

TYPE         sacred mountain / lake / holy well

REGION       Armagh - SW of Newry

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This was the hill on which Cu Chulainn slayed

  the wolfhound of Culainn the blacksmith.  Fionn mac

  Cumhaill lost a magic cup in the lake at the top of the

  hill and the holy well has been become attached to a

  Christian saint.

       The older name for the hill was Sliabh Fuait named

  after the Milesian (Goidel) hero Fuad.  In the end the

  mountain has become known as Slievegallion or just Gallion.

 

 

NAME         Giant's Ring

TYPE         dolmen

REGION       Belfast - greater Belfast, S of Shaw's Bridge

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The dolmen is dated to around BC 3000 and is

  enclosed by a circular embankment of 600 ft (180 m) in

  diameter and 20 ft (6 m) in height.

 

 

NAME         Browneshill Dolmen

TYPE         dolmen

REGION       Carlow

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Just outside the town of Carlow is the largest

  standing stone in Europe.  The dolmen is on private

  property and permission must be requested from the farmer

  to visit the site.

 

 

NAME         Dinn Rig (Burgage Motte)

TYPE         fortress (earthwork)

REGION       Carlow - Ballyknockan

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site was originally known as Duma Slani

  (Slainge's grave) because a Partholean chieftain in BC 19th

  century and a Firbolg chieftain in BC 17th century were

  both buried there and both were named Slainge.

       The mound became the seat of the ancient province of

  Leinster (Coiced Lagan / Laigin) and the center was called

  Dinn Rig.  It had ramparts 240 ft (72 m) in diameter which

  are still visible at the site.  The site is now called

  Burgage Motte and overlooks the Barrow river south of

  Leighlin Bridge.

 

 

NAME         Kernanstown

TYPE         dolmen

REGION       Carlow - Kernanstown

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The capstone of this dolmen weighs 100 tons.

 

 

NAME         Cavan Way

TYPE         track

REGION       Cavan - NW corner

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The track between Dowra and Blacklion is 17 mi

  (27 km) long and links up with the Ulster Way.  The path

  passes the headwaters of the Shannon where the legendary

  Segais spring lies hidden.

 

 

NAME         Shannonpot (Connla's Well)

TYPE         sacred spring

REGION       Cavan - off the Cavan Way

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Sinainn was forbidden to visit this sacred site.

  When she disobeyed her geise, the spring grew angry, surged

  up, and chased her across Ireland until it drowned her.

  The river which resulted from this act was named the Shannon

  after her.  The Shannon is the longest river in Ireland at

  170 mi (270 km).

    The site is accessible from the Cavan Way.  Like the Segais

  Well, the Shannonpot is sometimes called Connla's Well.

 

 

NAME         not known

TYPE         dolmen

REGION       Clare - town of Killaloe

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      At St Flannan's Cathedral there is a standing

  stone with an inscription in ogham and runic scripts.

 

 

NAME         Burren / Boireann (a rocky place)

TYPE         ring-forts / dwelling / caves / dolmens / cairn

REGION       Clare

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The Burren is a wilderness area in the northeast

  of county Clare that is saturated with ancient sites;

  around 400 ring-forts and 800 dwellings to be explored.

  There is a display center at Kilfenore.

 

 

NAME         Craggaunowen Project

TYPE         park (theme)

REGION       Clare - E of Ennis

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site has carefully-researched constructions:

  a ring-fort with fogou, a crannog, an ocean-going coracle,

  a real (transplanted) Iron Age corduroy road and a fulacht

  fiadh (a trough of water in which food is cooked by the

  addition of hot rocks).  The site is very evocative of

  Celtic times, complete with the aroma of woodsmoke from the

  cooking fires.

 

 

NAME         Lisdoonvarna (Fort of the Gapped Fort)

TYPE         curative springs / fortress

REGION       Clare

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The water of the spring in the town of

  Lisdoonvarna contains iron, iodine, and magnesia is

  recommended in the treatment of arthritis.  There is a

  fortress outside of Lisdoonvarna on the road to

  Ballyvaughan.

 

 

NAME         Sheila na Gig

TYPE         sculpture

REGION       Clare - in the village of Killinaboy

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The sculpture of the goddess is placed over the

  doorway of a medieval church which is now in ruins.

 

 

NAME         Ardgroom

TYPE         ring-fort / standing stones

REGION       Cork - near the village of Ardgroom

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      A large raith was built beside a circle of

  standing stones.

 

 

NAME         Ballycateen

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Cork - near Ballinspittle

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fortress south the city of Cork at this site

  had triple ramparts.

 

 

NAME         Cape Clear Island

TYPE         well / standing stone

REGION       Cork - near Skibbereen

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The standing stone and well are alongside the

  road.

 

 

NAME         Drombeg Stone Circle

TYPE         calendar (stone circle) / dwelling

REGION       Cork - near Glandore E of Skibbereen

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The recumbent stone circle dates from the early

  Bronze Age.  There are 17 standing stones and one lying on

  its side which marks the sunset at winter solstice.

       Nearby, a stone path connected two circle huts to a

  hearth, well and a fulacht fiadh used for cooking with hot

  stones for boiling and simmering water.

 

 

NAME         Fulacht Fiadh

TYPE         cooking trough

REGION       Cork - between Ross Carberry and Glandore

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The stone trough was used to cook meat by

  placing fire-heated rocks into the water of the trough.  It

  takes about 30 minutes to bring the water to a boil and it

  is easy to keep the water simmering by the occasional

  addition of a few rocks.

 

 

NAME         Knockdrum Fort

TYPE         calendar / standing stones / Iron Age hillfort /

             fogou

REGION       Cork - near the village of Castletownshend

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The small fort has had its wall restored and

  boasts a fogou as well as a large stone with cup-and-ring

  markings just outside the walls.  Three standing stones,

  aligned for summer solstice sunrise, can be seen on a

  nearby hilltop.

 

 

NAME         Ardmor Gallan

TYPE         standing stone (engraved)

REGION       Donegal - near Muff N of Derry

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The standing stone is engraved with many

  symbols, cup-marks and a trench on one side.

 

 

NAME         Balor's Fort

TYPE         promontory fort

REGION       Donegal - Tory Island

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This fort, associated with the BC 15th century

  Fomorian chieftain Balor, is located at the eastern end of

  the island.

 

 

NAME         Cooley Cross

TYPE         wheel cross

REGION       Donegal - outside Moville

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The ancient cross has a hole in its center

  through which hands were grasped upon making an agreement.

 

 

NAME         Doon Fort

TYPE         fortress / dolmen

REGION       Donegal - on the island of Lough Doon

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The island fortress has walls that are 15 ft

  (4.5 m) high and 12 (3.5 m) thick with passages in them.

  The Kilclooney Dolmen is situated nearby.

 

 

NAME         Glasbolie Fort

TYPE         ring-fort

REGION       Donegal - N of Rossnowlagh

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fortress has an earthen rampart 900 ft (274

  m) in diameter and is 20 ft (6 m) high.

 

 

NAME         Grianan Aileach (Grianian of Ailigh)

TYPE         Bronze Age fort and burial tumulus / Iron Age

             hillfort / broch

REGION       Donegal - W of Derry

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The circular fort with 3 condentric earthern

  ramparts was built around BC 1500 on Greenan Mountain

  giving it commanding views on both sides of the peninsula.

  The fort's inside diameter is 77 ft (23.5 m) and has a wall

  17 ft (5 m) thick with chambers and passages.

       The site was connected with 3 famous Danann

  chieftains.  Indui Mor who died during the battle of Raith

  Ailig and Nuadha who died during the second battle of Magh

  Tuireadh are both buried there.  MacGreine who died during

  the battle of Taillcenn was presumeably buried there giving

  it the name.

       The Ui Neill (O'Neills) used it as their stronghold

  when they ruled Ulster in AD 5th century.  The present site

  is a 19th AD century reconstruction.

 

 

NAME         Lough Derg (Red Lake)

TYPE         cave

REGION       Donegal - on Station Island

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The cave was an ancient ritual site for druidic

  initiates.  The site has been commandeered by those of the

  Christian faith and they have restricted access to the

  island and barred the entrance to the cave.

 

 

NAME         Portal Dolmen

TYPE         dolmen

REGION       Donegal

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Like many dolmens of Ireland and Scotland, this

  was called the Bed of Diarmuid and Grainne to link it with

  their adventures during the years they spent on the run

  from Fionn.

 

 

NAME         Tory Island (Tor Mor)

TYPE         fortress

REGION       Donegal - off the NW coast

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The island has the remains of a Fomorii fortress

  on its eastern end which is associated with Balor.  There

  is a wishing stone at the centre of the island which can

  still be activated by circling the well in a sunwise

  direction.

 

 

NAME         Drumena Cashel

TYPE         ring-fort

REGION       Down - E of Newry outside Hilltown

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The drystone fort is situated in the Mourne

  Mountains.  It has a fogou 50 ft (15 m) long and some hut

  circles within its walls.

 

 

NAME         Dublin / Dubh Linn (Black Pool)

TYPE         Iron Age settlement

REGION       Dublin

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      On the south side of the Liffey was a Celtic

  town known as Eblana which was captured by the Vikings who

  set up a trading post and called it by the Gaelic name Dubh

  Linn.  The Celtic settlement of Baile Atha Cliath {Bally-

  aw-kleea} or Town of the Hurdle Ford was on the north side

  of the river.

       This settlement played a major part in the stories

  "Branwen Daughter of Llyr" from the Welsh Mabinogi and "The

  Destruction of Da Derga's Hostel" from Irish mythology. The

  stories took place in BC 1st century and may be different

  versions of the same event.

 

 

NAME         General Post Office

TYPE         sculpture

REGION       Dublin - in the city Dublin

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Inside the post office is a sculpture of Cu

  Chulainn with Morrighan in the form of a raven alighting on

  his shoulder.

 

 

NAME         Howth Head

TYPE         cairn

REGION       Dublin - eastern suburb of Howth

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There are two burial sites on the hilltop.  The

  cairn is said to be the burial place of a Celtic chieftain,

  or perhaps Oisin, the Fianna champion.

 

 

NAME         Wicklow Way

TYPE         track

REGION       Dublin / Wicklow / Wexford / Carlow

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The path follows ancient tracks from Marlay Park

  in Dublin to Conegal in county Carlow.  The track is about

  80 miles (130 km) in length and leads through spectacular

  and rough territory.  The walk can take 12 days to

  complete.

 

 

NAME         Boa Island

TYPE         sculptures

REGION       Fermanagh - Lower Lough Erne

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      On the south side of the A-47 there is a

  graveyard with Celtic sculptures.  One is janiform,

  relating to the deity Dianos (Janus), and the other is

  mistakenly referred to as a one-eyed sculpture.

 

 

NAME         Sheila na Gig

TYPE         sculpture

REGION       Fermanagh - White Island in Lower Lough Erne

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The sculpture of the goddess is attached to the

  wall of the abbey which is now a ruin.

 

 

NAME         Ulster Way

TYPE         track

REGION       Fermanagh / Tyrone / Derry

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The track leads through the forests and

  mountains of ancient Ulster, offering many stunning views.

  The path joins the Cavan Way at Blacklion.

 

 

NAME         Clonfert Cathedral

TYPE         sculpture

REGION       Galway - S of Ballinasloe

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The west doorway of the cathedral is decorated

  with relief sculptures of heads, in a continuation of the

  Celtic practice of venerating the human head.

 

 

NAME         Turoe Stone

TYPE         stone (fertility)

REGION       Galway - N of Loughrea

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The phallic stone is of La Tθne design from BC

  3rd century.

 

 

NAME         Dun Beag

TYPE         Iron Age promontory fort

REGION       Kerry - Dingle Peninsula

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fortress has four ramparts and a thick stone

  wall which is stepped on the inside.  There are some

  cavities in the wall and a fogou leading through the gate

  to the outside.

 

 

NAME         Fahan Group

TYPE         clochans (beehive huts)

REGION       Kerry - Dingle Peninsula

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The Fahan cluster are small single-celled

  structures of drystone with corbelled rooves, single

  smokeholes and low small doors.  They are on private

  property and the proper approach is to pay a small fee at

  the farmhouse before going to explore the structures.

 

 

NAME         Paps of Anu or Danu / Da Chich Anann

TYPE         sacred hills

REGION       Kerry - near Killarney

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      These hills have been known since ancient times

  as the breasts of the Danann goddess Danu, and are the site

  of her sidhe.

 

 

NAME         Scota's Glen

TYPE         burial site

REGION       Kerry - the Dingle Peninsula S of Tralee

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The resting place of Scota, the female warrior

  chieftain of the Goidel invasion in BC 15th century, is

  indicated by a stone marker.

 

 

NAME         Skellig Rock Huts

TYPE         (beehive huts)

REGION       Kerry - Great Skellig Island

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There are six complete remains of Clochans

  within the ruins of a monastic site.  The huts were used by

  Christian monks which strongly suggests that they were

  originally built by druids and that the area was orgionally

  a druidic center.

 

 

NAME         Staigue Fort

TYPE         ring-fort

REGION       Kerry - near Waterville

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This is a well-preserved Bronze Age ring-fort.

 

 

NAME         Tara of the Erainn (Teamhair Erann)

TYPE         sacred site

REGION       Kerry

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Tara of the Erainn was the burial mound of the

  ancient Erainn of Ireland.  The territory of the Erainn was

  called Luachair and covers the present-day counties of

  Limerick, Kerry and Cork.

       With the arrival of the Firbolg, the burial mound

  became the seat of the head chieftain of West Munster.  At

  a much later date BC 2nd century the center came under the

  influence of the Clanna Dedad and became known as Temair

  Luachra (Temuir of the Rushes).

       Tara of the Erainn has always been associated with

  fertility, knowledge, wisdom, teaching, learning, poetic

  art and warriorship.  It has also been associated with the

  dead with the house of Donn off its coast.  The majority of

  ogham stones found in Ireland are in Munster in the

  provinces of Cork, Kerry, and Waterford.  The area is also

  known as the area of the wild men (hermits) and is

  important to the female or subconscious side of life.

 

 

NAME         Torc Waterfall

TYPE         waterfall

REGION       Kerry - near Killarney

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Torc waterfall flows over Torc Mountain in a

  spectacular 60 ft (18 m) drop.

 

 

NAME         Segais Well

TYPE         sacred spring

REGION       Kildare - Hill of Carbury

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This spring was the source of the Boyne.  Legend

  says that it was guarded by Nechtan and his cup-bearers.

  The pool was surrounded by 9 hazel trees which dropped

  their magic nuts of inspiration into the water where they

  were eaten by the salmon who became the "Salmon of

  Knowledge".

       The Boyne river was formed when Nechtan's wife Boann

  went against the geise of the well and walked three times

  counterclockwise around the pool.  This act of desecration

  caused the spring to surge up and chase her across Ireland,

  thus forming the Boyne river.  This spring is sometimes

  called Connla's Well.

 

 

NAME         Sheemore / Sheebeag

TYPE         cairns / dolmen

REGION       Leitrim - W of Keshcarrigan

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The Sheemore Hill cairn is reputed to be the

  resting place of Fionn mac Cumhaill.  On the eve of Samhain

  the cairn opens to The Otherworld.  There is also a dolmen

  between the two hills.

 

 

NAME         Crock / Bolin Islands

TYPE         crannogs

REGION       Limerick - Lough Gur S of Limerick

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The lough has two crannogs and because of the

  low water level it is possible to see how they were

  constructed.

 

 

NAME         Lough Gur / Knockadoon

TYPE         ring-forts / hut circles / crannogs / stone

             circle

REGION       Limerick - Lough Gur, S of Limerick city

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site contains remains of ring-forts and hut

  circles dating back to BC 3500.  During the 19th century

  the lake was partially drained, dropping the water level 9

  ft (3 m).  Many artifacts were exposed, the most

  interesting being a bronze shield with concentric rings.

  There are two crannogs on the lake and a spectacular stone

  circle near by.  There is also an interpretive center on

  the site.

 

 

NAME         Cooley Peninsula

TYPE         battlefield

REGION       Louth - N of Dundalk

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Much of the Cualgne Cattle Raid was situated on

  the Cooley Peninsula.  It was the home of the Brown Bull of

  Cuailgne who was the focal point of the raid.

 

 

NAME         Ferdiad's Ford (Baile Atha Fhirdhia)

TYPE         battlefield of two hereos

REGION       Louth - in the town of Ardee

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Ferdiad mac Damain and Cu Chulainn fought at the

  ford for four days when Cu Chulainn killed his foster-

  brother while protecting Ulster from invasion.

 

 

NAME         Fourteen at Focherd

TYPE         battlefield

REGION       Louth - at Faughert

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      It was at this site that Medbh asked Cu Chulainn

  to meet her but she sent armed warriors to ambush him.  He

  killed all of them and the site was named after his heroic

  deed.

 

 

NAME         Proleek Dolmen

TYPE         dolmen

REGION       Louth - Cooley Peninsula

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This dolmen has a 46-ton capstone.

 

 

NAME         Tain Trail

TYPE         track

REGION       Louth - near Omeath

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This trail covers some of the points of interest

  in the tale of the Cualgne Cattle Raid (Tain Bo Culainge).

 

 

NAME         Brestagh Ogham Stone

TYPE         Dolmen

REGION       Mayo - near Killala

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The stone has ogham writing on it.

 

 

NAME         Croagh Patrick

TYPE         sacred site

REGION       Mayo - S shore of Clew Bay, near Louisburgh

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The 2,500 foot cone-shaped mountain was a very

  sacred site where the Celtic sun deities were worshipped

  during the four main fire festivals.  The fire at the top

  of the mountain was most important during Lughnasa (Lugh's

  Wedding) on August 8.

 

 

NAME         Loughcrew Cairns

TYPE         calendar / cairns

REGION       Meath - in the Loughcrew Mtns W of Kells

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      At sunrise on Samhain and Imbolic, the sun

  shines into the passage of cairn L and strikes the top of a

  standing stone in the chamber.  The sequence of events is

  depicted on the inside of the tomb.

       The cairn L, T, M, H, F, S, I, U also play important

  roles in marking the eight sun festivals of the Celtic

  year.  As at Edderton, Scotland, the quarters fall on

  November 8, February 4, May 6, and August 8.

       The highest peak in the area is known as Sliabh na

  Caillighe (Hag's Mountain), for Cailleach Beara.  Also a

  high chieftain of Ireland name Fodhla who was also an

  important Ollamh is supposed to be buried here.

 

 

NAME         Mound of the Hostages (Dumha na nGiall)

TYPE         passage grave (Neolithic)

REGION       Meath - Tara

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site, dating from around BC 2000, contained

  forty urns.  Finds include eating utensils and knives as

  well as a necklace of amber, jet, faience and bronze found

  on the remains of a 15-year-old boy.  The site was named

  The Mound of the Hostages (Prison of the Hostages) because

  the high chieftain of Ireland, Cormac macAirt, held

  prisoners in the tumulus and they all died.

 

 

NAME         Mound of Tlachtga

TYPE         burial cairn

REGION       Meath - Hill of Ward near Athboy

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The mound is the burial site of the druid

  Tlachtga who died there after giving birth to triplets. Her

  burial cairn is the site of her veneration on the eve of

  Samhain.  It is the sacred site of Munster in the old

  province of Mide, about 12 miles (19 km) from Tara.  Each

  of the four provinces had its own sacred in Mide, which

  helped make it the spiritual center of Ireland.

 

 

NAME         New Grange (Brugh na Boyna)

TYPE         Neolithic tumulus

REGION       Meath - N of Dublin, between Slane and Drogheda

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Brugh na Boyna (Hostel of The Boyne) is a

  tumulus in the Boyne valley dating from around BC 3300.  It

  was earlier called Brug Bratruad (Hostel of the Red Cloaks)

  or (Hostel of the Red Broth) and it has also been referred

  to as The Spiral Castle.

       In Celtic mythology, these structures were under the

  control of the Danann and were called sidhes.  The Dagda

  divided them among his people, and this one became famous

  as the home of Anghus mac Og.  Two others are at Dowth and

  Knowth.

       The grave is about 36 ft (11 m) high and 340 ft (100

  m) in diameter.  The passage is 62 ft (19 m) long and the

  chamber has a 20 ft high (6 m) corbelled roof.  In the roof

  of the tumulus is a hole that is aligned with the winter

  solstice when the sun illuminates the inside of the chamber

  with a blaze of light.  A number of the boulders are

  ornately carved, including spirals, a mason's mark, a

  Phoenician writing ship with sails and a sun symbol.

 

 

NAME         Raith Grainne

TYPE         Iron Age fortress

REGION       Meath - NW of Tara

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There is little left of the fortress now but it

  is thought to be where Grainne and Diarmaid lived after

  they finally settled down.

 

 

NAME         Raith of the Synods

TYPE         ring-fort

REGION       Meath - Tara

FINDS        two gold torcs

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There was a ring-fort with three earthen walls

  and a wooden palisade.  In the center was a flat-topped

  mound and the remains of five burnt bodies.  The site was

  partially destroyed by a group of local Jews looking for

  the ark of the covenant and by a Christian graveyard that

  keeps encroaching on it.

       There is no archaeological evidence to support the

  claims by Patrick, Brendan, Ruadhamor or any other

  Christians to there having been church synods held there.

 

 

NAME         Raith Righ

TYPE         ring-fort

REGION       Meath - Tara

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The royal fortress at Tara was circular with

  four other circular halls at its cardinal points.  The

  great central hall was were the Ard Righ lived and

  entertained.  It had 8 apartments between the outerwall and

  the inner room with the fire.  The other four halls

  belonged to the four provinces of Ireland such as the Hall

  of Leinster to the east, the banquet hall of Connacht to

  the west, the Assembly Hall of Ulster to the north and the

  Hall of Munster to the south.

      The central Hall was set up so the Ard Righ was in the

  center and the head chieftains sat facing their halls.

  There were other buildings at Tara called the Star of the

  Poets, Prision of The Hostages and the Palace of the Single

  Pillar.   There were other buildings such as the Hall of

  Lights which had an upper chamber for studying the stars

  called spirit tower or skyward house.  The whole complex

  was surrounded by 7 large ramparts.

 

 

NAME         Tailltinn  (Tailtiu's Mound)

TYPE         cairn

REGION       Meath - by the Teltown House

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This is the burial place of Lugh's foster-mother

  Tailtiu, a Firbolg earth goddess.  When she died Lugh

  initiated the Tailteann Games in her honor to coincide with

  the festival of Lughnasa (Lugh's Wedding).

       Lughnasa begins 7 days before August 8 and lasts for 7

  days after.  The turning point is midway between the summer

  solstice and the fall equinox.  Marriages were made at this

  festival for a year and a day.

 

 

NAME         Tara on Magh mBreg (Te-mhair Brega)

TYPE         seat of power / Neolithic passage graves / 2

             ring-forts / 1 standing stone

REGION       Meath - 25 mi from Dublin on the road to Navan

FINDS        (Stone of Fal)

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Tara is a Neolithic passage grave that was the

  sacred seat of power of the Ard Righ of Ireland which dates

  from around BC 2200.  The Celtic name of Tara came from the

  Danann fertility goddess Tea, who was buried in the tumulus

  in BC 15th century.  The mound then became the seat of

  power for the high chieftains of Ireland.  The annual

  Festival of Tara (Feis Temhra) was held there, the

  highlight being the ritual marriage of the ruler with the

  deity of nature.

       There are ruins of the Raith Righ which was the

  fortress of the high chieftain of Ireland (Ard Righ Eirinn)

  and its well Nemnach (Sparkling), Tech Miodhchuarta (mead-

  circling house) the feasting Hall which had 12 doors, Mound

  of Hostages (Duma na nGiall), Tech Cormaic (Cormac's House)

  home of Cormac macAirt, Mound of the Cow (Duma na Bo) and

  numerous other hills, bumps and depressions.

       Tara was cursed by St Patrick but it seems to have

  continued on for another 200 years before it fell into

  disuse as a Celtic center.

 

 

NAME         Tumulus of Amerghin (Amhairghin)

TYPE         cairn

REGION       Meath - Drogheda

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The mound beneath the Millmount tower is the

  resting place of Amhairghin, the BC 15th century Goidel

  warrior filidh.

 

 

NAME         Tullyrain

TYPE         ring-fort

REGION       Monaghan - near Shantonagh

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This is a well-preserved ring-fort with triple

  ramparts.

 

 

NAME         Cave Cruachan (Uaimh Chruachan)

TYPE         cave (entrance to The Otherworld)

REGION       Roscommon - by Rath Cruachan near Tulsk

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The cave is a narrow fissure in the limestone

  near Rath Cruachan, the fortress of Medbh and Ailill

  macMata.  The cave was thought to be an entrance to The

  Otherworld.

 

 

NAME         Raith Cruachain (Rathcroghan)

TYPE         fortress

REGION       Roscommon - NW of Tulsk

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Cruachain was the center of the western province

  of old Ireland and the home of Medbh and Ailill macMata.

  There were 5 provinces (coiced) of Ireland and the western

  province was called Connacht (The Land of Cruachan).  The

  site covered an acre with a surrounding rampart.  The

  center was still in use in AD 7th century.

 

 

NAME         Beann Ghulban (Ben Bulben)

TYPE         sacred mountain

REGION       Sligo - SE of Grange

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This was the mountain where Diarmaid ua Duibhne

  was killed by his half-brother who had taken the form of a

  wild boar.

 

 

NAME         Carrowkeel

TYPE         Neolithic passage grave / Bronze Age site

             (calendar / cairns / chambers)

REGION       Sligo - Bricklieve Mtns near Lough Arrow

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The cemetery was begun around BC 2500 and

  contains fifteen grave mounds with passages and chambers.

  One mound has a corbelled roof and the rest are of stone

  slabs.  The central grave is aligned with the sunset of

  summer solstice.  This is one of the homes of the Celtic

  gods of Ireland.

 

 

NAME         Carrowmore Megalithic Cemetery

TYPE         cairns / stone circles / dolmens

REGION       Sligo - SW of the town of Sligo

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This is another important home of Celtic

  deities.  One of the cairns predates New Grange (Brugh na

  Boyna) by 700 years.  There are 66 chambers remaining out

  of the original hundreds.  Medbh's Cairn on top of

  Knocknarea Mountain overlooking Sligo Bay is the resting

  place of Medbh, the great female warrior chieftain of

  Connacht.  It measures 60 ft (12 m) high and 200 ft (60 m)

  in diameter.

 

 

NAME         Caves of Keshcorran

TYPE         caves

REGION       Sligo - outside the village of Kesh

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Local legend says that these are the caves where

  Cormac mac Airt was fostered by a wolf and raised along

  with her pups.

 

 

NAME         Half Moon Bay

TYPE         sculpture

REGION       Sligo - E of Sligo town on Lough Gill

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There is a small sculpture park situated by Half

  Moon Bay on the Hazelwood Road, which includes a

  contemporary sculpture of a horse and chariot.

 

 

NAME         Heapstown Cairn

TYPE         cairn

REGION       Sligo - S of Riverstown

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The impressive passage grave is reputed to

  contain the remains of Ailill, brother of Niall

  Noighiallach.

 

 

NAME         Inishmurray Island

TYPE         sacred site / sacred well / cursing stones

REGION       Sligo - 3 mi (5 km) off the coast, accessible

             from Moneygold or Mullaghmore

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The island has a sacred well which is surrounded

  by the famous speckled cursing stones called Clocha Breaca.

  The whole island was a sacred site to the druids.  An oval

  structure 180 x 100 ft (55x30 m) in rough drystone was the

  site of fertility rites associated with the fire god. A

  standing stone known as Bal Fargha was positioned in a

  basin-shaped area.  The area has since been desecrated by a

  Christian cemetery.

 

 

NAME         Plain of Towers (Magh Tuireadh)

TYPE         plain

REGION       Sligo / Mayo

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The plain was the site of two major battles,

  both fought to determine who would control Ireland.  The

  first battle of Magh Tuireadh (South Moytura) was fought

  between the Firbolg led by Eochaid mac Eirc and the

  invading Danann led by Nuadha near present-day Cong in the

  south of county Mayo.  The Danann with their superior

  weapons and magic won the battle.

       The second battle of Magh Tuireadh (North Moytura) was

  fought between the Danann and the Fomorians, in the north

  of county Sligo.  Lugh was the war leader for the Danann

  and his grandfather Balor was the war leader of the

  Fomorii.  The Danann won this battle also and became

  masters of Ireland.

 

 

NAME         Cashel Rock

TYPE         sacred site

REGION       Tipperary - near Cashel, N of Cahir

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The gigantic rock outcrop was the seat of the

  head chieftain (Ri Ruirech) of Munster.  In AD 1101 it was

  given to the church which have since tried to usurp its

  power by cluttering it with buildings.

 

 

NAME         Beaghmore Stone Circles

TYPE         calendar / standing stones / cairns

REGION       Tyrone - W of Cookstown

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site has 7 circles of standing stones and

  one of the circles is filled with small upright stones

  called Dragon's Teeth.  There are also 10 rows of standing

  stones which are part of a celestial calendar that marks

  the sun, moon and stars.  Most of the stones in the

  alignments and circles are less than 3 ft (1 m) high.  The

  site also contains several burial mounds.

 

 

NAME         Knockmany Forest

TYPE         cairn

REGION       Tyrone - S of Omagh

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The cairn is in the forest and has several

  carved stones with zig-zag symbols, cup markings,

  concentric circles, etc.

 

 

NAME         Tullyhoge Fort

TYPE         fortress

REGION       Tyrone - SE of Cookstown

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The O'Neills or Ui Neill, descendants of Niall

  Noighiallach, used this site to proclaim their chieftains.

  It was built with an outer rampart and an inner oval

  defence.

 

 

NAME         Baginbun Head

TYPE         Iron Age promontory fort

REGION       Waterford - Hook Peninsula SE of Waterford

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There is still evidence of the Celtic defences

  although the site is now dominated by a Martello tower.

 

 

NAME         Munster Way

TYPE         track

REGION       Waterford / Tipperary

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The path leads through 17 miles (27 km) of

  beautiful country between Lisemore in Waterford to Carrick-

  on-Suir in Tipperary.

 

 

NAME         St Declan's Well

TYPE         sacred spring

REGION       Waterford - in the village of Ardmore

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The well is enhanced by the beauty of the

  surroundings.

 

 

NAME         Athlone - Ath Luain (Ford of the Loins)

TYPE         river crossing

REGION       Westmeath - the town of Athlone

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The Shannon ford is where the victorious Brown

  Bull of Cualnge dropped the loins of Ailill's  White Bull

  (Finnbhenach) which he had been carrying on his horns after

  they fought.

 

 

NAME         Inchclearaun (Inis Clothrann)

TYPE         sacred island

REGION       Westmeath / Galway - in Lough Ree

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Inchclearaun is the island linked with Medbh,

  being the site where she drowned her sister Clothra as well

  as where she herself was killed by Furbude Fer Bend.

 

 

NAME         Lough Derravaragh (Lake of the Red Eye)

TYPE         lake

REGION       Westmeath - near Crookedwood

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Lough Derravaragh or Dergdherc is modern-day

  Loch Derg and is the lake where Aoife condemned the

  children of Lir to spend 300 years after she changed them

  into magical swans.

 

 

NAME         Uisneach - (the Navel of Ireland)

TYPE         massive boulder

REGION       Westmeath - W of Mullingar

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      During the time of The Firborg and the Danann,

  Uisneach, affectionately known as the Catstone, was

  considered the center of the island and marked by a massive

  boulder sitting in its seat on the hill.

       The Stone of Division (Ail na Mearainn), as it is also

  called, has always been the main spiritual center of the

  Island and the chieftain Beltainn Fires for Ireland were

  lit there.

 

 

NAME         Ferrycarrig Heritage Park

TYPE         park (theme)

REGION       Wexford - Ferrycarrig, just W of Wexford

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site has reconstructions of a ring-fort, a

  dolmen, a crannog, a stone circle, an ogham stone and other

  constructions from Mesolithic to Norman times.

 

 

NAME         Lugnaquilla

TYPE         sacred mountain

REGION       Wicklow - W of Rathdrum

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This is the highest mountain in the area

  reaching 3000 ft (915 m) with wooded glens and valleys. The

  name suggests that the mountain may have been associated

  with Lugh or Lughnasa.

 

 

 

 

ISLE OF MAN

 

 

NAME         Ballacaigen

TYPE         dwellings

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This was the site of two round houses.  One was

  90 ft (27 m) in diameter and about 12 ft (3.5 m) high.  The

  posts were 8 inches (20 cm) in diameter and made from oak

  trees most of which were 200 years old.

       The layout was that of 5 concentric rings with a

  timber frame forming a dome covered with turf.  The house

  was built around a limestone hearth in the centre, and

  divided into different areas by wattle walls.  The two

  houses date from about AD 100-300.

 

 

NAME         Chibbyr-beltain

TYPE         well

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Celebrations are held at this well during

  Beltainn in honor of the sun god Belenos.

 

 

NAME         Chibbyr-katrineys

TYPE         well

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The waters of the well are reputed to be good

  for eye problems.

 

 

NAME         Chibbyr-phericks

TYPE         well

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The waters of the well are reputed to be good

  for eye problems.

 

 

NAME         Close-ny-Chollagh

TYPE         ring-fort

REGION       Arbory - Poylvaish Bay

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Under the Viking ruins, older Celtic ruins were

  found, showing that the ramparts were originally built by

  the Celts.  Excavations at other Viking sites showed that

  in several cases the sites were originally Celtic, and

  simply taken over by the Vikings.  Finds at Close-ny-

  Chollagh included a Celtic brooch from BC 1st century.

 

 

NAME         Fairy Bridge

TYPE         bridge

REGION       Ballalona - near Ballasalla

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The locals believe it is best to wish the Fay

  people a "good-day" when passing over the bridge.

 

 

NAME         Braaid circle

TYPE         dwelling

REGION       Marown

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The circular house was 40 ft (12 m) in diameter

  and had a boat-shaped Viking building constructed beside

  it.

 

 

NAME         Chibbyr-maugholds

TYPE         well

REGION       Maughold Head

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The waters are reputed to be good for poor sight

  and eye problems, and the well is also associated with

  fertility.

 

 

NAME         Cashtal-yn-Ard (Gorry Castle)

TYPE         burial chambers (gallery grave)

REGION       Maughold peninsula - Ballachrink Farm, NW of

             Port Cornaa

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      A long oval mound covers a megalithic burial

  chamber 120 ft (36 m) long and 45 ft (14 m) wide.  The site

  is quite extensive with many parts to it.  Finds include

  human bones and Neolithic pottery.

 

 

NAME         King Orry's Grave

TYPE         cairn

REGION       Maughold peninsula - Ballachrink

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This is a 170 ft (52 m) chambered cairn with a

  roadway slicing through it.

 

 

NAME         Mull Circle / Meayll Circle / Rhullick-y-lag-

             sliggagh

TYPE         burial chamber

REGION       Rushen - Mull Hill, Cregneish

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The graves were built in an unusual way that is

  unique to the isles of Britain.  They sit in a T-shape with

  the bar as part of the circle and the perpendicular stem

  pointing out.  The circle is made up of six T units of

  three graves and they divide the circle into two sides with

  three graves each.

       The broad passage that separated the two sides lies on

  a north/south axis.  Each unit is made of huge slabs of

  slate, the largest of which is 8 x 3 x 2 ft (2.5x1x0.5 m).

  At one time they contained funeral urns.  The Gaelic name

  means "The Graveyard of Broken Slates" and it is not

  surprising that the Celts thought these were dwelling

  places of the gods.

 

 

NAME         Cronk-ny-Iree-Laa

TYPE         cairn

REGION       south of St Johns

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This site marks the communal grave of some

  Bronze Age Celts.

 

 

NAME         Chibbyr-ann

TYPE         well

REGION       Santan

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The waters of the well are reputed to be good

  for eye problems.

 

 

NAME         South Barrule

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       South Barrule

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fort has two circular ramparts and the

  remains of hut circles.

 

 

NAME         Cronk Sumark (Primrose Hill)

TYPE         hillfort (Iron-age)

REGION       northern plain - mouth of Sulby Glen

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There are twin peaks with twin hillforts and the

  one on the eastern peak is of a later date.  A quarry road

  has cut through one of the ramparts.

 

 

 

 

ITALY

 

 

NAME         Brenner Pass

TYPE         pass

REGION       between Innsbruck, Austria and Bolzano, Italy

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This is the lowest pass in the Alps, and was

  probably the one used by Brennius and his brother Belinos

  on their way to conquer the city of Rome in BC 4th century.

 

 

NAME         Terme del Brennero

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Alto Adige - by Brenner Pass (road to Innsbruck)

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      These hot springs are surrounded by pine forests

  and are on the route taken by Brennius and Belinos on their

  way to conquer Rome.

 

 

NAME         Aquae Statiellae

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Bistagno - Acqui Terme

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The sulphur springs are accompanied by mud

  baths.

 

 

NAME         Val Camonica

TYPE         pictographs

REGION       Brescia province - northern

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site, an isolated forested valley in the

  Alps, was occupied from the late Neolithic times down to

  the Iron Age Trumpilini tribe of the Celts in BC 4th

  century and the Etruscan Camunian tribes in BC 1st century.

       There are 3000 years of records, in the form of rock

  drawings of solar deities, the Celtic hunter deity

  Cernunnos, hunters, artisans, horses, geese, stags, cattle,

  funeral wagons, etc. portraying the sacred way of life of

  the hunters and the hunted.  Apart from the wealth of

  pictographs, finds in the area include Chalcolithic small

  ribbed daggers, Bronze Age leaf-shaped swords and Iron Age

  crested helmets.

 

 

NAME         Abano Terme

TYPE         hot springs / mud bath

REGION       Emilia - near Padua

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The mud is recommended for rheumatism and

  arthritis.

 

 

NAME         Grado

TYPE         hot springs / thermal sand baths

REGION       Gulf of Trieste - S of Palmanova

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This ancient island settlement is popular for

  its hot springs and thermal sand baths.

 

 

NAME         Terme di Valdieri

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Piedmont - SW of Cuneo by French border

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Cryptogamic plants (ulva labyrinthiformis) which

  grow around these sulphur springs were applied to

  inflammations and wounds to help healing.

 

 

NAME         Terme di Vinadio

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Piedmont - SW of Cuneo outside Demonte

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The hot waters of the sulphur springs are

  soothing to sore muscles after trekking in the mountains.

 

 

NAME         Cape Telamon

TYPE         battlefield

REGION       NW of Rome - Talamonaccio

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This site was the scene of a battle between

  Aneroestus and his Celtic forces against 2 Roman armies in

  BC 225.  40,000 Celts died and 10,000 were taken prisoner,

  which usually meant slavery and torture.  This was the

  first major success for a Roman army against a Celtic war

  band.

 

 

 

 

PORTUGAL

 

 

NAME         Penedo Comprido (Long Rock)

TYPE         standing stone

REGION       Aldeia do Outeiro

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The menhir is noted for its size, being almost

  20 ft (6 m) high, 3 ft (1 m) in diameter and weighing about

  8 tons.

 

 

NAME         Castro de Romariz

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Aveiro - NE of S Joao da Madeira at Romariz

MAP REF      2 – D+

REMARKS      The castro spans Celtic and Roman times, as

  evidenced by the mixture of circular and square house plans

  as well as by a Roman altar situated in a central porch

  area.

 

 

NAME         Curia

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Aveiro - NW of Bucaco National Park

MAP REF      3 – D+

REMARKS      The hot springs contain calcium sulphate, and

  are recommended for the treatment of rheumatism, kidneys,

  and ailments of the urinary tract.

 

 

NAME         Luso

TYPE         curative springs

REGION       Aveiro - on the NW edge of Buηaco Park

MAP REF      3 – D+

REMARKS      These radioactive springs impregnated with iron

  salts are recommended in the treatment of rheumatism,

  arthritis, kidney and respiratory ailments, and arterial

  hypertension.

 

 

NAME         Braga Castros

TYPE         Iron Age forts

REGION       Braga

MAP REF      0 – D+

REMARKS      Remains of three Iron Age forts can be seen in

  the areas of Sγo Vicente, Nogueiro and Guizande around

  Braga.

 

 

NAME         Caldas das Taipas

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Braga - 7 km (4.5 mi) NW of Guimarγes

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      These sulphur springs are recommended in the

  treatment of the digestive system, bronchial problems and

  rheumatism.

 

 

NAME         Caldas de Vizela

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Braga - 10 km (6 mi) SW of Guimarγes

REMARKS      These sulphur springs are recommended for the

  treatment of bronchial, skin problems, and rheumatism.

  There are over 50 springs with a wide range of

  temperatures.

 

 

NAME         Caldas do Geres

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Braga - in the Peneda-Geres National Park

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The waters are recomended in the treatment of

  gallbladder and liver ailments.  The surrounding area is

  quite spectacular and it is easy to see why the Celts

  enjoyed living there.

 

 

NAME         Castro Cidadelhe

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Braga - Peneda-Geres Park / Lima river

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This Iron Age settlement has recently been

  excavated.

 

 

NAME         Castro da Calcedonia

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort / cave

REGION       Braga - just inside Peneda-Geres National Park

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      There is an interesting cave on this walled site

  that makes it worth seeing.

 

 

NAME         Castro de Sabroso

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Braga - between Braga and Guimarγes

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This site, believed to be older than that of the

  nearby Citania de Briteiros, contains 35 dwelling sites

  within a strong well-constructed outer wall.  It is dated

  to BC 800 and appears to have been abandoned before Roman

  times.

 

 

NAME         Citania de Briteiros

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Braga - N of Guimarγes at Briteiros

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This Celtic site is fascinating to explore with

  its 200 building sites, roadways, wells, drainage systems

  and well-preserved triple outer walls, although the two

  reconstructed stone huts are somewhat unrealistic.

       At the foot of the site is a carved stone structure

  thought to be a bath-house, for which water could have been

  heated with stones.  A gathering hall 36 ft (11 m) in

  diameter has a stone bench around the inner wall.  On one

  of the stone walkways is a rock containing a mold for

  casting bronze axes.  The site was probably settled around

  BC 500.

 

 

NAME         Monte Franqueira

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Braga - 4 m (6 km) SW of Barcelos

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The settlement is near the summit of Monte

  Franqueira and there are still hut circles visible in

  various stages of disintegration.

 

 

NAME         Ponte de Lima

TYPE         Iron Age forts

REGION       Braga - Ponte de Lima, at Vitorino dos Piaes

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      There are three fortified Iron Age settlements

  in the vicinity.  The Lima, or Lethes, river was known as

  the "river of forgetfulness" because the Turduli tribe lost

  their sense of purpose after a quarrel with their Celtic

  comrades and could not find their way home again.

 

 

NAME         Povoa de Lanhoso

TYPE         Iron Age settlement

REGION       Braga - Povoa de Lanhoso

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      On the road to the castle can be seen the

  remains of an Iron Age settlement and a fragment of a

  Celtic road.

 

 

NAME         Termas de Eirogo

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Braga - just NE of Barcelos

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The springs contain alkaline and radioactive

  waters and sulphur, and are recommended for the treatment

  of high blood pressure and stomach disorders.

 

 

NAME         Braganηa

TYPE         stone sculpture

REGION       Braganηa - town of Braganηa

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      In the castle courtyard, there is an ancient

  sculpture of a wild boar which has been mutilated by the

  addition of a pillory column.

 

 

NAME         Castro de Avelas

TYPE         hillfort

REGION       Braganηa - W of Braganηa at Castro de Avelas

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      Remains of the hillfort are still visible.

 

 

NAME         Fountain of Prado da Rodela

TYPE         sacred spring

REGION       Braganηa - in Mogadouro

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This sacred spring has never run dry in recorded

  history in spite of the severe droughts in the area.  The

  well has ogham writing dedicating it to Mabon and the crags

  above are dedicated to Byanu.  There is a serpent legend

  connected to the spring as well.

 

 

NAME         Parque Natural de Montesinho

TYPE         park (wilderness)

REGION       Braganηa - N of the town of Braganηa

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This 185,000 acre (74,870 ha) park has wild

  boars, wolves, and some villages where pagan rituals are

  still practiced.

 

 

NAME         Monfortinho

TYPE         spa

REGION       Castelo Branco - SE of Covilha at the border

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The spa is situated in scenic surroundings on

  the Erges river.  The waters are recommmended in the

  treatment of liver, intestinal, kidney and gynaecological

  disorders.

 

 

NAME         Monsanto

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Castelo Branco - NE of Castelo Branco

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The site of the ruins give a 360Ί view of the

  surrounding territory.  The local villagers are quite aware

  of their Celtic ancestry and hold a festival in May to

  commemorate their victory over the Romans.

 

 

NAME         Castro Santa Olaia

TYPE         Iron Age Phoenician trading post

REGION       Coimbra - Montemor-o-Velho at Santa Olaia

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The site was occupied by Phoenicians during the

  Iron Age, and was strategically situated not far from the

  mouth of the Mondego river.  The houses were of rectangular

  design and built of stone or adobe.

 

 

NAME         Conimbriga

TYPE         Iron Age settlement

REGION       Coimbra - 15 km S of Coimbra city

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This site was originally Celtic but was built

  over by a Roman settlement.  The Romans obviously employed

  Celtic artisans to work on their buildings, as the mosaics

  contain many Celtic motifs.  The Roman settlement came to a

  drastic end in AD 4th century.  There is a small on-site

  museum.

 

 

NAME         Termas dos Cucos

TYPE         hot springs / spa

REGION       Estremadura - just E of Torres Vedras

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The ancient site has thermal waters and hot mud

  baths which are recommended in the treatment of rheumatism,

  arthritis and gout.

 

 

NAME         Belhoa Menhir

TYPE         standing stone

REGION       Evora - N of Monsaraz near Guadiana river

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The menhir is noted for its carvings, though the

  lower part was broken and has been reconstructed.

 

 

NAME         Dolmen of Zambujeiro

TYPE         dolmen

REGION       Evora - near Arraiolos

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This is said to be the largest dolmen on the

  Iberian Peninsula.

 

 

NAME         Gruta do Escoural (Escoural Cave)

TYPE         cave

REGION       Evora, near Arraiolos

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The cave with many galleries has wall-markings

  dating to about BC 15,000 and is still under investigation

  by archeologists.  The site is fenced but there is a

  resident custodian.  Finds and information are in the

  Archeological Museum at Montemor-o-Novo.

 

 

NAME         Menhir of Outeiro

TYPE         standing stone

REGION       Evora - N of Monsaraz

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The menhir reaches a height of 18 ft (5.5 m).

 

 

NAME         Standing Stones of Almendres

TYPE         standing stone / stone circle

REGION       Evora, near Arraiolos

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      A good hike through wild territory leads to the

  standing stones.  One stands alone, a phallic granite

  cylinder about 13 ft (4 m) high with an image commonly

  identified as a staff engraved on the top.  Nearby is a

  large configuration of about 100 stones, most around 5 to 6

  ft high (1.5-2 m).  Some outline an oval shape of about 100

  x 200 ft (60x30 m) and the others are placed within those

  limits.  The site is thought to date from the Chalcolithic

  Age.

 

 

NAME         Cabo de Sγo Vicente

TYPE         sacred site

REGION       Faro - Algarve, near Sagres

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The peninsula, once a sacred site to the Celts,

  later became important to Romans and Christians.

 

 

NAME         Caldas de Monchique

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Faro - near Monchique N of Portimao

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The waters are reputed to be beneficial to

  sufferers of digestive and respiratory problems and

  rheumatism.

 

 

NAME         Cerro do Castelo de Santa Justa

TYPE         Chalcolithic hillfort

REGION       Faro - 25 mi (40 km) N of Vila Real de Santo

             Antσnio by Alcoutim

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The site is strategically placed by the Guadiana

  river.  It dates from BC 3rd millenium, placing it with

  Castro do Zambujal and Vila Nova de Sγo Pedro, and it was

  doubtless also involved in the copper industry. (Great

  quantities of copper are still exported from the region.)

  Like Zambujal, the defensive walls are studded with towers.

  Remains of stone circle huts are visible.

 

 

NAME         Compass Card

TYPE         calendar (moon/zodiac)

REGION       Faro, near Sagres in the Fortaleza (Algarve)

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This ancient sacred site is a lunar calendar

  dealing with the houses of the zodiac.  There are 28 spokes

  that extend all the way to the circumference, and 14 more

  incomplete spokes.  The diameter of the calendar is 140 ft

  (43 m).  It is similar to ones found in North America.

 

 

NAME         Castro Cidadelhe

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Guarda - W of Castelo Rodrigo at Cidadelhe

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      There are still substantial well-preserved ruins

  of drywall-construction dwellings at this site near the

  Vale of Coa.

 

 

NAME         Vale de Cτa

TYPE         pictographs

REGION       Guarda - Cτa River near Vila Nova de Foz Cτa

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The impending flooding of this valley for a dam

  project has finally alerted the archeological community to

  the presence of numerous pictographs whose dates are

  currently being debated, but which may be from BC 18,000 in

  the Paleolithic era.  The valley shows signs of occupation

  for much of the prehistoric period.

 

 

NAME         Caldas da Rainha (Queen's Hot Springs)

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Leiria - 5 km (3 mi) N of Obidos

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The sulphur waters are used in the treatment of

  respiratory problems, rheumatism, gynaecological disorders

  and detoxication.

 

 

NAME         Pinhal de Leiria (Pinhal do Rei)

TYPE         forest (pine)

REGION       Leiria - outside the town of Leiria

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This forest, although not specifically Celtic,

  has 700-year-old trees and will give an idea of the type of

  old-growth forest that would constitute a familiar

  environment of the Celts.

 

 

NAME         Termas da Piedade

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Leiria - just N of Alcobaca

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The hot springs are recommended in the treatment

  of stomach and intestinal ailments.

 

 

NAME         Vimeiro

TYPE         curative spring

REGION       Leiria - NE of Caldas da Rainha

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The mineral waters are recommended in the

  treatment of digestive problems, kidney diseases, and some

  skin ailments.

 

 

NAME         Castro de Leceia

TYPE         Neolithic / Chalcolithic hillfort

REGION       Lisbon - W of Lisbon near Oeiras and Barcarena

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The castro is strategically situated just

  outside Tagus harbor.  The settlement was originally

  Neolithic and was occupied through the Chalcolithic period.

  Its design, with hollow and solid towers punctuating the

  defensive walls, shows similarities to the Almerian sites

  nearby of Vila Nova de Sγo Pedro and Castro de Zambujal.

  The hut circles often have a hearth at their center.

 

 

NAME         Castro do Zambujal

TYPE         Chalcolithic / Bronze Age industrial site

REGION       Lisbon - S of Torres Vedras on Pedrulhos river

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This is one of the sites probably established by

  the Almerians for the production of copper tools and

  weapons.  Crucibles, molds and ovens attest to the copper-

  smelting industry.  Like the site of Vila Nova de Sγo

  Pedro, this site would have been more accessible by sea

  during its occupation from mid-BC 3rd millenium to late 2nd

  millenium.

       Arqueological investigations indicate 5 phases of

  development of the site, resulting in an unusual plan of

  triple defensive walls with some parts up to 50 ft (15 m)

  thick stone, and small round courtyards converted into

  towers.  The stone hut circles constructed around a central

  hearth were roofed with earth or clay.

 

 

NAME         Grutas de Alapraia

TYPE         cave tomb

REGION       Lisbon - near Cascais

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      Four caves with an entranceway and skylit

  chamber are dated to between the middle of BC 4th millenium

  and early 3rd millenium.

 

 

NAME         Aljustrel

TYPE         copper mines

REGION       Portalegre - 14 m (23 km) N of Castro Verde

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      Some of these mines have been worked in

  prehistoric times.

 

 

NAME         Castro de Cola

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Portalegre - SW of Aldeia dos Palheiros

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This old settlement is surrounded by ramparts 16

  ft (5 m) high.

 

 

NAME         Castelo de Vide

TYPE         curative springs

REGION       Portalegre - 12 m (20 km) N of Portalegre

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The cold water springs contain Glauber's salt

  and are recommended for liver, diabetes, and skin problems.

 

 

NAME         Castro Caramos, Lagares, Penacova and Seriude

TYPE         Iron Age hillforts

REGION       Porto - in the vicinity of Felgueiras

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      Ruins of four Iron Age settlements are still

  visible.

 

 

NAME         Castro do Monte Padrao

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Porto - NE of Oporto at Santo Tirso

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The ruins are at the top of Monte Cordova at the

  headwaters of the Leca River.

 

 

NAME         Castro Tagilde

TYPE         hillfort (Iron Age)

REGION       Porto - in the vicinity of Felgueiras

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      Ruins of an Iron Age settlement are still

  visible.

 

 

NAME         Citβnia de Sanfins

TYPE         hillfort

REGION       Porto - Monte Cordova E of Santo Tirso

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This hillfort is the largest in the area (almost

  40 acres or 16 ha) and has a commanding view of the

  territory which holds many other hillforts.  It is about a

  day's walk to Citβnia de Briteiros and two other major

  forts.  In the vicinity are the headwaters of the Leca

  river.

       The castro appears to date from BC 2nd century and it

  has been suggested that the advance of Roman invaders

  prompted small local settlements to regroup at this site

  for defensive purposes.  A statue of a warrior with helmet,

  shield, torc and large bracelets on the right arm was

  positioned at the main gate.

       Two outer stone walls surround over 150 hut sites,

  some circular and some rectangular, arranged in clusters

  off stone-paved streets.  Two large rectangular buildings,

  and a bath-house like the one at the Citβnia de Briteiros,

  were doubtless for communal use.  Some reconstructions of

  the buildings with thatched roofs help to recreate the

  atmosphere of the original site.

 

 

NAME         Citβnia Monte Mozinho

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Porto - S of Penafiel by Oldroes

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      Sometimes known as the city of the dead, the

  extent of this settlement is indicated by the visible

  remains of its three defensive walls, fortified in one

  place by a ditch.

 

 

NAME         Cividade de Terroso

TYPE         Iron Age fortress

REGION       Porto - 5 km (3 m) NE of Povoa de Varzim

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      There are 80 hut circles and several rectangular

  buildings with rounded corners, all surrounded by a triple

  drystone wall.  Several of the huts have porch areas or a

  multi-room design.  The site was important in coastal

  trading.  A smaller castro is nearby at Laundos.

 

 

NAME         Marco de Canaveses

TYPE         hot springs / settlement / dolmen

REGION       Porto - SW of Amarante

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      At the Archeological Area of Freixo, there is a

  74 acre (30 ha) settlement which dates from Celtic times

  but was taken over by the Romans.  In addition to a forum

  and many buildings, the site contains hot springs whose

  waters contain arsenic and sulphur, and are used to treat

  rheumatism, skin and respiratory disorders.

       There is a professional archeological school and

  permanent research center on the site.  A few miles to the

  east, around Baiao, is an area rich in megalithic monuments

  such as the dolmen of Aboboreira.

 

 

NAME         Terras do Basto

TYPE         sculptures

REGION       Porto - E of Guimarγes

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The area is called the land of Basto ("I Claim")

  because of the some Celtic sculptures that were found

  there.  The stone sculptures were possibly used as

  territory markers.  In the park across from the bus station

  at Cabeceiras de Basto stands one of the sculptures that

  has had its head recarved or substituted to portray the

  face and cap of a soldier from the Peninsula War.  The rest

  of the figure is in the same style as other Celtic statues

  of the area including the typically Lusitanian small round

  shield.

 

 

NAME         Vila Nova de Sγo Pedro

TYPE         Chalcolithic / Bronze / Iron Age industrial site

REGION       Santarιm - SW of Santarιm, Vila Nova de Sγo

             Pedro

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This is one of the sites established by the

  Almerians from the eastern Mediterranean around BC 3000. It

  is also likely that this is where the Bell Beaker people of

  Portugal came into contact with the Almerians and learned

  about copper-smelting.  The existence of the industry is

  evidenced by crucibles, numerous copper articles such as

  axes and weapons, and a store of almost 30 lbs (13 kg) of

  raw copper ore.

       The inhabitants were also involved in the production

  of stoneware, ceramics, weaving and making of garments.  A

  kiln was found with ceramic pieces still inside, indicating

  an extremely sudden departure from the site by the last

  inhabitants (earth tremors ?).  Also found at the site were

  numerous small cylinders of stone, bone, clay, ivory and

  crystal, and figurines made of clay or bone.

       Vila Nova de Sγo Pedro might appear unusually far

  inland for sea trade, but as the present land in the region

  is largely a build-up of silt, in BC 3000 the site would

  have been quite close to the mighty Tagus river.  There

  would doubtless have been contact with the industrial site

  of Castro do Zambujal to the southwest.

 

 

NAME         Monte da Tumba

TYPE         Chalcolithic settlement

REGION       Setϊbal - SE of Alcαcer do Sal by Torrao

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This inland site shows similarities to Castro do

  Zambujal in its design and age, suggesting a similar

  connection with the flourishing copper industry of the

  region.

 

 

NAME         Sesimbra Monument

TYPE         Bronze Age burial site

REGION       Setϊbal - Sesimbra

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The structure is composed of large stone slabs

  forming a circle almost 40 ft (12 m) diameter with one

  opening to the southeast leading to a 10 ft diameter (3 m)

  round central chamber where two inhumed bodies were placed.

 

 

NAME         Tombs of Quinta do Anjo

TYPE         Neolithic / Chalcolithic grave site

REGION       Setϊbal - W of Palmela

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      A passage leads to a small antechamber and a

  vaulted chamber where four graves were carved out of the

  rock.  They date from the middle Neolithic to late

  Chalcolithic periods.

 

 

NAME         Herdade da Mitra

TYPE         passage grave

REGION       Valverde

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This is an enormous passage grave which was once

  covered by a tumulus of some 150 ft (50 m) with 16 ft high

  (5 m) boulders forming the sides of the main chamber and a

  passage over 30 ft (10 m) long.  However, the capstone has

  fallen down and the metal roof which has been erected for

  protective purposes detracts from the esthetics.

 

 

NAME         Castro do Coto da Pena

TYPE         Bronze Age / Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Viana do Castelo - by Caminha

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The fort is strategically situated by the mouth

  of the Minho river and dates from BC 10th century.  The

  typical round or oval stone hut circles are visible within

  the walls.  The site continued to be inhabited until AD 8th

  century.

 

 

NAME         Citβnia Santa Luzia

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Viana do Castelo

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The Celtic settlement is beside the Hotel Santa

  Luzia and can be reached by an interesting ride on the

  hill-car.  There are over 80 hut sites, mostly circular,

  set on cobbled streets, and a large oval gathering hall at

  the summit.

       The site is best viewed from a recently-constructed

  set of raised metal walkways crisscrossing the ruins.

  Several of the huts have a stone bench or shelf against the

  interior walls, and many have a small "porch" area.  The

  presence of ovens and millstones indicate breadmaking.

       The site was originally fortified by three walls and

  two ditches, as well as by the natural defences of the

  steep hill, but the construction of the adjacent hotel and

  roadways have obliterated most of the outer two.  It was

  settled in BC 500 and in BC 26 fell to the Romans, although

  it remained in use until AD 5th century.

 

 

NAME         Cividade de Ancora

TYPE         Iron Age fortress

REGION       Viana do Castelo - near Caminha

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      Some of the buildings at this site are of the

  multi-room style with a porch area.  One, doubtless for

  communal use, has an oven and a well.  The site is

  protected with a set of defensive walls.

 

 

NAME         Moncao

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Viana do Castelo (on the Minho River)

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The waters are recommended in the treatment of

  rheumatism, bronchial disorders, and skin ailments.

 

 

NAME         Peneda-Geres National Park

TYPE         wilderness park / Iron Age settlements / hot

             springs

REGION       Viana do Castelo / Braga / Vila Real

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This 193 sq.mi (500 sq km) park stretches along

  the border with Galicia, Spain.  Wild boars, horses,

  wolves, snakes and eagles make it their home.  There are

  numerous dolmens and several Celtic castros within its

  boundaries.

 

 

NAME         Alvao

TYPE         dolmen

REGION       Vila Real

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This dolmen is full of carvings.

 

 

NAME         Castelo dos Mouros (Moorish Castle)

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Vila Real - E of Vila Real near Sabrosa

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The site is defended by two circular walls

  dating from the Iron Age and an outside rectangular one

  built during Roman times.

 

 

NAME         Castro de Boticas

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Vila Real - 19 miles (30 km) W of Chaves

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This is a well-preserved hillfort with a ditch

  and double walls enclosing the remains of circle huts and

  some rectangular buildings dating from its occupation

  during Roman times.

       Below the hillfort are springs, recommended for skin

  diseases and kidney, liver and intestinal disorders, beside

  the inn surrounded by gardens and woods.

 

 

NAME         Castro Tourem

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort / dolmen

REGION       Vila Real

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The excavated settlement with a megalithic tomb

  is situated in the Peneda-Geres National Park.

 

 

NAME         Chaves

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Vila Real

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The village of Chaves is noted for its hot

  springs recommended in the treatment of rheumatism, gout,

  diabetes, metabolic adjustments and internal organs.

       The town is also noted for its unusual way of cooking

  pork in the water from these springs.  The springs reach

  temperatures of 163Ί F (73Ί C)  which ranks them as some of

  the hottest in the world.

 

 

NAME         Murηa

TYPE         hot springs / spring / stone sculpture

REGION       Vila Real

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      Murηa, a very arid area, seems to be blessed

  with an abundance of cold and hot springs.  The local

  mythology claims that the hot springs originate in the

  underworld.

       In the village centre across from the restaurant Porca

  de Murηa is the stone sculpture of a bear.  Although the

  name of the sculpture refers to boar (porca), the name of

  the village, Murηa, refers to bear.  A similar case is

  found in the village of Toro, in Spain.

 

 

NAME         Outeiro Machado

TYPE         sacrificial stone

REGION       Vila Real - near Chaves heading towards Sotelo

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      West of Chaves is a granite boulder 165 ft long

  (50 m) in the middle of a field.  The rock is covered with

  numerous symbols.  It was vandalized by locals looking for

  gold.

 

 

NAME         Panσias

TYPE         sacred site

REGION       Vila Real - SE of Vila Real at Panσias

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This was a Lusitanian sacrificial site to the

  deity Serapis.

 

 

NAME         Pitoes

TYPE         hillfort (castro) / dolmen

REGION       Vila Real - Peneda-Geres Park / E entrances

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This Iron Age settlement has recently been

  excavated.

 

 

NAME         Termas de Pedras Salgadas

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Vila Real - 35 km (22 mi) N of Vila Real

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The radioactive hot springs are recommended in

  the treatment of stomach, intestinal and liver complaints.

  The site is in the valley of the Avelares river at an

  altitude of about 2000 ft (600 m).

 

 

NAME         Vidago

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Vila Real - 15 kn (9 mi) SW of Chaves

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The hot springs are recommended in the treatment

  of internal ailments, allergies and metabolic disorders.

 

 

NAME         Alijo

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Viseu - 16 km (10 mi) N of Pinhao near Alijo

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This is a Celtic castro well worth visiting.  In

  the region, the locals still use burro-drawn carts

  reminiscent of Celtic wagons.

 

 

NAME         Anta de Paranhos de Arca

TYPE         dolmen

REGION       Viseu - near Paranhos N of Tondela

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The dolmen appears as a sturdy long-legged table

  in a field surrounded by trees.

 

 

NAME         Anta de Pendilhe

TYPE         dolmen

REGION       Viseu - E of Castro Daire by Pendilhe

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This is a well-preserved and imposing dolmen.

  The reincarnation symbol of the labyrinth was carved into

  the capstone.

 

 

NAME         Antelas

TYPE         passage grave / paintings

REGION       Viseu - SW of Oliveira de Frades at Antelas

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The long-corridored passage grave was reburied

  after excavation in order to preserve its paintings, but it

  has been re-excavated again for display purposes.  The red

  and black paintings are mainly of geometric designs, with

  solar and lunar symbols identified.

 

 

NAME         Caldas da Felgueira

TYPE         spa

REGION       Viseu - S of Viseu at Caldas da Felgueira

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The waters are recommended in the treatment of

   skin diseases, respiratory disorders and rheumatism.

   The site is on the Mondego river in pine-covered hills.

 

 

NAME         Caldas de Aregos

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Viseu - 5 km (3 mi) W of Anreade

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This ancient Celtic area is well worth the visit

  for the scenery.  The sulphur springs are recommended in

  the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and bronchitis.

 

 

NAME         Casa da Orca (Anta da Cunha Baixa)

TYPE         passage grave

REGION       Viseu - S of Mangualde at Cunha Baixa

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This is an excellent example of a passage grave,

  and the absence of surrounding earth makes the construction

  easy to study.  Large stone slabs up-ended in the ground

  form a passageway, with one large slab as a roof.  At the

  end is the larger chamber, whose form is identical to a

  typical dolmen.

       The grave also exhibits some carvings, typical of the

  dolmens of the area.  Finds from the site included flint

  tools, polished stone axes, stone adzes, a fragment of

  copper and decorated ceramics.  The site is by a little

  river.

 

 

NAME         Castelo dos Mouros (Moorish Castle)

TYPE         Bronze Age / Iron Age hillfort / wine press

REGION       Viseu - Vila Chα de Sα

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      Despite the name, this hillfort dates from the

  Bronze Age and was expanded and developed in the Iron Age.

  Well-situated on a mountain close to two rivers, its

  natural defences are reinforced by up to three surrounding

  walls at certain points.  The one wall which remains in

  good shape exhibits a solid construction with some

  overlapping of the stones.  Current excavation on the site

  is revealing typical hut circles as well as numerous

  artifacts of stone, bronze and iron.

       Near the hillfort at Pinhal das Martelas one can see a

  good example of a stone wine press, of a type quite common

  in the area.  It consists of a long trough and a large

  basin, both cut into the rock, with a small hole cut

  between them to allow liquid to run into the basin while

  keeping the solids out.

       There are two more hillforts in the near vicinity:

  Castro dos Trκs Rios and Castro Castaνnca.

 

 

NAME         Castro da Cαrcoda

TYPE         Bronze Age / Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Viseu - NW of Sγo Pedro do Sul by Carvalhais

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This is a well-situated hillfort defended by a

  wall and deep ditch, reinforced in some places by one or

  two more walls.  There are clearly-visible remains of

  several huts, mostly circular or oval, and areas with

  pictographs and cup-markings carved into the rocks.  The

  site was occupied from late Bronze Age into Roman times.

 

 

NAME         Castro da Senhora da Guia

TYPE         Bronze Age / Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Viseu - Baioes outside Sγo Pedro do Sul

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The ruins of hut circles and a defensive wall of

  this important industrial center have been mostly

  demolished in favor of focussing attention on the chapel

  which was superimposed on the site.  The main industry

  appears to have been the manufacture of bronze tools and

  weapons.

       Most of the finds, including bronze arrowheads, bronze

  double-ring axes and parts of a votive wagon, are now

  located in the Museu do Seminαrio Maior de Viseu, although

  a few choice pieces such as two gold torcs and a gold

  bracelet are in the Museu Nacional de Arqueologia e

  Etnologia in Lisbon.  The site dates from BC 8th century.

 

 

NAME         Castro da Senhora do Bom Sucesso

TYPE         Bronze Age / Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Viseu - Chas de Tavares E of Mangualde

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      It is still possible to see traces of the 80

  huts  (circular and rectangular) and the surrounding wall

  of the hillfort and appreciate the views from this well-

  chosen site.  The fort dates from the Bronze Age but was

  still used through Roman times.

 

 

NAME         Castro Daire

TYPE         hillfort

REGION       Viseu - 20 miles (32 km) N of Viseu

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This town is built precisely on the site of the

  ancient castro, or hillfort.  Traces of the walls can still

  be seen and the locals often find ancient pieces of

  ceramics in their fields.

 

 

NAME         Castro de Santa Luzia

TYPE         Bronze Age / Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Viseu - 4 km outside Viseu - Campo/Abraveses,

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      Carbon-14 dating has confirmed that this

  hillfort dates from at least BC 10th century, placing it

  among the oldest in the region.  Initially, the huts were

  made of wood with roofs of branches or thatch, but by the

  Iron Age the circular stone hut design was employed.

       Although many artifacts of ceramic, stone and bronze

  have been found, the site has suffered badly from the

  excavations and all that now remains visible is a section

  of the outer wall.

 

 

NAME         Cava de Viriato

TYPE         battlefield

REGION       Viseu - N of the city center of Viseu

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This park may have been the battlefield where

  Viriato, the Lusitanian freedom-fighter, made his last

  stand against the Romans before he was betrayed.  However,

  the regularity of the structure, the lack of prehistoric

  finds in the field, and the fact that earlier records did

  not have Viriato's name associated with it have led

  archeologists to conclude that it is a Roman structure.

       An octagonal area of 94 acres (38 ha) was bounded by

  high 30 ft (9 m) ramparts and a ditch 26 ft (8 m) wide.

  Four of the sides are still standing and are sufficiently

  broad to provide pleasant tree-lined walkways.  A statue of

  Viriato and a few comrades, sculpted by the Spaniard

  Mariano Benliure, stands at the entrance to the site.  The

  site of the original Celtic castro of the area is thought

  be the hill where the present cathedral is located.

 

 

NAME         Cova de Lobishomen (Cave of the Wolfman)

TYPE         cave

REGION       Viseu - 30 km W of Viseu

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The site was used by the Iron Age Celts.

 

 

NAME         Dolmen of the Orca dos Juncais

TYPE         passage grave

REGION       Viseu - Vila Nova de Paiva at Queiriga

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      Many figures of humans and animals are painted

  on the nine slabs which form the dolmen chamber and on a

  few of those of the passageway.

 

 

NAME         Espνrito Santo d'Arca

TYPE         dolmen

REGION       Viseu - E of Agueda near Caramulo at Arca

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This dolmen has some carvings and several cup-

  marks decorating it.

 

 

NAME         Necropolis of Lobagueira

TYPE         neolithic cemetery

REGION       Viseu - Couto de Cima near Sγo Pedro de Sul

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      Several of the graves in the territory are

  partially uncovered, including an impressive passage grave.

  Painted in red ochre on one of the stones on a dolmen are

  two hunters, one with a bow.

 

 

NAME         Orca dos Fiais da Telha

TYPE         passage grave

REGION       Viseu - by Fiais da Telha near Carregal do Sal

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      A passage 25 ft (7.5 m) long, still retaining

  two roofing slabs, leads to a large chamber whose capstone

  measures 10 x 14 ft (4.5x3 m).  Small stones which once

  covered the mound indicate the original dimensions of the

  tumulus (about 115 ft or 35 m in diameter).

 

 

NAME         Pedra da Lufinha

TYPE         pictographs

REGION       Viseu - Ribafeita E of Sγo Pedro do Sul

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      A large rock, now broken, is covered with

  drawings of a labyrinth and spirals (symbols of rebirth or

  reincarnation) and a rectangular grid (sun symbol).

 

 

NAME         Termas de Sγo Pedro do Sul

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Viseu - 20 km (12 mi) NW of Viseu

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The sulphur and sodium waters are recommended in

  the treatment of rheumatic, bronchial, skin and

  gynaecological ailments.  The spa is situated on the Vouga

  river.

 

 

 

 

SARDINIA

 

 

NAME         Su Nuraxi

TYPE         broch / settlement

REGION       Barumini

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      A broch of drystone structure (nuraghe) dating

  from about BC 15th century is surrounded by stone hut

  circles from a later period (BC 8th-6th century).  Some of

  the later structures have several small rooms off a central

  area, reminiscent of Chysauster in England.

 

 

 

 

SCOTLAND

 

 

NAME         Aberlemno

TYPE         Pictish stones / hillfort

REGION       Angus - Aberlemno, NE of Forfar

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The church has one Pictish stone carved with

  symbols and an armed horseman.  Just outside of town is a

  grouping of 3 more stones, two with visible carvings.

  Southwest of the village is a hillfort called Kemp's

  Castle.

 

 

NAME         Addinston

TYPE         hillfort

REGION       Borders - SE of Edinburgh near Carfraemill

REMARKS      This is a well-preserved hillfort with double

  ramparts.

 

 

NAME         Edinshal Broch (Edin's Hall)

TYPE         broch / settlement / fortress

REGION       Borders - W of Berwick (Eng) just N of Duns

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site is reached by crossing a suspension

  bridge over the White Adder river to the north shore. There

  are remains of a double-rampart fort, foundations of stone

  circle huts and a broch.  The broch had a diameter of 55 ft

  (17 m), with chambers and a stairway in the wall.

 

 

NAME         Eildon Hill North

TYPE         hillfort

REGION       Borders - ouside Galashiels just SE of Melrose

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fort covers 40 acres (16 ha) on the flattish

  top of the hill, with over 300 hut circles inside the

  ramparts.

 

 

NAME         Innerleithen

TYPE         sacred springs

REGION       Borders - S of Edinburgh past Peebles

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The sacred spring is still visible but it now

  costs money to partake of the waters.

 

 

NAME         Newstead

TYPE         sacred well

REGION       Borders - E of Galashiels

REMARKS      Sacrificed chariot wheels were found in the

  well.

 

 

NAME         Antonine Wall

TYPE         wall

REGION       Central - Rough Castle, W of Falkirk near

             Bonnybridge

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The Antonine Wall originally stretched 37 mi (60

  km) across Scotland from the Firth of Forth to the Clyde.

  It was constructed in AD 142-43 by the Romans to protect

  themselves from the vicious Picts.  A good place to examine

  the remains of the wall is Rough Castle.

 

 

NAME         Dunmore

TYPE         hillfort

REGION       Central - SE of Stirling

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fort is protected by inner stone walls 12 ft

  (4 m) thick and partial outer walls as well as by the

  natural defenses of the rocky hilltop.

 

 

NAME         Barsalloch Fort

TYPE         Iron Age promontory fort / standing stones

REGION       Dumfries & Galloway - eastern shore of Luce Bay

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The Barsalloch Fort near Monreith is situated

  against a cliff and surrounded by a ditch and double

  ramparts in the shape of a horseshoe.

       Less than a mile inland are two standing stones

  erected beside a large glacial erratic known as the Wren's

  Egg.

 

 

NAME         Birrenswark (Burnswark)

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Dumfries & Galloway - near Lockerbie

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This fortress still has remains of circular huts

  and ramparts.  The inner rampart encircling the hilltop was

  built around BC 600.  Two Roman camps are also on the site.

 

 

NAME         Double Dykes

TYPE         trench

REGION       Dumfries & Galloway - Mull of Galloway, S of

             Stranraer

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The Picts constructed this earthwork as a

  defense against the Dalriada Scots when they invaded in AD

  6th century.

 

 

NAME         Dumtrodden Stones

TYPE         standing stones / cup-and-ring markings

REGION       Dumfries & Galloway - near Monreith

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site contains a small group of 3 standing

  stones, two of which form a NE / SW alignment.  Nearby are

  two rock outcroppings with cup-and-ring markings, the

  largest being a foot in diameter.

 

 

NAME         Moffat

TYPE         curative spring

REGION       Dumfries & Galloway - Moffat

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The old sulphur spring is a far cry from the

  quiet place it must have been during Celtic times, but the

  healing water is still available.

 

 

NAME         Torhouse Stone Circle

TYPE         stone circle

REGION       Dumfries & Galloway - S of Newton Stewart near

             Wigtown

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The stone circle dates from about BC 2000.  It

  is made up of 19 boulders with a triad in the center. There

  is another group of three standing stones nearby.

 

 

NAME         Trusty's Hill

TYPE         fortress / Pictish encravings

REGION       Dumfries & Galloway - SW of Dumfries

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This small fort by Gatehouse of Fleet has

  timber-laced stone walls and some Pictish carvings visible

  on a rock near the southeast entrance.

 

 

NAME         Brandsbutt Stone

TYPE         Pictish stone

REGION       Grampian - by Inverurie, NW of Aberdeen

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The Pictish stone sits in the middle of a

  suburb.  The stone has ogham lettering on it as well as the

  symbols of the crescent, V-rod and snake.

 

 

NAME         Culsh Earth House

TYPE         dwelling / fogou

REGION       Grampian - W of Aberdeen, N of Aboyne,

             near Tarland

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This is a good example of a fogou, or

  underground passage, with rock slabs still in position

  forming the walls and roof of its 45 ft (14 m) length.

 

 

NAME         Fort Fiddes

TYPE         Bronze Age industrial site

REGION       Grampian - Cullykan Bay, near Pennan

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Fort Fiddes west of Fraserburgh was a Celtic

  Bronze Age industrial site.  Artifacts from the Rhine show

  that it had two-way trade with the continent.

 

 

NAME         Inverurie

TYPE         Pictish stones

REGION       Grampian - 16 mi (26 km) NW of Aberdeen

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The cemetery has two Pictish stones.

 

 

NAME         Kintore

TYPE         Pictish stone

REGION       Grampian - Kintore NW of Aberdeen

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The old town cemetery has a stone with Pictish

  symbols engraved on it.

 

 

NAME         Loanhead Stone Circle

TYPE         calendar (moon and sun) / standing stones

REGION       Grampian - near Daviot, N of Inverurie

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      A ring of standing stones 65 ft (20 m) in

  diameter surrounds a burial cairn.  The circle contains a

  stone configuration of two standing stones flanking a

  horizontal stone.  The triad of stones records the extreme

  southern position of the moon.  Pottery of the Bell Beaker

  culture has been found at the site.

       A nearby grouping of stones indicates the sunrise at

  winter solstice.

 

 

NAME         Maiden Stone

TYPE         Pictish stone

REGION       Grampian - NW of Inverurie by Chapel of Garioch

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The carvings on this tall Pictish stone are

  separated from each other by simple carved borders.

 

 

NAME         Mons Graupius

TYPE         battlefield / hillfort

REGION       Grampian - NW of Aberdeen, outside Pitcaple

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Mons Graupius, a hill opposite the Rae Dykes,

  was the scene of a great battle between the Celts under

  Calgacus and Roman mercenaries under Agricula in AD 84. The

  hill is known as Bennachie, and there are still remains of

  the hillfort on the peak of Mither Tap.

 

 

NAME         Picardy Stone

TYPE         Pictish stone

REGION       Grampian - N of Insch near Largie

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The stone includes engravings of a serpent,

  mirror and a double ring symbol.

 

 

NAME         Sculptors Cave

TYPE         cave

REGION       Grampian - Covesea, N of Elgin near Lossiemouth

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This cave was occupied during the late Bronze

  Age and the Iron Age.  The rock face at the entrance is

  engraved with Pictish symbols.  Some of the finds are in

  the National Museum in Edinburgh.

 

 

NAME         Sueno's Stone

TYPE         Pictish stone

REGION       Grampian - outside Forres near Kinloss

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The stone is 20 ft (6 m) high with a battle

  scene engraved on one side and a cross on the other.  The

  stone is believed to date from AD 9th century.

 

 

NAME         Witches Stone

TYPE         standing stone

REGION       Grampian - near Kinloss

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The stone was thought to have been an altar to

  the sun god during early Celtic times.  It gained its

  present name because it marks the spot where a witch in a

  barrel landed when she was rolled down Cluny Hill along

  with two other women, unwilling participants in an early

  Christian sport.

 

 

NAME         Barpa Langass

TYPE         cairn

REGION       Outer Hebrides - N Uist Island

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The well-preserved cairn is the burial site of a

  Celtic chieftain dating from about BC 1000.  The cairn is

  about 80 feet (25 m) in diameter and has a passageway

  leading to a chamber of 6 x 13 ft (2x4 m).

       Taking the left road at the fork out of Loch Maddy

  will lead to a low man-made rock structure on the right

  side.  Visitors are asked to PLEASE stay out of it.

 

 

NAME         Callanish Standing Stones

TYPE         henge / standing stones / cairn

REGION       Outer Hebrides - Isle of Lewis, Calllanish

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The henge, west of Stornoway, has four rows of

  standing stones radiating to the points of the compass.  In

  the center of the henge is another standing stone which

  marks the passage of the sun during the equinoxes. Sometime

  at a later date a cairn was added to the structure.  There

  is a small on-site museum.

 

 

NAME         Dun Beag

TYPE         Iron Age broch / fortress

REGION       Hebrides - Isle of Skye, near Bracadale

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The structure is well-preserved and gives the

  explorer a chance to study the design of a broch.  Its

  double wall is 14 ft (4 m) thick and encloses a stairway

  and chambers, one of which has a corbelled roof

  construction.  On the sites are foundations of out

  buildings and nearby is an Iron Age fort called Dun Mor.

 

 

NAME         Dun Carloway

TYPE         broch / standing stones

REGION       Outer Hebrides - Isle of Lewis, SW of Carloway

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The broch is still in relatively good condition.

  The wall is 30 ft (9 m) high and 12 ft (4 m) thick, leaving

  a central area of 25 ft (7.5 m) in diameter.  The broch

  wall has a stairway and chambers within it.  There is a

  trio of standing stones nearby, although two are now lying

  down on the job.

 

 

NAME         Dun Torcuill

TYPE         broch

REGION       Outer Hebrides - N Uist

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This is a good example of an island broch.  It

  has a wall 11 ft (3.5 m) thick enclosing a courtyard about

  37 ft (11 m) in diameter.

 

 

NAME         Dunsgiath Castle

TYPE         Iron Age fortress

REGION       Hebrides - southern Isle of Skye

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The ruins of the fort are on the side of Loch

  Eishort, northeast from Tarskavaig.  It was reputed to have

  been the fortress of the warrior Scathach who taught Cu

  Chulainn the art of combat.

 

 

NAME         Iona - Innis nan Druidhneah (Island of Druids)

TYPE         sacred island / sanctuary

REGION       Strathclyde - Inner Hebrides

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Iona (Icolmkill, Hy, Hii, I ) was a most sacred

  island to the pre-Christian druids and there is a Celtic

  sanctuary under the reconstructed church.  In ancient times

  the word Iona referred to circle or sun.  The name Hy

  reflects the presence of yew trees sacred to the Celtic

  druids.  Interestingly, the island is made up of the oldest

  rock in the world.

 

 

NAME         Kilpheder

TYPE         Iron Age wheelhouse

MAP REF      0 –

REGION       Outer Hebrides - South Uist Island

REMARKS      On the plain outside of Kilpheder there is a

  Pictish wheelhouse with a central hearth and rooms that

  radiate from it.  Below-level is a drainage system and a

  storage hole.

 

 

NAME         Pobull Fhinn (Finn's People)

TYPE         standing stones

REGION       Outer Hebrides - N Uist Island, near Lochmaddy

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The footpath from behind the hotel leads to the

  standing stones which locals claim to be a sacrifical site.

 

 

NAME         Ardvanish Stone Circle

TYPE         standing stones

REGION       Highlands - Caithness, N of Lybster at

             Achkinloch

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The standing stones form a horseshoe shape.

  Originally there was another set of stones as well.

 

 

NAME         Ashie Moor

TYPE         Iron Age vitrified hillfort

REGION       Highlands - SW of Inverness, W of Loch

             Duntelchaig

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This is a good example of a vitrified fort.

 

 

NAME         Baile Chladaich

TYPE         Iron Age broch

REGION       Highlands - Sutherland

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The broch, dating from BC 100, is double-walled

  drystone with passages and rooms between the walls.

 

 

NAME         Baile Marghait

TYPE         settlement Iron Age

REGION       Highlands - northern Caithness, S of Bettyhill

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This ancient community contains a broch, remains

  of circle huts and grave sites.

 

 

NAME         Ben Nevis

TYPE         sacred mountain

REGION       Highlands - SE of Fort Williams

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This was one of the places were Diarmaid was

  said to have died after killing the boar.

 

 

NAME         Brora

TYPE         broch

REGION       Highlands - Brora, SW of Helmsdale on North Sea

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The broch is situated just north of town on the

  coastal side of the road.  Two headless skeletons were

  found on the site.

 

 

NAME         Cherry Island

TYPE         crannog

REGION       Highlands - Loch Ness, just N of Fort Augustus

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Remains of a Celtic crannog have been found in

  this lake of legends.

 

 

NAME         Clava Cairns

TYPE         calendar / cairns / standing stones / cup marks

REGION       Highlands - E of Inverness near Culloden

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The calendar consists of 3 cairns which are

  aligned on a NE / SW axis.  The passages of the outer two

  cairns are on the same alignment and mark the sunset on the

  winter solstice.  Each cairn is enclosed by a circle of

  standing stones, and the center cairn has a number of stone

  spokes radiating from the center.  A number of stones on

  the site have cup marks.

 

 

NAME         Corrimony Cairn

TYPE         stone circle / cairn

REGION       Highlands - Cannich, SW of Inverness

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The 70 ft (21 m) diameter stone circle encloses

  a 45 ft (14 m) diameter cairn with a passage on a NE / SW

  aligment.  The roofstone of the tomb has many cup markings.

 

 

NAME         Dun Creich

TYPE         Iron Age vitrified promontory fort

REGION       Highlands - Dornoch Firth, SE of Bonar Bridge

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      After exploring the vitrified promontory fort

  one can visit cairns, standing stones and other ancient

  sites in the local area.

 

 

NAME         Dun Grugaig

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort / broch

REGION       Highlands - near Glenelg, past Glenelg brochs

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The small D-shaped fort is located on the edge

  of an outcrop and, like a broch, has chambers within its 14

  ft (4 m) thick wall.  There is also a cairn with a passage

  grave nearby at Balvraid.

 

 

NAME         Dun Telve / Dun Troddan

TYPE         Iron Age brochs

REGION       Highlands - by Dunelg

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The well-preserved walls of these two brochs

  contain several small rooms.

 

 

NAME         Dundornadilla (Dun Dornaigil)

TYPE         broch

REGION       Highlands - Strath More, near Ben Hope

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The broch wall is 14 ft (4 m) thick, 22 ft (7 m)

  high and contains a chamber.

 

 

NAME         Eagle Stone

TYPE         Pictish stone

REGION       Highlands - by Strathpeffer, W of Dingwall

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The pathway by Eaglestone House leads to the

  Pictish stone.  There is a marker describing some of the

  history connected with the stone and its placement.  The

  stone has been carefully embedded in concrete to avert the

  fulfillment of the Brahan Seer's prediction of doom.

 

 

NAME         Edderton Calendar

TYPE         calendar (sun / moon)

REGION       Highlands - NW of Tain near Edderton

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site is a solar/lunar observatory where a

  Pictish stone (Clachbiorach - pointed stone) lines up with

  hills on the distant horizon to indicate the 8 festival

  days of the sun calendar and the minor standstill of the

  moon which occurs every 19 years (one in 1996).  The dates

  for the quarters are roughly November 6th, February 4th,

  May 4th and August 7th.

 

 

NAME         Fingal's Steps (Ceumanan Fhinn)

TYPE         stone steps

REGION       Highlands - Caithness, N of Helmsdale

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Near the summit of Beinn Morven are steps

  accredited to Fionn mac Cumhaill.

 

 

NAME         Grey Cairns of Camster

TYPE         cairn (restored)

REGION       Highlands - Caithness, N of Lybster

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This restored site dates about BC 2500 and is

  well worth visiting.  The round cairn is 60 ft (18 m) in

  diameter and its 10 foot (3 m) chamber is divided into

  three sections.  The whole structure has impressive stone

  work.  The other rectangular cairn is 200 ft (60 m) long

  and 65 ft (20 m) wide.  It was constructed to cover two

  earlier round cairns.  Finds at the site include remains of

  both animals and humans as well as pottery and flint.

 

 

NAME         Hill o' Many Stanes

TYPE         sacred site

REGION       Highlands - Caithness, S of Wick near Ulbster

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There were 250 stones set in 22 non-parallel

  lines converging on a northernly point to form a fan.

 

 

NAME         Kilmorack Forts

TYPE         Iron Age fortress

REGION       Highlands - W of Inverness

REMARKS      Just outside the village of Kilmorack, there are

  ruins of two Celtic forts.

 

 

NAME         Kilphedir Broch

TYPE         Iron Age broch

REGION       Highlands - near Helmsdale, in Sutherland

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Numerous prehistoric sites are in the area.

 

 

NAME         Knockfarrel

TYPE         Iron Age vitrified hillfort

REGION       Highlands - near Strathpeffer, W of Dingwall

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Just west of Dingwall is a good example of a

  vitrified Iron Age fort.  The ridge that the fort sits on

  is called the Cat's Back, or Druim Chat.  There are

  numerous legends which link Fionn with the Picts and it is

  claimed that he and the Fianna used this fort.

 

 

NAME         Loch Eriboll

TYPE         fogou

REGION       Highlands - Sutherland district,  W of Tongue

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Just north of the Laid school on the west bank

  of the loch is an ancient fogou in excellent condition. The

  loch is also the site of a Brahan Seer prophecy that has

  come true.

 

 

NAME         Loch Ussie

TYPE         sacred lake

REGION       Highlands - near Dingwall

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The Brahan Seer threw his divining ring into

  this lake before his death.  He prophesied that it would be

  swallowed by a fish which will be caught by someone with 7

  toes on each foot and 7 fingers on each hand.

 

 

NAME         Rangag Broch

TYPE         broch

REGION       Highlands - Caithness, near Latheron

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The broch dates from BC 150 and at one time had

  walls that were 50 ft (15 m) high.

 

 

NAME         Rodney's Stone

TYPE         Pictish stone

REGION       Highlands - E of Nairn, outside Brodie

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The Pictish symbols are filled in with elegant

  Celtic patternwork.  There is also some ogham writing on

  the side of the stone.

 

 

NAME         Shandwick

TYPE         Pictish stone

REGION       Highlands - Shandwick, SE of Tain

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This stone, standing in a field, is quite worn

  but most of the intricate high-relief carving is still

  visible.

 

 

NAME         Strathpeffer Spa

TYPE         curative spring

REGION       Highlands - Strathpeffer, outside Dingwall

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The mineral springs contain sulphur and iron

  salts.

 

 

NAME         Wall of the Fians (Garadh na Feinne)

TYPE         wall

REGION       Highlands - Isle of Skye, near Kilmuir

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The construction of the unusual wall on an

  extremely steep incline is credited to the Fianna.

 

 

NAME         West and East Wemyss

TYPE         caves

REGION       Highlands - Fife, NE of Kirkcaldy

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The caves have been in use since the early

  Bronze Age and display a large collection of engravings.

 

 

NAME         Castlelaw

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Lothian - outside Edinburgh near Milton Bridge

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fortress has been restored and has a 65 ft

  (20 m) fogou leading to a corbelled roof chamber.  There

  are hut circles visible, and the defences consist of three

  ramparts and ditches.  Finds include a bronze buckle from

  AD 2nd century as well as iron, glass and pottery.

 

 

NAME         Cockleroy Hill (Cochull Ruadh "red-capped hill")

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Lothian - W of Edinburgh outside Linlithgow

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Remains of a Pictish fortress are visible on the

  hilltop.

 

 

NAME         Holyrood Park

TYPE         hillforts

REGION       Lothian - Edinburgh

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The park contains the remains of 3 hillforts and

  is thought to have been a stronghold of the Votadini tribe.

  Ard Thor (Height of Thor) or Arthur's Seat is a large rock

  outcrop in the middle of one of the forts.  In ancient

  times, Ard Thor was the site of the local Beltainn fires.

 

 

NAME         Traprain Law

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Lothian - E of Edinburgh past Haddington

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Traprain Law was the center for the Votadini

  tribe and was built in two stages.  The second stage was

  built in AD 3rd-5th century with a smaller but stronger

  defence.  The wall was 12 ft (3.5 m) in thickness.  Hut

  circles from the earlier fort are still visible between the

  wall and the outer rampart.  In 1919 a treasure hoard was

  found and is now displayed in the Royal Museum.

 

 

NAME         Gurness

TYPE         broch

REGION       Orkney - NE coast of Mainland Island

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The original broch on the Aikerness promontory

  had double rampart defences and at later dates the Picts

  and Norse both added on to include more chambers and

  outbuildings.  There is a small on-site museum.

 

 

NAME         Maes Howe

TYPE         calendar (sun) / cairn

REGION       Orkney - Mainland Island, W of Kirkwall

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      A large stone cairn was built around BC 2700

  with the extra function of marking the winter solstice by

  allowing the sun to shine 34 ft (10 m) into the chamber.

  There is a ghost which guards the site.

 

 

NAME         Midhowe

TYPE         cairn / broch (promontory fort)

REGION       Orkney - Rousay Island

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The cairn has 25 cells in a chamber 76 ft (23 m)

  long and 7 ft (2 m) wide.  Twenty-five human skeletons were

  found there.  The walls are constructed of stone in a

  herringbone design.

       The broch sits on a promontory with rampart defences.

  Its walls are still in good condition and one can see a

  dividing wall with hearths on each side flanked by

  cubicles.  One of the out-buildings has an industrial

  hearth for smelting metals, and some bronze jewellery was

  found on the site, as well as objects of bone and stone.

 

 

NAME         Ring of Brogar

TYPE         calendar / standing stones / cairns

REGION       Orkney - Mainland Island, W of Kirkwall

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The calendar was originally made up of 60

  standing stones set 6 degrees apart.  The circle was 370 ft

  (112 m) in diameter.  The calendar has a ditch cut from

  bedrock which measures 8 ft (2 m) deep and 27 ft (9 m)

  wide.  There were two causeways crossing the ditch on a NW

  / SE axis.  Bronze Age cairns can be seen nearby.

 

 

NAME         Skara Brae

TYPE         settlement

REGION       Orkney - western coast of Mainland Island

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The Neolithic settlement is 5000 years old and

  was buried under sand for a long time.  Everthing was built

  from stone including beds, cupboards, shelves, hearths.

  There is an on-site museum which displays some of the

  finds.

 

 

NAME         Benie Hoose / Yoxie

TYPE         standing stones

REGION       Shetland - Whalsay Island

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Local lore claims that the stones are the

  dwelling places of druids.

 

 

NAME         Clickhimin Broch

TYPE         Bronze/Iron Age settlement / Iron Age broch

REGION       Shetland - Mainland Island, by Lerwick

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This AD 1st century broch is situated on an

  island in a loch and must be reached by a causeway.  It has

  an outside diameter of 65 ft (20 m) with a 15 ft (5 m) wall

  enclosing a number of chambers.  The settlement started as

  a farmstead in BC 9th century, then was developed into a

  drystone-walled fort around BC 6th-5th century.

 

 

NAME         Jarlshof

TYPE         settlement (Bronze Age / Iron Age) / broch

REGION       Shetland - Mainland Island, outside of Sumburgh

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site dates from about BC 2000 and includes

  the remains of huts, an industrial area, livestock pens, a

  broch, a wheelhouse and other more modern buildings.

 

 

NAME         Mousa Broch

TYPE         broch / wheelhouse

REGION       Shetland - Mousa Island, boat from Mainland

             Island

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The broch is exceptionally well preserved with

  drystone walls 40 ft (12 m) high.  The wall tapers from 20

  ft (6 m) in thickness at the bottom to 7 ft (2 m) at the

  top.  The structure is roughly 50 ft (15 m) in diameter.

  The walls contain numerous chambers and a stairway.  The

  broch also has 3 large corbelled-roof chambers off the

  courtyard.  It was built 2000 years ago and is well worth

  the visit.

 

 

NAME         Stanydale

TYPE         settlements

REGION       Shetland - Mainland Island, Walls

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The settlement includes the remains of several

  stone houses, most with one large central area and a few

  small rooms.  The largest is over 36 ft (11 m) long and has

  walls 13 ft (4 m) thick.  One of the large roof posts was

  made of spruce, thought to be driftwood from North America.

  Within a few miles of this site are remains of similar

  settlements.

 

 

NAME         Bar Hill

TYPE         sacred well

REGION       Strathclyde - Dumbartonshire

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Sacrificed chariot wheels were found in the

  well.

 

 

NAME         Clac a Choire (Stone of Corrie)

TYPE         stone (engraved) / springs

REGION       Strathclyde - Tiree island, W of Mull

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Although the Stone of Corrie has numerous

  drawings on it, the most notable aspect is that it emits

  musical notes when struck properly.  There are also fresh

  water springs and ruins in the area.

 

 

NAME         Corryvrecken (Cauldron of Brecan)

TYPE         whirlpool

REGION       Strathclyde - between Jura and Scarba Islands

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This whirlpool is sometimes known as Morrigan's

  cauldron and sometimes as Brecan's.

 

 

NAME         Diarmaid's Cave (Uaimh Dhiarmaid)

TYPE         cave

REGION       Strathclyde - Tiree W of Mull

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This is a large cave at water level facing the

  Atlantic.

 

 

NAME         Dun Mor Vaul

TYPE         broch

REGION       Strathclyde - Tiree Island, NW of Vaul

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The broch is 30 ft (9 m) in diameter with a 15

  ft (5 m) thick wall.  The tower fort is enclosed by a large

  rampart and dates from BC 1st century.

 

 

NAME         Dunadd Fort

TYPE         Iron Age settlement

REGION       Strathclyde - S of Oban by Cairnbaan

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Dunadd was the center of the invading Dal Riada

  in AD 6th century.  A rock on the site has an engraving of

  a boar, ogham writing, a basin and a footprint.  This is

  believed to be a coronation stone for the chieftains.  The

  visible defences are of a later date.

 

 

NAME         Field of Heads

TYPE         battlefield / burial site

REGION       Strathclyde - near Ardfen Village, S of Oban

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This was the site of a fierce battle between the

  Celts and the Vikings.  There is now a walk which leads to

  the cairns where the dead heroes were buried.  According to

  legend, the nearby standing stone Leac an Duine Choir

  (Stone of the Just Man) speaks to those who have the

  ability to hear.

 

 

NAME         Fingal's Cauldron Seat

TYPE         stone circle

REGION       Strathclyde - Arran Island on  Machrie Moor

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site has a stone circle inside a stone oval.

  The outer oval has a stone with a hole in it and this is

  said to be where Fionn mac Cumhaill tied his dog Bran while

  he cooked his meal in the center circle.

 

 

NAME         Fingal's Cave (Uaimh Fhinn)

TYPE         cave

REGION       Strathclyde - Staffa Island

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Also called The Cave of Music (An Uamh Binn) the

  cave was used by Fionn mac Cumhaill and his Fianna.  The

  ebb and flow of the water and the wind creates haunting

  sounds from the mouth of the cave.  Staffa Island can be

  reached from Dervaig or Ulva.

 

 

NAME         Granny Kempock's Stone

TYPE         sacred stone

REGION       Strathclyde - Kempock's Point

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The cubical stone was thought to be a ritual

  stone of the druids.  Fishermen used it as an altar to make

  votive offerings to the sea goddess while circling it 7

  times.  Childless couples also made offerings and walk

  around it in a sunwise direction.  The church, being

  jealous of these pagan practices, has had it fenced off.

  The holy site overlooks the Firth.

 

 

NAME         Na Sgeulachan (Teller of Tales)

TYPE         calendar / standing stones

REGION       Strathclyde - Totronald, Coll Island off Mull

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There are two pillars which are believed to be

  the remains of a calendar.  There are numerous other

  remains on the island.

 

 

NAME         Nether Largie

TYPE         moon calendar / cairns / standing stones /

             cists

REGION       Strathclyde - between Kilmartin and Cairnbaan

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site contains cairns, standing stones,

  recontructed cists with cup markings and engravings of

  axes.  The cairns are in alignment and one has been

  reconstructed allowing a view of its chamber and burial

  compartments.  The standing stones align with distant

  landmarks to indicate the extreme settings of the moon.

  Finds on the site include a jet necklace and Bell Beaker

  pottery.

 

 

NAME         Oban Rare Breeds Animal Park

TYPE         park (animal)

REGION       Strathclyde - Oban

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This is a good place to see breeds of cattle,

  pigs, and goats that are similar to or the same as those of

  the Celts.

 

 

NAME         Tinto Hill - Teinteach (place of fire)

TYPE         sacred site

REGION       Strathclyde - SW of Edinburgh near Wiston

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The top of the hill is an ancient site where the

  local Beltainn fires were lit and ritual sacrifices held.

 

 

NAME         Tobermory

TYPE         sacred well

REGION       Strathclyde - Island of Mull, Tobermory

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The well is on the western outskirts of town by

  the remains of an old chapel.  The waters gave their name

  to the town.  (Tiobar is Gaelic for well.)

 

 

NAME         Abernethy

TYPE         Pictish stone / hillfort

REGION       Tayside - Abernethy, SE of Perth

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The Pictish stone is in the base of the round

  tower and the symbols are highly visible.

       The Castle Law hillfort outside of town has thick

  walls of timber and stone construction.  The view adds an

  extra reason for the visit.

 

 

NAME         Barry Hill

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Tayside - near Alyth

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The Scottish version of the Arthurian legend

  claims that Gwynhyvar was imprisoned in this Pictish

  fortress by Arthur.

 

 

NAME         Broughty Ferry

TYPE         fogou

REGION       Tayside - just E of Dundee

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The two sites of Ardestie and Carlungie both

  have stones with cup-and-ring markings incorporated into

  their fogous.  The stone roof slabs are missing, so the

  passages and chambers of the fogous are easy to see.

 

 

NAME         Caterthuns

TYPE         Iron Age hillforts

REGION       Tayside - NW of Brechin

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There are two hillforts with walls 40 ft (12 m)

  thick in some places.  The larger of the two, White

  Caterthun, is about 230 x 500 ft (70x150 m) and has a

  water reservoir.  Brown Caterthun is about 200 x 260 ft

  (60x80 m) in size and has five ramparts, each with several

  entrances.

 

 

NAME         Cossans Stone (St Orland's Stone)

TYPE         Pictish stone

REGION       Tayside - W of Forfar near Cossans

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The stone, situated in a field near the railway

  station, has an engraving of people in a boat.

 

 

NAME         Finavon

TYPE         vitrified hillfort

REGION       Tayside - Finavon, NE of Forfar

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The Iron Age hillfort was of rectangular shape

  with walls 20 ft (6 m) thick, interlaced with timber and

  filled with rocks.  The walls were 500 x 120 ft (153x36 m)

  and enclosed an area over an acre in size.

       Inside the fort there were two wells and evidence of

  hearths.  The flaw in this type of structure was realized

  when the enemy tunneled under the wall and set fire to the

  timber which blazed up, melting the stone fill.

 

 

NAME         Fortingall

TYPE         yew tree / standing stones

REGION       Tayside - Fortingall, SW of Pitlochry

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The yew tree in the churchyard is said to be

  3000 years old.  There are also 3 sets of standing stones

  in the area.

 

 

NAME         Glamis Stone

TYPE         Pictish stone

REGION       Tayside - Glamis, N of Dundee

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Glamis Stone is a 9 ft (3 m) standing stone with

  Pictish symbols engraved on the surface.  It is situated on

  church property across from the Angus Folk Museum.

 

 

NAME         Pitcur

TYPE         fogou

REGION       Tayside - Pitcur, NE of Perth near Coupar Angus

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This fogou is dilapidated but impressive because

  of its length of over 250 ft (75 m).  The stone roof is

  still in place for 50 ft (15 m).

 

 

NAME         Reekie Linn

TYPE         waterfall

REGION       Tayside - N of Alyth near Kirriemu

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      In order to reach the waterfall follow the trail

  from the bridge of Craigisla.   The waterfall is said to be

  the home of kelpies.

 

 

 

 

SLOVAKIA

 

 

NAME         Baraca

TYPE         settlement

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The Unetice site has been excavated, revealing 2

  ramparts surrounding a village with a well-laid-out plan.

 

 

NAME         Trencianske Teplice

TYPE         hot springs

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The springs have therapeutic value for people

  with injuries, rheumatism and respiratory ailments.

 

 

 

 

SPAIN

 

 

NAME         Cueva de los Letteras

TYPE         pictograph

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The pictograph shows drawings of Yule women

  similar to those found in Scandinavia and Peterborough,

  Canada.

 

 

NAME         Branas

TYPE         villages

REGION       Asturias - Cangas de Narcea W of Oviedo

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The nomadic shepherds (vaqueiros de Alzada)

  build Celtic-style settlements.

 

 

NAME         Castro de Arancedo

TYPE         Iron Age fortress

REGION       Asturias - near La Caridad

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      Arancedo is a very large hillfort with remains

  of hut circles and stone walls still visible.

 

 

NAME         Castro de Coana

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort / settlement

REGION       Asturias

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      Southwest of the town of Navia are well-

  preserved remains of a Celtic settlement with defensive

  walls, sentry walks, stone-paved walkways, a meeting hall

  and rooms.  Excavations for a new road dissected an ancient

  tunnel which is thought to be part of a track to Castro

  Mohias, several miles away on the coast.  The region was

  inhabited by the Astures tribe.

 

 

NAME         Castro de San Chuis

TYPE         Iron Age fortress

REGION       Asturias - Allande, W of Oviedo

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      There are still some remains of the settlement

  that can be explored.

 

 

NAME         Castro Mohias

TYPE         Iron Age fortress

REGION       Asturias -  W of Navia

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The remains of numerous dwellings have been

  uncovered and portions of a deep ditch have been excavated.

  During roadwork on the nearby highway an ancient tunnel was

  exposed which is believed to have connected this hillfort

  with Castro de Coana.

 

 

NAME         Muniellos Forest Reserve

TYPE         oak forest / wildlife reserve

REGION       Asturias - Cangas de Narcea

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This 20 sq mile (50 sq km) ancient oak forest is

  the largest remaining on the Iberian peninsula.  Also of

  interest is the population of wolves and bears.

 

 

NAME         Pena-Tu

TYPE         Bronze Age standing stone

REGION       Asturias - Vidiago

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The standing stone is 32 ft (10 m) high and has

  one side covered with Celtic symbols.

 

 

NAME         Vega de Urriello

TYPE         sacred spring

REGION       Asturias - in Picos de Europa

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This is the site of a sacred spring with a

  refuge hut nearby.

 

 

NAME         Avila

TYPE         stone sculptures

REGION       Castilla-y-Leon - in Avila

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      Various prehistoric stone sculptures of boars,

  bulls and bears are scattered around the town and the

  province of Avila.  Similar ones can be seen at Lumbrales

  (Salamanca province) and at Braganηa and Murca in Portugal.

 

 

NAME         Candeleda

TYPE         hillfort

REGION       Avila - SW of Arenas de San Pedro

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      Remains of the hillfort are still visible.

 

 

NAME         Cardenosa

TYPE         hillfort

REGION       Avila - N of Avila at Cardenosa

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The hillfort is situated near the Adaja river.

 

 

NAME         Chamartin

TYPE         hillfort

REGION       Avila - W of Avila at Chamartin

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      Remains of the hillfort are still visible.

 

 

NAME         Guisando Bulls

TYPE         stone sculpture

REGION       Castilla-y-Leon - Avila province

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      At El Tiemblo there are four stone bulls dating

  from BC 6th century stand side by side.

 

 

NAME         Ulaca

TYPE         hillfort

REGION       Avila - SW of Avila by Solosancho

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      Remains of the hillfort are still visible.

 

 

NAME         Castro de Merchenes

TYPE         hillfort

REGION       Castilla-y-Leon - Salamanca province

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      East of Lumbrales are traces of a settlement

  built into the contours of the land.  They can be seen by

  following the eastern Yeltes riverbank northwards from the

  Vitigudino-Lumbrales road.

 

 

NAME         Cerralbo Verraco

TYPE         stone sculpture

REGION       Castilla-y-Leon - Salamanca province

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      At Lumbrales, the little square in the village

  has a stone sculpture of a boar which is similar to many in

  the region such as those of Avila and Toro (Spain) and

  Braganηa (Portugal).

 

 

NAME         Fuentes Tamaricas

TYPE         spring

REGION       Castilla-y-Leon - Palencia, Velilla del Carriσn

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The spring was known in ancient times.  There is

  an impressive stone arch over the water.

 

 

NAME         Puerta de Anνbal

TYPE         sculpture / gateway

REGION       Castilla-y-Leon - in city of Salamanca

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The well-preserved gateway dating from BC 3rd

  century depicts Celtiberian scenes from the Punic wars.

 

 

NAME         Toro

TYPE         stone sculpture

REGION       Castilla-y-Leon - Zamora province

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The town of Toro sits on the banks of the Duero

  river and was in the territory of the Vacceo tribe.  The

  stone sculpture, similar to many in the region, probably

  dates from that time.  As in Murca (Portugal) some 100

  miles (160 km) to the west, this is another case of

  confused identity, as the sculpture is of a boar and the

  town's name refers to a bull.

 

 

NAME         Yecla la Vieja

TYPE         hillfort

REGION       Castilla-y-Leon - Salamanca province

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      Southwest of Vitigudino by the Yeltes river

  there is a very impressive hillfort currently being

  restored.  There are substantial remains of many circular

  huts and surrounding defensive walls.  Pictographs are

  visible on some of the walls.

 

 

NAME         A Coruna (Brigantium)

TYPE         Iron Age settlement

REGION       Galicia - at city of A Coruna (La Corunna)

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      Brigantium was the center of the Artabros tribe

  of which Breogan was a chieftain.  The site was originally

  an island but has since silted up and is now a peninsula.

  The locals still refer to it as Brigantinos.

 

 

NAME         Ancares de Leon National Park

TYPE         Celtic territory

REGION       Galicia / Castilla-y-Leon - near Ponferrada

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The whole area, which contains 27 villages and

  hamlets, is known for its ancient ways.  The typical

  pallozas, or large round stone huts with high thatched

  roofs and central hearths, are dwellings built in a style

  dating back to ancient Celtic times.  Good examples can be

  seen in the villages of Piornedo and Balouta.

       The chillones (screamer cart) constructed in a Bronze

  Age design is still used as one of the modes of

  transportation in the region.  Ancient stands of oak,

  chestnut, holly, birch and hazel trees and open land

  covered with cranberry bushes, heather and gorse give a

  glimpse of a typical environment of the Celts.

 

 

NAME         As Burgas

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Galicia - in the city of Ourense

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The water at these 3 springs steam with

  temperatures around 150Ί F (65Ί C).  They are used not only

  for medicinal drinking but also for cooking, baths and

  central heating.  They have run continuously since ancient

  times and provided a good reason for the constant

  occupation of the site.

 

 

NAME         Breogan's Tower

TYPE         lighthouse

REGION       Galicia - at La Coruna (Brigantium)

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The lighthouse sits on the site of an ancient

  tower built by the Celtic Artabros tribe.  Ith, the son of

  Breogan, sited Ireland from this tower, leading to the

  conquest of Ireland by the children of Golamh.  The Romans

  rebuilt the tower, which is the oldest working lighthouse

  still standing.

 

 

NAME         Cabo Fisterra  (End of the Earth)

TYPE         sanctuary

REGION       Galicia - W of Santiago de Compostela

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This site was the end of the long pilgrimage

  routes which date back to Neolithic times.  The Celts

  coming from different parts of Europe used these routes to

  reach the end of the world.  These routes were in heavy use

  during the peak of Christian times but then ended at

  Santiago de Compostela, the final resting-place of the

  Celtic druid Prisciliano.

 

 

NAME         Caldas de Reis

TYPE         spa

REGION       Galicia - Pontevedra province

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The spa is situated in an attractive town with

  sandy beaches on the river Umia and a park protecting over

  100 species of trees.  It is said that the person who

  drinks from the sacred spring (Roman fountain) will be

  married within the year.

 

 

NAME         Castro Barona

TYPE         Iron Age fortress

REGION       Galicia - A Coruna province SW of Noia

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This impressive fortress was built on an island

  of rocks but is now accessible from the beach on a point

  jutting out into the sea.  The partially restored fort has

  hut circles, walls, stairways and the remains of a roadway

  on the mainland.

 

 

NAME         Castro de Mao

TYPE         hillfort

REGION       Galicia - Ourense province near Ramirans

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The site boasts well-preserved circle huts and

  magnificent views.

 

 

NAME         Castro do Chan

TYPE         Iron Age fort

REGION       Galicia - N coast of Lugo province, near Burela

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      Some gold jewellery which was discovered at this

  site is now on display in the Lugo Museum.

 

 

NAME         Castro Maior

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Galicia - outside Castromaior

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The remains of the hillfort are still visible.

 

 

NAME         Cuntis

TYPE         spa / hot springs

REGION       Galicia - NE of Pontevedra at Cuntis

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The very hot waters (over 140Ί F or 60Ί C),

  known since Celtic times, are recommended in the treatment

  of rheumatism.

 

 

NAME         Eira d'os Mooros

TYPE         pictograph

REGION       Galicia

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      There is a celestial map engraved in stone.

 

 

NAME         Fazouro

TYPE         Iron Age settlement

REGION       Galicia - Lugo province, near Foz

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The Celtic village near the sea is relatively

  intact.

 

 

NAME         Monte Alto

TYPE         pictograph

REGION       Galicia - the city of La Coruna

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      Near the site of Breogan's tower is a pictograph

  in the rock of the powder magazine of Monte Alto.  It is a

  schematic drawing of figures in circles and a man on a

  horse.  It has been suggested that this is a record of the

  expeditions of Ith or the sons of Golamh.

 

 

NAME         Monte Santa Tecla

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Galicia - Pontevedra province at A Guarda

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This is an impressive Celtic settlement.  There

  are over 100 hut circles, drywalls, streets, cisterns,

  reconstructed huts and an interesting stone roadway (with

  drainage culverts) leading down to the new town.  Finds

  from the site are contained in a small museum at the top of

  the hill.

 

 

NAME         Noia Dolmen

TYPE         passage grave

REGION       Galicia - SW of Santiago

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      On a hill outside the town of Noia there is a

  passage to the chamber that is being destroyed by workmen

  building a modern "high-rise" cemetery next to the site.

  Hopefully the dolmen will survive.

 

 

NAME         Pedrafita do Cebreiro

TYPE         village

REGION       Galicia - eastern border of Lugo province

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      In the village, there is a group of pallozas

  (Celtic-style stone dwellings).  One of them is now a

  pilgrim's hostel and another is an ethnographic museum.

 

 

NAME         Ribeira

TYPE         hillfort

REGION       Galicia - A Coruna province at Ribeira

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      Behind the lookout at Ribeira are faint traces

  of a Celtic settlement.  The fantastic view makes the trip

  worth while.

 

 

NAME         Vigo

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort / sunken treasure

REGION       Galicia - Pontevedra province at Vigo

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      This was a Celtic center and is supposed to have

  sunken treasure.  Ruins of a Celtic hillfort are being

  excavated on the harbor side of the "Parque del Castro"

  below the walls of the Castillo de San Sebastian.

 

 

NAME         Numancia (Numantia)

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Soria - N of the town of Soria

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The Celtic inhabitants of this hillfort near the

  headwaters of the Duero River held out against a Roman

  siege for 20 years.  Finally, rather than allow themselves

  to be subjected to Roman rule they committed mass suicide

  in the year BC 133.  The Romans destroyed the fort and then

  rebuilt a Roman site.  Excavation is continuing and the

  museum in Soria conveys the information and displays

  artifacts that have been uncovered.

 

 

NAME         Lake Sanabria Nature Park

TYPE         nature park

REGION       Zamora

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The highland park covers an area of over 12,000

  acres (5000 ha) and gives a good example of what would be

  considered an ideal environment by the ancient Celts.  The

  area is protected by 3 mountain ranges and has over 40

  lagoons of clear fresh water, as well as the impressive

  waterfalls of the river Tera near its headwaters.

       There is an abundance of trees considered sacred to

  the Celts, including oak, chestnut, holly, yew, alder, ash

  and birch.  The nearby Reserve of the Sierra de la Culebra

  (160,000 acres or 66,000 ha) can help in recreating the

  image of ancient times with its population of wolves, wild

  boar, stags, roe deer, hares, quails and partridge.

 

 

NAME         San Pedro de la Nave

TYPE         Celtic carvings

REGION       Zamora -  miles (20 km) W of Zamora

MAP REF      1 – D+

REMARKS      The village, on the pilgrimage trail to Cabo

  Fisterra, has an AD 7th century church decorated with a

  mixture of carvings including spirals, birds and animals

  which show a Celtic influence.

 

 

 

 

SWITZERLAND

 

 

NAME         Hohensiedlung Burg

TYPE         hillfort (Bronze Age / Urnfield)

REMARKS      Finds at this hillfort included an antler cheek-

  piece with a carved horsehead on the end.

 

 

NAME         Baden

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Aargau - on the Rhine

REMARKS      The nineteen sulphur springs are recommended for

  the treatment of rheumatism, gout, and lung ailments.  The

  water contains sodium, calcium chloride and sulphate.

 

 

NAME         Rheinfelden

TYPE         curative springs

REGION       Aargau - on the Rhine

REMARKS      The water from two springs have a high

  concentration of salt and are recommended for the treatment

  of rheumatism, gynaecological troubles, heart, circulation

  and metabolism.

 

 

NAME         Zurzach

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Aargau - on the Rhine

REMARKS      The waters, which have sodium sulphate,

  chloride, hydrogen carbonate, are recommended for the

  treatment of rheumatism, heart, circulation and metabolism.

 

 

NAME         Beatusholen

TYPE         caves

REGION       Berne - west of Interlaken

REMARKS      A visit to the caves allows a view of an

  underground river.

 

 

NAME         Bad / Bogn

TYPE         curative spring

REGION       Grisons - on the Rhine

REMARKS      The alkaline springs contain iron.

 

 

NAME         Bad Scuol

TYPE         curative springs

REGION       Grisons

REMARKS      The water has a heavy concentration of carbonic

  acid and is recommended for treating disorders of the

  liver, stomach, bile ducts, intestine, gallbladder and

  urinary tract.

 

 

NAME         Bad Tarasp

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Grisons - just SW of Scuol

REMARKS      This hot spring is high in iron and sodium

  sulphate and is recommended for disorders of the liver,

  stomach, bile ducts, intestine, gall bladder and urinary

  tract.

 

 

NAME         Bad Val Sinestra

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Grisons - Val Sinestra

REMARKS      These iron-rich hot springs are in a beautiful

  setting.

 

 

NAME         Bad Vals

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Grisons - near Surcasti

REMARKS      The water is recommended for rheumatism and

  improving metabolism and circulation because it contains

  hydrogen and calcium sulphate.

 

 

NAME         Cuoira / Coire / Cuera / Chur

TYPE         settlement

REGION       Grisons

REMARKS      This is the site of an ancient Celtic settlement

  on the Plessur River close to its confluence with the

  Rhine.  The name derives from the Celtic word Kora or Koria

  (tribe or clan).  The area is a fertile valley with a mild

  winter and contains some of the major mountain passes.  The

  site has been occupied since BC 3000.

 

 

NAME         Rothenbrunnen

TYPE         curative spring

REGION       Grisons - on the Rhine

REMARKS      The waters contain iron and iodine, and are

  bottled for distribution.

 

 

NAME         San Bernardino Pass

TYPE         pass

REGION       Grisons

REMARKS      This pass with an altitude of about 6700 feet

  (2000 m) was well-known to the Celts.

 

 

NAME         St Moritz Bad

TYPE         curative springs

REGION       Grisons - on St Moritzer See

REMARKS      The springs contain iron and a considerable

  amount of carbonic acid, and are recommended in the

  treatment of rheumatism, gynaecological troubles and

  metabolism.

 

 

NAME         Tenigerbad / Bagn Sumvitg

TYPE         curative spring

REGION       Grisons - on the Rhine

REMARKS      The waters are recommended for the treatment of

  rheumatism, metabolism, and respiratory ailments.

 

 

NAME         Neuenburg Lake

TYPE         Iron Age settlement

REGION       Neuchβtel (Neuenburg)

REMARKS      The site excavated in 1858 produced evidence of

  another culture and was given the name La Tθne, a culture

  born in the area around the middle Rhine (Germany and

  northeast France).  The La Tθne period began around BC 6th

  century and lasted until the coming of the Romans.

 

 

NAME         Kristallhohle

TYPE         cave

REGION       St Gallen - near Oberriet

REMARKS      The cave has an underground lake and limestone

  crystals.

 

 

NAME         Bodensee (Lake Constance)

TYPE         Bronze Age / Iron Age settlement

REGION       Thurgau - St Gallen

REMARKS      The level of this lake fluctuates and when it is

  low in late February it is possible to see the remains of

  piles that were used to support dwellings.  Some of the hut

  groups dated from BC 3000 and others from around BC 800.

  The Celtic Brigantes tribe moved into the area around BC

  13th century, inheriting the territory deserted earlier by

  the Ligurians.  The huts were round or oblong in shape and

  were built on platforms above the lake on piles with clay

  floors, thatched roofs, and stone hearths.

       The Wangen site has approximately 50,000 piles.  The

  lake dwellers lived quite well off fish, fowl, domesticated

  animals, cereal crops and apples.  Romans invaded this

  Celtic area in BC 1st century.

 

 

NAME         Brig

TYPE         pass

REGION       Valais

REMARKS      This town was an important junction point to

  those travelling over the mountains of the area.  It sits

  on the Rhone, and three passes are accessible from it: the

  Simplon, the Furka, and the Nufenen.

 

 

NAME         Great St Bernard Pass

TYPE         pass

REGION       Valais

REMARKS      At over 8000 ft (2400 m), this is the second

  highest pass in the Swiss Alps and was well-known to the

  Celts.

 

 

NAME         Grotte de St-Leonard

TYPE         cave

REGION       Valais - near Sion at St Leonard

REMARKS      There is a lake in the cave.

 

 

NAME         Leukerbad / Loeche-les-Bains

TYPE         pass / hot springs

REGION       Valais

REMARKS      This site was important in mountain travel,

  being on the Rhτne River, close to the Gemmi pass, and

  having 20 hot springs.  The hot springs contain sulphur and

  lime and are recommended for the treatment of rheumatism,

  gout, and paralysis.

 

 

NAME         Pierre des Sauvages

TYPE         standing stone (pictograph)

REGION       Valais - near Vissoie in the Val d'Anniveirs

REMARKS      On the mountain above the village of St-Luc

  there is a standing stone with engraved symbols.

 

 

NAME         Theodul Pass

TYPE         pass

REGION       Valais

REMARKS      Although this pass has a high altitude (over

  10,800 ft or 3300 m) it provided a good passageway for the

  Celts, as the surrounding glaciers had not moved so far

  down the mountainsides in those days.

 

 

NAME         Yverdon

TYPE         sacred spring

REGION       Vaud

REMARKS      The sulphur spring is found in the Centre

  Thermal.

 

 

 

 

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

 

 

NAME         Gungywamp Megalithic Chambers

TYPE         subterranean chamber

REGION       Connecticut - Groton

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The chamber takes advantage of the natural shape

  of the earth.

 

 

NAME         Megalithic Chamber

TYPE         calendar / burial chamber

REGION       Connecticut - Danbury

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      One of the lintel stones has an engraving of the

  ancient symbol for the equinox.  A circle is divided in

  half with one half etched out to represent the dark half of

  the year and the other representing the light half.  The

  entrance faces east and has a grove where the sun shines

  during the equinoxes.

 

 

NAME         Searsmont Site

TYPE         burial site

REGION       Maine

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      A stone carving in the Celtic style depicts a

  European and may be that of a druid.  The head is now on

  display at the Sturbridge Museum in Massachusetts.

 

 

NAME         Cannon Stone

TYPE         dolmen

REGION       Massachusetts - Lynn

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The capstone of this dolmen weighs about 40

  tons.

 

 

NAME         Concord Megalith

TYPE         subterranean chamber

REGION       Massachusetts - Concord

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The construction of the chamber makes use of

  natural shape of the earth.

 

 

NAME         Gay Head Dolmen

TYPE         dolmen

REGION       Massachusetts -  Martha's Vineyard

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The dolmen has an eroded ogham inscription.

 

 

NAME         Upton Chamber

TYPE         megalithic chamber

REGION       Massachusetts

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      A corbelled roof was built into the upper

  chamber.

 

 

NAME         Westport

TYPE         dolmen

REGION       Massachusetts - Westport

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      A small but well-preserved dolmen.

 

 

NAME         Lake Lujenda

TYPE         dolmen

REGION       Minnesota - Lake Lujenda

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      A massive egg-shaped rock was used as a capstone

  for this dolmen.

 

 

NAME         Cane Springs

TYPE         pictographs

REGION       Nevada - Clark County

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site contains pictographs of weaving tools

  along with Gaelic words.

 

 

NAME         Cane Springs site CL-4

TYPE         pictographs

REGION       Nevada - Clark County

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      At this University of California site there is a

  pictograph which show figures playing a game with a ball,

  sticks and a score-board.

 

 

NAME         East Walker River site Ly-1

TYPE         Pictographs

REGION       Nevada

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      At the University of California site there are

  two pictographs which have been deciphered as figures

  occupied in the sport of Hurling the Caber.

 

 

NAME         Keyhole Caynon

TYPE         pictographs

REGION       Nevada

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      A pictograph which uses the image of a bighorn

  sheep to spell the name of a Celtic goddess.

 

 

NAME         Lost City

TYPE         pictographs

REGION       Nevada (southern)

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There are numerous pictographs that refer to

  weaving and the spinning of wool intermixed with Gaelic

  words and symbols.

 

 

NAME         Stillwater Range Dancers

TYPE         pictographs

REGION       Nevada

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site has two boulders with a dancer on each.

  The dancer on one boulder is carring deer antlers above his

  head.  The dancer on the other boulder has more female

  attributes.

 

 

NAME         Valley of Fire

TYPE         pictographs

REGION       Nevada

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There are pictographs of weaving equipment and

  Gaelic words.

 

 

NAME         White Pine County Wh-13

TYPE         Pictograph

REGION       Nevada (eastern)

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The site has a pictograph of a lyre and Ogham

  writing spelling Mabon.

 

 

NAME         Amoskeag site

TYPE         funerary urn

REGION       New Hampshire - Amoskeag

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Bell shaped funerary urns similar to those used

  by the Urnfield culture of Portugal were excavated.

 

 

NAME         Bartlett

TYPE         dolmen

REGION       New Hampshire - Bartlett

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This dolmen suggests a link with the megalith

  builders of Europe.

 

 

NAME         Jefferson Men-an-tol

TYPE         stone (fertility)

REGION       New Hampshire

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The holey stone is similar to the one near

  Penzance in Cornwall, England but this one has no male

  phallus stones to accompany it.

 

 

NAME         Mystery Hill

TYPE         calendar / standing stones / burial chamber

REGION       New Hampshire - North Salem

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The stone circle had 5 markers and a central

  point in the circle.  One stone marks the meridian line and

  the other four mark the equinoxes and the solstices.  Also

  on the site is a megalithic chamber with massive orthostats

  at its entrance and interior walls built of drystone.

 

 

NAME         El Morro National Monument

TYPE         ogham inscriptions

REGION       New Mexico - Grants, state highway 53

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      A half-mile (0.8 km) from the entrance there are

  rock faces with ogham inscriptions.

 

 

NAME         North Salem

TYPE         dolmen

REGION       New York - North Salem

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The dolmen has a 90 ton capstone and so far is

  the largest dolmen found in North America.

 

 

NAME         Owasco Burial Site

TYPE         funerary urns

REGION       New York

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The funerary urns are of the style used by the

  Urnfield culture of Spain in BC 800.

 

 

NAME         Holliston Mills

TYPE         burial site

REGION       Tennessee (eastern)

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Skeletons from the grave conformed to the head

  shape of Europeans and were dated by the Carbon-14 method

  with C-13 correction to about BC 3rd century.

 

 

NAME         Snapp's Bridge

TYPE         burial site

REGION       Tennessee (eastern)

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Artifacts have been found at the site with ogham

  inscriptions using Celtic and Basque words.  The site has

  been tentatively dated to BC 1st millennium according to a

  study of its phraseology.

 

 

NAME         Vermont Halberd Dolmen

TYPE         dolmen

REGION       Vermont

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The dolmen has a halberd and a rapier carved

  into one of the stones.

 

 

NAME         White River

TYPE         subterranean chamber

REGION       Vermont - White River

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The construction and use of subterranean

  chambers was common in Celtic areas.

 

 

NAME         Woodstock Megalith

TYPE         chamber / pictograph / Ogham

REGION       Vermont - South Woodstock

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The chamber was built above-ground in a

  rectangular format with massive lintels and was covered

  with earth to form a mound or hill.

 

 

NAME         Grave Creek Tumulus

TYPE         tumulus

REGION       West Virginia - Moundsville

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The mound contains two graves each 12 x 7 ft

  (3.5x2 m), at different depths.  The bottom one was on a

  north/south axis and contained two skeletons, and the other

  was on an east/west axis and contained one skeleton and a

  stone tablet inscribed in Iberian script.  Two more tablets

  have been found in the area.

 

 

 

 

WALES

 

 

NAME         Arthur's Quoit (Arthur's Table)

TYPE         dolmen / fortress

REGION       Anglesey - near Benlech, north of Menai Bridge

REMARKS      The dolmen is situated within the walls of a

  Celtic fortress and is thought to be Arthur's round table.

 

 

NAME         Barclodiad y Gawres

TYPE         Neolithic passage grave

REGION       Anglesey - near Rhosneigr

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The restored grave has a corbelled dome and side

  compartments off the main chamber.  Abstract patterns

  engraved on some of the stones suggest links with Ireland,

  where such symbols are more common.  Finds from the grave

  include a long pin made from bone.

 

 

NAME         Bryn Celli Ddu

TYPE         cairn

REGION       Anglesey - by Llanddaniel Fab

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The partially reconstructed tomb is an

  impressive example of its type.  The 27 ft (8 m) passage is

  aligned NE/SW and leads to a small chamber which contains a

  carved standing stone.  Another carved stone was found

  outside the tomb covering a pit.  The surrounding ditch

  dates from an earlier (late Neolithic) period when a henge

  existed on the site.  A human ear-bone was found in the

  center of a pile of ashes.

 

 

NAME         Caer-y-Twr

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Anglesey - west of Holyhead

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This 17 acre (7 ha) fort sits on the highest

  point of Anglesey, perched on the northwest corner of the

  island overlooking the Irish Sea.  The natural defences of

  the craggy mountaintop were supplemented by massive

  drystone walls, allowing only one entrance at the northeast

  corner.  The fort is said to have been built by

  Cassubellaunos.

 

 

NAME         Din Lligwy

TYPE         Iron Age fortress

REGION       Anglesey - near Llanalgo

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fortress is in good condition with remains

  of circle huts and a double-sided rubble-filled wall.  The

  ruins of rectangular huts date from later Roman occupation.

 

 

NAME         Ffynnon Eilian

TYPE         well (cursing)

REGION       Anglesey - west of Porth yr Ychain

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The curse is activated by sticking a pin into a

  piece of wood and throwing it into the well.  The curse

  will remain in effect as long as the wood and pin remain

  afloat.

 

 

NAME         Gorsedd Gwywm

TYPE         cairn / fogou

REGION       Anglesey - Holy Island, near Trefignath farm

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fogou and the cairn are on private property,

  so ask first before setting out to explore.

 

 

NAME         Llyn Cerrig Bach

TYPE         sacrificial lake

REGION       Anglesey - near Llanfair-yn-neubwll across from

             Holy Island

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Many finds dating from BC 2nd-AD 1st century

  were discovered at this site, including weapons, iron slave

  chains, horse and chariot trappings, cauldrons, a war

  trumpet fragment and spears with handles of ash.  The

  sacrifices were "killed" by bending or breaking, then

  thrown from the cliff.  At the time of the deposit, the

  water level of the lake was deeper.  Today the site is more

  of a swamp marked by a plaque and the artifacts can be

  viewed at the National Museum of Wales in Cardiff.

 

 

NAME         Mon (Mona)

TYPE         sacred island

REGION       Anglesey

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Mon (mountain) was the heart of the greatest

  religious center of the Celtic druids.  In AD 61 the Romans

  invaded the sacred island and slaughtered men, women and

  children in an attempt to destroy the morale of the Celtic

  people.

 

 

NAME         St Seriol's Well

TYPE         sacred well

REGION       Anglesey - Penmon, east of Menai Bridge

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The holy well is enclosed in a well-house next

  to an old monastic cell.

 

 

NAME         Ty Mawr

TYPE         Bronze Age / Iron Age settlement

REGION       Anglesey - west of Holyhead

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The settlement is below the Caer-y-Twr hillfort

  and has been occupied since the early Bronze Age.  This was

  the center of for the Celtic druids until they were

  slaughtered by the Roman invaders.  The settlement has

  clusters of hut circles, some still with their stone

  benches, basin and traces of fogous.

 

 

NAME         Arthur's Table

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort / stone

REGION       Clwyd - Carn Fadryn, west of Pwllheli

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Some people believe that Arthur's Table is

  connected with the coronation stone in Westminster Abbey.

 

 

NAME         Bryn Euryn

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Clwyd - south of Llys Euryn, Colwyn Bay

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There are only traces of the old fortress left.

 

 

NAME         Caer Drewyn

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Clwyd - near Corwen

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      On the top of the bald hill are the remains of a

  large circular fort with a diameter of 0.5 mi (800 m).  The

  12 ft (4 m) thick walls enclose remains of hut circles.

 

 

NAME         Cefn Caves

TYPE         caves

REGION       Clwyd - SW of St Asaph

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Bones of extinct animals have been found in

  these caves.  The path to the caves leads from the Elwy

  River and on a hot day it might be advisable to get a drink

  from Ffynnon Fair before starting the climb.

 

 

NAME         Ffynnon Beuno

TYPE         well

REGION       Clwyd -  SE of St Asaph at Tremeirchion

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The very ancient well is at the south end of the

  village of Tremeirchion.

 

 

NAME         Ffynnon Fair

TYPE         well

REGION       Clwyd - west of St Asaph

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The well is located below the caves of Cefn in a

  field beside the Elwy River.  It is favored by lovers of

  all ages.

 

 

NAME         Ffynnon Gwenfrewi (St Winifred's Well)

TYPE         sacred well

REGION       Clwyd - Holywell, north west of Chester

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The spring is now covered by a chapel and mining

  has nearly destroyed the water pressure, but the goddess is

  still alive.  The waters known for their curative

  properties remain at a constant 50Ί F (10Ί C).

 

 

NAME         Foel Fenlli

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort / spring

REGION       Clwyd - near Ruthin

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The double-rampart hillfort contains several hut

  circles as well as a spring.

 

 

NAME         Fort Dinorben

TYPE         promontory fort

REGION       Clwyd - SE of Abergele, near St George

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fortress is located in a wooded area above

  the village and has been excavated.  The roadways leading

  into the fortress were metal-covered.  Excavations have

  shown that the Celts of this area used a single-piece steel

  wheel rim which was heated, placed over the wooden wheel,

  then cooled by water to give it a tight fit.

       Other interesting artifacts include a segment of a

  lyre, bronze and iron fittings, spindle whorls and red deer

  antler tools.

 

 

NAME         Maen Achwynfan

TYPE         wheel cross

REGION       Clwyd - near Whitford, NW of Holywell

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This pre-Christian wheel cross is in a field

  near Whitford.

 

 

NAME         Pen-y-Pigin / Glyndwr's Seat

TYPE         cairn / standing stone

REGION       Clwyd - the Berwyn mountains SE of Corwen

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The cairn with standing stone is on the summit

  of the mountain.

 

 

NAME         Pool Park Hospital

TYPE         standing stone / Ogham

REGION       Clwyd - near Ruthin

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The standing stone has ogham and Latin

  inscriptions.

 

 

NAME         Bedd Taliesin

TYPE         burial site

REGION       Dyfed - east of Aberystwyth near Pensarn chapel

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Taliesin's grave is a stone trough marked with a

  standing stone.

 

 

NAME         Brawdy

TYPE         standing stones / holy wells / ogham stones /

             settlement

REGION       Dyfed - NW of Haverford West near Solva

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      An airbase sits next to standing stones, ogham

  stones, holy wells and the remains of an Iron Age

  farmstead.  Look for the lane to Brawdy Church.

 

 

NAME         Broad Haven / Little Haven

TYPE         standing stones / Iron Age fortress / forest

REGION       Dyfed - Broad Haven, west of Haverford West

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The area is rich in prehistoric remains,

  including standing stones, a fort situated on an eroding

  promontory at Broad Haven, 2 forts on either side of the

  river at Little Haven, and an ancient stand of oak and

  hazel trees at Borough Head which is typical of the Iron

  Age forests.

 

 

NAME         Cantrer Gwaelod

TYPE         drowned forest

REGION       Dyfed

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      At low tides especially after a southwesterly

  gale, remains of an ancient oak forest become visible as

  stumps or debris covered in bluish clay.  The flood which

  caused the sinking of the forest is dated to BC 5500.

       The best places to see the remains are: St Brides Bay,

  at Newgale; Abermawr, SW of Fishguard near Abercastle;

  Whitesands Bay, at St Davids Head; Carmarthen Bay, at

  Amroth NE of Tenby; and at Newport.

 

 

NAME         Carn Alw

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Dyfed - Glynmaer

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      In the Preseli hills near Mirianog Fawr is a

  well-defended small fort with dragon's teeth at the

  entrance-ways, guard chambers, a labyrinthine entranceway

  and the remains of 6 circle huts.  Celtic field systems are

  visible nearby.

 

 

NAME         Carn Fawr (Great Cairn)

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort / spring

REGION       Dyfed - west of Fishguard near Trefasser

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Carn Fawr is a four-rampart fort situated high

  on a hill with sea views extending to Ireland.  Usgubor

  Gaer is a small enclosure nearby which may have been used

  to protect cattle.  Downhill from the fort is a spring.

 

 

NAME         Carn Ingli

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Dyfed - south of Newport

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The well-defended hillfort sits on an impressive

  site with its own spring.  Ramparts, stone walls, dragon's

  teeth and hut circles are still visible.  Nearby are some

  Celtic fields, dating from BC 300, also protected with

  stone walls.  The easiest approach to the site leads past a

  Bronze Age settlement (Carn Edward) and cairn (Carn Briw).

 

 

NAME         Carreg Sampson (Long House Cromlech)

TYPE         dolmen

REGION       Dyfed - SW of Fishguard, near Abercastle

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The impressive dolmen dates from around BC 3000.

 

 

NAME         Castell Coch

TYPE         Iron Age promontory forts

REGION       Dyfed - near Abercastle, SW of Fishguard

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There are two dramatic promontory forts on the

  coast near Abercastle.  The western one is near the dolmen

  Carreg Sampson.  The nearby village of Trevine used to be

  renowned for its holy wells.

 

 

NAME         Castell Heinif

TYPE         Iron Age promontory fort  / well

REGION       Dyfed - St Justinian, west of St David's

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The promontory fort is close to a spring, now

  next to the Saint's Chapel.  The waters of the holy well

  were once renowned for the treatment of epilepsy.

 

 

NAME         Castell Henllys

TYPE         hillfort (reconstruction)

REGION       Dyfed - SW of Cardigan, near Eglwyswrw

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The hillfort contains reconstructions of

  circular wooden houses with thatched roofs.  The fort is

  protected by double ramparts and by natural cliffs.

 

 

NAME         Clegyr Boia

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort / settlement (Neolithic)

REGION       Dyfed - outside St David's

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fort is constructed on the site of an

  extinct volcano whose steep sides combine with the single

  rampart and a tunnel entrance to provide a strong defense.

  Excavations have revealed that the site was previously

  occupied by Neolithic cattle herders, whose dwellings have

  been dated to BC 3800.

 

 

NAME         Elegug

TYPE         Iron Age promontory forts

REGION       Dyfed - SW of Pembroke at the coast

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Reaching the forts involves crossing the

  property of a rifle range.  If rifle practice is not on,

  both forts can be visited for their views and still-visible

  ramparts.

 

 

NAME         Foel Drygarn (Bald Hill with Three Cairns)

TYPE         hillfort

REGION       Dyfed - Preseli Hills, near Croesfihangel

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The large hillfort is oval-shaped with double

  ramparts, faint traces of over 200 hut circles, and 3

  Bronze Age cairns on the summit.  The nearby quarry of Carn

  Meini was the source of the bluestones used in Stonehenge

  (England) and the Carn Alw fortress is only a mile from

  Foel Drygarn.

 

 

NAME         Gaer Fawr

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Dyfed - Carn Goch south of Llangadog

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The 25 acre (10 ha) hillfort has a massive stone

  wall with flagstones lining the five entrances.  Traces of

  a hut circle lie outside the rampart.

 

 

NAME         Llanllawer

TYPE         cursing/blessing well / stone circle / ley line

REGION       Dyfed - SE of Fishguard

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The well-house is built in the form of a pyramid

  and is beside a ley line that runs through a stone circle.

 

 

NAME         Mathry

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort / ogham stone

REGION       Dyfed - SW of Fishguard

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There are still remnants of the hillfort, and at

  the nearby churchyard there is a standing stone with an

  ogham inscription.

 

 

NAME         Nevern churchyard

TYPE         sacred spring / standing stones / Sheila na Gig

             / yew tree

REGION       Dyfed - Nevern at the church

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There are two ogham stones on the site: one

  standing, the other built into the sill of the Christian

  church.  The site also has a sculpture of a Sheila na Gig

  and the Great Cross.

       In the yard is a sacred yew tree which according to

  local lore will continue bleeding until a Celt is crowned

  Prince of Wales.  The church was built on a site held

  sacred by the local tribe who venerated the goddess at the

  spring.

 

 

NAME         Nine Wells / St Nons

TYPE         sacred wells

REGION       Dyfed - east of St Davids

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Traditionally, the sick were taken first to 9

  Wells and then to St Nons for their cure.  The locals still

  visit the well at St Nons for its healing powers.  Standing

  stones and dolmens are also in the vicinity.

 

 

NAME         Parc y Meirw

TYPE         calendar / standing stones

REGION       Dyfed - east of Fishguard

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The stones are arranged in a sight line which

  pinpoints a mountain across the channel in Ireland.  It is

  said that whenever the moon appears to slide down the right

  slope of the mountain, the observer can accurately predict

  a solar or lunar eclipse for the following day.

 

 

NAME         Penpleiddiau

TYPE         promontory fort

REGION       Dyfed - near St Davids

REMARKS      This promontory fort has 4 ramparts and an

  impressive location.

 

 

NAME         Pentre Ifan Cromlech

TYPE         dolmen

REGION       Dyfed - SE of Newport

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The dolmen is very impressive and has a capstone

  of 16 x 8 x 2.5 ft (5x2.5x1 m) sitting on three 8 ft (2.5 m)

  upright stones creating a large chamber.

 

 

NAME         Solva

TYPE         fortress

REGION       Dyfed - NW of Haverford West

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The strategic port on St Brides Bay was guarded

  by 5 forts: 2 at Gribin with stone ramparts, and the others

  along the coast at Dinas Fach, Dinas Fawr and Llanunwas.

       The area also has holy wells (such as St Teilo's) and

  Neolithic remains (St Elvis) which were partly destroyed by

  Christians.

 

 

NAME         St Davids Head

TYPE         Iron Age promontory fort

REGION       Dyfed - NW of St David's

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      This is the largest of many promontory forts in

  the area.  In the vicinity are visible remains of ancient

  Celtic field systems, as well as a dolmen and cairn from

  Neolithic times.

 

 

NAME         St Govans Chapel

TYPE         sacred well

REGION       Dyfed - south of Pembroke past Bosherton

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The waters of the springs were long renowned for

  their healing power, and the red clay around them was used

  for healing poultices.  The magic extends to the steps

  leading to the site, which defy accurate counting.

 

 

NAME         Llanmelin

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Gwent - Caerwent, north of Caldicot

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The hillfort encompasses a 3 acre (1.2 ha) site

  enclosed by massive ramparts with well-defined entrances.

  Rectangular enclosures next to the fort were probably for

  keeping cattle.  The fort was the center for the Silures

  tribe who put up such a valiant defence under their war

  leader Caractacos against the Roman invaders.  Piles of

  sling-stones were found at the site, as well as a smelting

  crucible and some bronze jewellery.

 

 

NAME         Cader Idris (The Chair or Keep of Idris)

TYPE         observatory

REGION       Gwynedd - south of Dolgellau in Sowdonia

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The summit of the mountain is called Pen-y-gader

  and is 2927 ft (892 m) high.  The couch of Idris is on the

  summit and during ancient times he used it as an

  observatory to study the heavens.  Legend says that anyone

  sleeping the night on the couch will wake up dead, raving

  mad, or inspired with supernatural genius.

       At the base of the hill by a lake, the 3 boulders "Tri

  Greienyn" are said to be 3 grains of sand shaken from the

  shoe of the giant before he ascended to his chair.

 

 

NAME         Caer Seiont

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Gwynedd - in Caernarfon

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The town of Caernarfron derived its name from

  the fort which overlooks the area.  Caer-yn-arfon means the

  "fort across from Mona" (Anglesey) which was an important

  druidic center of learning before being destroyed by the

  Romans.

       Today Caernarfon continues its Celtic influence as the

  center for nationalist Wales.  Although there are only

  scanty remains, the fort's strategic position is still

  tangible.

 

 

NAME         Conwy Cromlech

TYPE         dolmen

REGION       Gwynedd - near Conwy by the Conwy river

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The Conwy Cromlech is built from 5 upright

  stones and a capstone measuring 12x8x4 ft (3.5x2.5x1 m).

  The dolmen is located across the river from the Tyddyn

  Cynal Farm.

 

 

NAME         Dinas Emrys

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Gwynedd - north of Beddgelert

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The triple ramparts of the fort enclose hut

  circles and a well.  The fortress is traditionally linked

  with Myrddin and Vortigern.  Finds from the site included

  bronze horse trappings.

 

 

NAME         Dyffryn Cromlech

TYPE         dolmen

REGION       Gwynedd - in Dyffryn N of Barmouth

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The dolmen is in good condition and can be

  viewed by following the public footpath from the local

  primary school.

 

 

NAME         Ffynnon Arian (Silver Well)

TYPE         well

REGION       Gwynedd - Mynytho, near Pwllheli

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The ancient wishing well may have been related

  to the moon goddess Arianrod.

 

 

NAME         Ffynnon Fair

TYPE         well

REGION       Gwynedd - Braich-y-Pwll (Land's End of Wales)

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      When the tide is out, a fresh-water spring

  bubbling out of the ground may be seen when looking toward

  the point at Parwyd.

 

 

NAME         Ffynnon Fyw (Well of Life)

TYPE         well

REGION       Gwynedd - in Mynytho near Pwllheli

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Claims are made that the healing well will give

  sight to the blind and health to the sick.

 

 

NAME         Gronw's Stone

TYPE         standing stone

REGION       Gwynedd - Ardudwy, by the river Cynvael

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Local lore says that this is the stone that

  Gronw stood behind when Llew through his spear at him.  The

  hole was made when the spear passed through the stone and

  killed the coward Gronw.

 

 

NAME         Pen-y-Dinas

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Gwynedd - Great Orme's Head near Llandudno

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The summit of the hill has the remains of walls

  and hut circles.

 

 

NAME         Tre'r Ceiri (Town of the Giants)

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Gwynedd - Llanaelhaearn

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fortress has a single rampart and 3 drystone

  walls sometimes up to 15 ft (5 m) in thickness.  There are

  5 openings in the defences which enclose hut circles with

  diameters up to 15 ft (5 m), 2 springs and a Bronze Age

  cairn.  A beaded torc and a gilt brooch were among the

  artifacts uncovered at the site.  There is a public

  footpath starting on Nefyn road which leads to the

  impressive hillfort known for its wind and fog.

 

 

NAME         Llyn Fawr

TYPE         sacrificial lake

REGION       Mid Glamorgan - near Rhigos

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      Excavation of the site revealed a hoard of

  sacrificed objects dating from BC 1000-500.  It has been

  suggested that they may have been part of a treasure of

  captured goods.  The artifacts include Hallstatt bronze

  cauldrons, bronze horse and chariot fittings, bronze

  socketed sickles and axes, a socketed iron sickle and spear

  head, iron sword fragments, round arm shields and a razor.

  The lake is now a reservoir and most of the artifacts are

  under the control of the National Museum of Wales in

  Cardiff.

 

 

NAME         Breiddin

TYPE         Bronze Age / Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Powys - NE of Welshpool near Criggion

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The fortress is large in size and strategically

  located on a promontory overlooking the Severn River.  The

  double ramparts are of stone with a well-defined entrance.

  Jewelry of bronze and iron as well as horse trappings and

  ceramics have been found at the site.

 

 

NAME         Crug (mound)

TYPE         Iron Age hillfort

REGION       Powys - just NW of Brecon

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The double-rampart fortress has good views and

  is easily accessible from Brecon.

 

 

NAME         Arthur's Stone

TYPE         dolmen

REGION       West Glamorgan - near Reynoldston, SW of Swansea

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The capstone of the dolmen measures 14 x 8 x 6 ft

  (4x2.5x2 m) and sits on several smaller stones.

 

 

 

 

YUGOSLAVIA

 

 

NAME         Groznjan

TYPE         hot springs

REGION       Istria

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The sulphur waters are good for rheumatism and

  back problems.

 

 

NAME         Dobova

TYPE         burial site

REGION       Lower Krka - near Brezice

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      There are some excavated Celtic graves in the

  vicinity of the village of Dobova.

 

 

NAME         Kocevski Rog

TYPE         forest (wildlife)

REGION       Northern Slovenia near Ljubljana

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The forest contains stags, boars, bears and

  wildcats.

 

 

NAME         Ruzica church

TYPE         curative spring

REGION       Serbia

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The well is much visited for its magical waters.

 

 

NAME         Novo Mesto

TYPE         Iron Age settlement

REGION       Slovenia - SE of Ljubljana

MAP REF      0 –

REMARKS      The town has been a Celtic center since BC 1000.

  A group of the tumuli undergoing excavation were arranged

  in a ring with one in the center.  Finds include richly

  decorated bronze artifacts from Hallstatt and La Tθne time

  periods.