Chapter 14

 

 

GODS / HEROES / WARRIORS

 

 

L - Luis (Rowan) - Tree Alphabet / (─┬┬─) Line Ogham

 

 

 

 

NAME         Labhraidh

EPITHET      Swift Hand on the Sword (Luathlam ar Cledeb)

ALTERNATIVE  Labra / Labraid / Luath ar Claideb / Luathlam ar

             Cladeb

GENDER       M

FESTIVAL     Samhain (Night of the Dead)

CATEGORY     deity / hero / warrior / chieftain

CULTURE      Danann

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    The Otherworld - Field of Happiness (Magh Mell)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

RELATIVES    Li Ban (wife); Fand (sister-in-law)

ENEMIES      Eochaidh Iuil / Senach Siabarthe / Eogan

             Indber

SEE ALSO     Cu Chulainn / Fand / Laeg / Li Ban / Manannan

REMARKS      Labhraidh heard about Cu Chulainn's fighting

  skill against the Fomorians so he sent his wife Li Ban with

  a message asking for Cu Chulainn's help against his 3

  enemies: Eochaidh Iuil, Senach Siabarthe, and Eogan Indber.

  In return for Cu Chulainn's help, Labhraidh offerred him

  the hand of Fand.

       Li Ban returned with Cu Chulainn's charioteer Laeg so

  that he could do a reckoning of Magh Mell, Labhraidh's

  territory, which was an island in a lake.  When Laeg

  returned to Cu Chulainn, he described Labhraidh as having

  long blond hair held back by a golden apple.

       In the garden of Labhraidh was a house that could hold

  150 warriors, purple trees with beautiful songbirds, fruit

  trees that could bear enough fruit to feed 300 warriors, a

  supernatural well and a vat of intoxicating mead that never

  went dry.  The island was also visited by troops of women.

       Cu Chulainn came to Magh Mell and Labhraidh put him in

  charge of his army and made him his champion.  During the

  battle with the Fomorians, Cu Chulainn killed Eochaidh Iuil

  and 30 of his warriors.  The Fomorian chieftain Senach

  Siabarthe attacked next and he also was killed by Cu

  Chulainn.  Labhraidh and his army, which had been held in

  reserve, then attacked and together they routed the

  remainder of their enemies including Manannan and his

  warriors who fought for Eogan Indber of the Fomorians.  Cu

  Chulainn had to be cooled in three vats of water so that he

  would not turn his anger against his friends.

 

 

NAME         Labraid Loingsech

EPITHET      The Mariner Who Speaks (Labraidh Loineach)

ALTERNATIVE  Labra / Labraidh / Maen / Maon / Moen (dumb)

GENDER       M

FESTIVAL     Samhain (Night of the Dead)

CATEGORY     hero / warrior / Ard Righ Eirinn

TYPE         chariot warrior / high chieftain

CULTURE      Goidel / Pictish

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Carlow / Meath

TERRITORY    Mide / Leinster / Munster / Connacht / Ulster

LANDMARKS    Barrow / Magh mBreg

CENTERS      Raith Rig - Tara

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 529-510 (Ard Righ - Kings List)

BATTLES      Dind Rig

ACCESSORIES  Galian warriors

RELATIVES    Ailill (father); Moriath (wife); Oengus Ollom

             (grandson); Laoghaire (grandfather); Ugaine

             (great-grandfather); Cesair (great-grandmother);

             Cobhthach (granduncle); Scoriath (father-in-

             law); Eremon and Tea (ancestors)

ENEMIES      Cobhthach

SEE ALSO     Ailill Aine / Cesair / Cobhthach Coel /

             Craiphtine / Eremon / Ferchertne / Laoghaire Loc

             / Moriath / Scoriath / Ugaine / Tea

REMARKS      When Labraid was still a youth, his grandfather

  and then his father were both murdered by his grandfather's

  brother Cobhthach Coel.  When Cobhthach poisoned Labraid's

  father, he cut out his heart and made Labraid eat it.  The

  horror of the expierence caused the boy to lose his voice

  and he became known as Moen (dumb).

       Labraid fled from Ireland to the land of the Pretani

  where he served as a mercenary to the chieftain of the

  Armenia, a tribe who decorated their hair with flecks of

  gold.  After some time passed, Labraid travelled on to Gaul

  to see if he could make use of his great-grandmother's

  connections.  At the suggestion of his poet Ferchertne, he

  sailed to Aremorica and met Scoriath, the head chieftain of

  the Fir Morc.

       While Labraid was playing hurley one day, he was hit

  with a stick which made him yell out, thereby regaining his

  speech.  Scoriath had a beautiful daughter named Moriath

  who fell in love with Labraid and they eventually married.

  With the help of his father-in-law, Labraid raised an army

  and set sail for Dinn Rig.

       When they approached the shore, Cobhthach's druid

  asked the first ship if the leader could speak and the

  reply was "Yes, he is Labraidh Loineach (the mariner who

  speaks)" which was a play on his name.

       Labraid landed at Wexford with his army of Gaesatae

  (battle-line) which was made up of Galian and Luaighni

  warriors of the Cauci and Menapii tribes.  They carried

  spears with blue-green iron heads called Laighne (Lyna).

  Labraid and his warriors seized control of Dinn Rig and

  called the territory Laighin {Ly-in} which became known as

  Leinster.

       Labraid spent a year secretly building a special iron

  house.  On the eve of Samhain a great feast was held.

  Cobhthach and his chieftains who had survived the battle

  were invited as the guests of honor.  They were tricked

  into entering the iron house which was then set afire and

  they were roasted alive.  With the death of Cobhthach,

  Labraid became the high chieftain of Ireland.

       Labraid could hear everything that was happening

  around him, even if it was whispered, because he had

  horse's ears.  He wore his hair so his people would never

  see his disfigurement.  Every time he had his hair cut, he

  would have the barber killed in order to keep the secret.

  One barber managed to tell the tree he was hanged on before

  he died.  Eventually a branch of the tree was cut off and

  made into a harp for Craiphtine.  The first time Craiphtine

  played the harp, it told of Labraid's horse ears.

       Labraid spent 19 years as the high chieftain of

  Ireland before he was slain by Melge, son of Cobhthach, who

  became the next high chieftain.  He ruled the island for 17

  years until he was killed by Mug Corb, son of Rechtaid

  Rigderg of Mumu.  Labraid's son Oengus Ollom also served 18

  years as the high chieftain of Ireland until he was killed

  by Irereo, son of Melge.

 

 

NAME         Ladra

EPITHET      The ancient (Ada)

ALTERNATIVE  Ladha

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     druid

TYPE         navigator

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Kerry

TERRITORY    Munster

LANDMARKS    Corco Duibne

SITES        Dun na mBarc / Ard Ladrann

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 21st c

RELATIVES    Bith (father); Cessair (sister); Bath (brother)

SEE ALSO     Banba / Cessair

REMARKS      When Cessair and her followers landed at Dun na

  mBarc in Corco Duibne in Munster, she divided the women

  into 3 groups.  Ladra the navigator went with Banba and her

  15 women to form a settlement but he died from excess of

  women.  Another story said that he died when an oar pierced

  his buttock.  He was buried (without a green point) at Ard

  Ladrann.

 

 

NAME         Laeg

EPITHET      Greatest of Charioteers

ALTERNATIVE  Laeg {Lay} / Loeg

GENDER       M

SYMBOL       raven

CATEGORY     hero / charioteer

TYPE         champion driver for Cu Chulainn

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Ulster

SITES        Ath Ferdiad (Ferdiad's Ford) / The Otherworld -

             Plain of Delight (Magh Mell) / Ath Lethain

             (Lethan's Ford)

CENTERS      Dundalk (Dun Dealgan)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Cualnge Cattle Raid / Gairech & Irgairech

ACCESSORIES  buckskin tunic / cape of raven feathers / battle

             cap / head badge of red-gold / golden goad

RELATIVES    Riangabair (father); Id, Ibar and Sedlang

             (brothers)

ENEMIES      Host of Connacht / Lugaid mac Curoi

SEE ALSO     Badbh Catha / Calatin / Cu Chulainn / Fand /

             Ferdiad / Follomain / Ibar mac Riangabra / Id

             macRiangabra / Lethan / Li Ban / Lugaid mac

             Curoi / Sedlang

REMARKS      Laeg and his brothers were all charioteers for

  famous chariot warriors.  Laeg was the charioteer and good

  friend to Cu Chulainn and could operate in a close

  proximity when Cu Chulainn was in his warrior's heat.  He

  always called Cu Chulainn "Cucuc".  Laeg was described as a

  slender, tall man with curly red hair and a freckled face.

       Laeg and Cu Chulainn shared many adventures, and Laeg

  had to fight in some of the battles himself.  He fought his

  brother Id, charioteer of Ferdiad, during the combat

  between Cu Chulainn and Ferdiad at Ath Ferdiad.  He also

  fought Mulcha, Lethan's charioteer.

       When Cu Chulainn had been cured by his god-father Lugh

  and had awoken from his 3-day healing sleep, he was told of

  the slaughter of the boy-troop of Ulster and their leader

  Follomain.  Follomain and the troop of 3x50 warrior youths

  had been under Cu Chulainn's protection and now they were

  all dead.

       Cu Chulainn told Laeg to prepare his battle chariot

  and to attach the scythes to the wheels, then to prepare

  the horses and himself.  The battle chariot was a heavy war

  chariot covered with sharp points and barbs so that it

  resembled a charging porcupine.  The scythes were long

  blades that were parallel extensions of the wheel.  They

  spun around as the wheel turned, causing considerable

  damage to the lower parts of animals and humans.

       Laeg then prepared the horses: the Black of Saingliu

  and the Gray of Macha.  He dressed them in their coats of

  armor and iron chain mail and attached them to the battle

  chariot.  Laeg next put on his charioteer's battle dress

  with his tunic of buckskin and a cape of raven feathers

  over it.  He wore his multi-colored battle-cap which was

  covered in figures.  The battle-cap protected his shoulders

  and back and was fitted with a crest on the top.  He then

  placed the strip of red-gold over his forehead which was

  his badge of charioteering.  He took the hobbles off the

  horses, and with his golden goad in his right hand and the

  reins in his left, he drove over to pick up his master,

  Cucuc.

       Cu Chulainn was dressed in his battle armor of 27

  waxed tunics girdled by cord, swathings and ropes.  This

  was to protect himself when he became deranged by his

  riastarthae.  Over this he wore his champion's battle

  girdle made from the forequarters of 7 young oxen.  The

  girdle covered the area from under his armpits to the

  narrow of his waist.  He then wore his silken trews with

  bands of golden plates against the soft parts of his loins.

  Over this he wore another battle girdle of cowhide.  The

  next layer was a hide kilt made from the shoulders of 4

  oxen.  This protected him from the narrow part of his waist

  to the thick part of his legs.

       Cu Chulainn then loaded his battle chariot with his

  favorite weapons of war.  He took with him 1 tusk-hilted

  long sword, 8 little swords, 1 quiver of 8 small spears, 1

  five-pronged spear, 8 little darts, 1 javelin, 8 small

  shafts, 1 play-staff, 8 shields for feats and his dark red

  curved shield with its keen cutting edge of hard iron.  Cu

  Chulainn then put on his crested four-cornered war helmet

  with a carbuncle at each corner and placed his purple fan

  over his face.  He then put a cloak of invisibility over

  himself, his charioteer and his horses: a talent he had

  learned from his foster-father Manannan.

       Cu Chulainn then let out a warrior's yell that shook

  the very fabric of the earth and air around him, alerting

  the fiends, goblins and spirits of the coming slaughter.

  His body took on the contorted shape of his riastarthae,

  shifting bone and muscle.  One eye was sucked into his head

  and the other grew to 5 times its normal size.  His mouth

  opened from ear to ear, his hair bristled and his

  champion's light stood out on his forehead.  In this

  monstrous state, he then mounted his war chariot and was

  driven to the camp of the Host of Connacht.

       Laeg manouevered the war chariot through the hoard of

  enemy warriors while Cu Chulainn delivered his thunder-feat

  of 100, the thunder-feat of 200, the thunder-feat of 300,

  the thunder-feat of 400, until he reached the thunder-feat

  of 500.

       Laeg then drove the chariot in a large circle around

  the Host of Connacht, pushing the earth into a high wall

  (the hedge of Badbh) so that they could not escape.  He

  then rode 6 times in a spiralling circle through the

  warriors of Connacht, with the scythes piling the

  slaughtered mutilated corpses onto a bed of six rows.

  Sessrech Breslige (Great Sixfold Slaughter) was the name of

  this massacre.  Laeg then drove off the battlefield without

  having any wounds or injuries to his master, his horses or

  himself.

       Before the Battle of Gairech & Irgairech, Cu Chulainn

  had Laeg awaken the warriors of Ulster.  Laeg reported to

  Cucuc that they went into battle naked (without armor)

  except for their weapons.

       Laeg also sailed with Li Ban to Mag Mell (Plain of

  Delight) of The Otherworld in a bronze boat to inspect the

  beauty of Fand.  He then returned with Cu Chulainn to

  recover Fand's territory in The Otherworld.

       Laeg, the Black of Saingliu, Cu Chulainn and the Gray

  of Macha all died on the same day.  Laeg was killed by a

  javelin that was especially made by the sons of Calatin to

  kill a champion.  Lugaid mac Curoi was the warrior who

  threw the javelin.  Laeg, the greatest of charioteers, was

  dead.

 

 

NAME         Laeghaire mac Crimthann

ALTERNATIVE  Laegaire / Laoghaire / Leaghaire / Loegaire /

             Loeghaire / Loegure / Loghaire

GENDER       M

FESTIVAL     Samhain (Night of the Dead)

CATEGORY     hero / warrior

TYPE         chariot warrior / Red Branch champion

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Tyrone

TERRITORY    Connacht / Ulster / The Otherworld - The Plain

             of the Two Mists (Magh Da Cheo)

SITES        Bird Lake (Enloch)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

RELATIVES    Crimthann (father); Der Greine (wife); Fiachna

             mac Retach (father-in-law)

ENEMIES      Goll mac Dolb

SEE ALSO     Dolb / Fiachna mac Retach

REMARKS      Crimthann Cass, a chieftain of Connacht, was

  holding an assembly at Bird Lake in county Tyrone when out

  of the mist came Fiachna mac Retach of the sidhe.  He

  reported that his wife and daughter had been abducted and

  were being held by Goll mac Dolb of Magh Mell (Field of

  Happiness).  Fiachna explained that he was hiring

  mercenaries and would pay in silver and gold to those

  warriors willing to help.  Laeghaire mac Crimthann, a Red

  Branch champion of Ulster, volunteered and brought 50

  warriors with him.  They followed Fiachna mac Retach to

  Magh Da Cheo (The Plain of Two Mists) in The Otherworld

  where Laeghaire killed Goll in combat.

       Fiachna was so happy to be reunited with his wife and

  family that he offered his daughter's hand in marriage to

  Laighaire.  Laighaire married Der Greine (Sun Tear) and

  decided to stay in the Sidhe.  None of his warriors

  returned from the battle and legend claims that they all

  found partners among the Danann.

 

 

NAME         Laighlinne

ALTERNATIVE  Laiglinde / Laiglinne

GENDER       M

FESTIVAL     Beltainn (Brilliant Fires)

CATEGORY     warrior / chieftain

CULTURE      Partholean tribe

COUNTRY      Turkey / Ireland

REGION       Asia Minor

TERRITORY    Phrygia

LANDMARKS    Plateau of Phrygia

SITE         Loch Laiglinne (burial site)

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 19th c

BATTLES      Magh Ibha

RELATIVES    Partholon (father); Dealgnaid (mother); Aife

             (sister/wife); Senboth, Slainge, Rudraidhe,

             Eber, Er, Orba, Ferann and Fergna (brothers);

             Aidne, Aine, Fochain, Muchos, Melepard, Glas,

             Grennach, Ablach and Gribendach (sisters); Magog

             (ancestor)

ENEMIES      Fomorii

SEE ALSO     Dealgnaid / Eber / Magog / Partholon / Rudraidhe

             / Senboth / Slainge

REMARKS      Laighlinne, son of Partholon, was one of the

  four chieftains who helped lead their people from their

  territory on the Plateau of Phrygia in Turkey to Ireland.

  In the 10th year of their arrival he led his warriors

  against the Fomorians during the battle of Magh Ibha.

       Fifteen years after they arrived in Ireland,

  Laighlinne died.  When they were digging his grave, Loch

  Laiglinne in Ui mac Uais of Breg burst over the land.

 

 

NAME         Lam Gabuid

EPITHET      Hand of the Yellow Spear

ALTERNATIVE  Lamha

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior

TYPE         chariot warrior

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Ulster

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

RELATIVES    Aengus (son)

ENEMIES      Cet

SEE ALSO     Aengus mac Lamh Gabuid / Cet

REMARKS      Lam threw a spear at Cet who was raiding wild

  cattle in Ulster but Cet recovered the spear and threw it

  back at Lam, cutting off his hand.

 

 

NAME         Lamfind

ALTERNATIVE  Lamfhind / (Lam = hand)/(fine = tribe or family)

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / Ri Ruirech

TYPE         chariot warrior / head chieftain

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Russia / Ukraine

REGION       Daghestan (Eastern Albania)

TERRITORY    Scythia

LANDMARKS    Caucasus / Caspian Sea / Black Sea / Strait of

             Kerch (Euxine River) / Rhipaean Mountain / Azov

             Sea (Maeotic Marshes)

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 18th c

RELATIVES    Agnomain (father); Eber Glunfhind (son); Glas

             and Allot (brothers); Iafeth and Rifath Scot

             (ancestors)

ENEMIES      Reafloir

SEE ALSO     Brath / Feinius Farsaid / Nel / Iafeth /

             Reafloir / Rifath Scot / Sru / Feinius Farsaid

REMARKS      Lamfind, son of Agnomain, was a descendant of

  Rifath Scot.  Agnomain had killed Reafloir, son of Refill

  "The Sea Lord", in combat for the position of head

  chieftain of the two arms of the family of Feinius Farsaid.

  The followers of Refloir refused to be led by Agnomain and

  drove the children of Nel out of the territory.

       Agnomain secured 3 ships and put 20 female and 40 male

  warriors in each.  After 7 years of searching the north

  side of the Caspian Sea looking for a way to the great

  ocean, Agnomain died.

       The 3 ships were now led by Allot, Cing and Caicher

  the druid, all under the head chieftain Lamfind.  The

  Goidel travelled from Eastern Albania (Dagestan), a

  territory situated north of the Caucasus on the Caspian

  Sea, to the Euxine River (Strait of Kerch).

       The druid Caicher advised that when they should pass

  through the waters of the Sirens they could wax their ears

  for protection.  Here north of the Rhipaean mountain they

  found a spring with water that tasted like wine.

       After 3 nights of rest they pushed onward to the

  Maeotic Marshes (Sea of Azov).  Here Lamfhind had a son

  born to him who was named Eber Glunfhind (Glun = knee or

  generation)/(fine = tribe or family).  Eber Glunfhind was

  the next chieftain of his people.

       Alloth, brother of Lamfind, also had a son born in the

  marshes and he was Eber Dub.  The tribe stayed in the

  marshes until the time of Brath, son of Death.

 

 

NAME         Laoghaire Lorc

ALTERNATIVE  Laegaire / Laeghaire / Leaghaire / Loegaire /

             Loeghaire / Loegure / Loghaire / Loiguire Lorc

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / Ard Righ Eirinn

TYPE         chariot warrior / high chieftain

CULTURE      Goidel / Pictish

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Mide / Leinster / Munster / Connacht / Ulster

LANDMARKS    Magh mBreg

CENTERS      Raith Rig - Tara

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 581-579 (Ard Righ - Kings List)

RELATIVES    Ugaine (father); Cesair (mother); Ailill Aine

             (son); Labraid (grandson); Cobhthach and Fergus

             Cnai (brothers)

ENEMIES      Cobhthach

SEE ALSO     Ailill Aine / Cesair / Cobhthach Coel / Labraid

             Loingsech / Ugaine

REMARKS      Laoghaire became the high chieftain of Ireland

  for 2 years after the death of his father.  His brother

  Cobhthach hated him and was alway looking for a way to kill

  him.

       Laoghaire received word that his brother had died and

  was laid out in his burial chariot ready to be taken to his

  mound to be buried.  Laoghaire was to erect the standing

  stone for his brother.  When Laoghaire went into the

  tumulus and bent down to view his brother, Cobhthach, who

  was only faking death, stabbed Laoghaire in the heart.

 

 

NAME         Larine macNois

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior

TYPE         chariot warrior

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Armagh

TERRITORY    Ulster exile / cause of Connacht

CENTERS      Emain Macha (Navan) / Raith Cruachan

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Cualnge Cattle Raid

RELATIVES    son of Nos / great-grandson of Blathmac /

             Lugaid (brother)

ENEMIES      Cualnge / Pictland / Ulster

SEE ALSO     Ailill macMata / Cu Chulainn / Lugaid macNois /

             Medbh

REMARKS      Larine was a younger, foolish and arrogant

  brother of Lugaid macNois.  Medbh and Ailill were priming

  him to fight Cu Chulainn so that when he lost, Lugaid would

  avenge his death.  Lugaid went to the camp of Cu Chulainn

  and told him of Medbh's plan.

       When Larine arrived for battle in the early morning

  with his wagon of weapons, he was not accompanied by the

  usual array of warriors to watch the combat.  The only

  followers he had were 3x50 women, boys and girls who went

  to jeer at him.

       Cu Chulainn had decided not to bring any weapons to

  the encounter and when Larine arrived, Cu Chulainn rushed

  him and knocked his weapon away.  Then he grabbed Larine in

  a bear hug and shook him until the air was fouled by his

  waste.  Cu Chulainn then threw him with all his might and

  he landed at the door of Lugaid's tent.

       Larine was the only combatant to escape death after

  having challenged Cu Chulainn on the Cualnge Cattle Raid.

  Larine's body was never the same again: his joints and

  muscles always ached, he could not eat right and he had to

  relieve himself frequently.

 

 

NAME         Latis

GENDER       F

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         water goddess

CULTURE      Pictish / Briton - Brigantes tribe

COUNTRY      England

REGION       Cumbria

TERRITORY    Lloegr

LANDMARKS    bogs / swamps / pools

SITES        Birdoswald / Fallstead

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 13th c / BC 6th c

REMARKS      The water deity Latis was venerated at

  Birdoswald and Fallstead in Cumbria in association with

  bogs, swamps, pools, and beer.  This territory was settled

  by the Brigantes in two waves.  The first group settled the

  area in BC 13th century and the second arrived in BC 6th

  century.

 

 

NAME         Latobius

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         mountain god

CULTURE      Hallstatt

COUNTRY      Austria

TERRITORY    Alps

LANDMARKS    Alps / Mur

SITES        Mount Koralpe

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 4th c

REMARKS      Latobius was a mountain and sky god who was

  venerated on Mount Koralpe which reached 7000ft (2144 m)

  into the sky.  A tributary of the Mur river has its

  headwaters there, eventually flowing into the Drave and

  into the Danube.

       The area was settled by early Hallstatt Celts who

  mined salt, then by invading Gallic warriors in BC 4th

  century.

 

 

NAME         Le Fer Flaith

ALTERNATIVE  Le Fear Flaith / Lia Fer Flatha

GENDER       M

FESTIVAL     Samhain (Night of the Dead)

CATEGORY     warrior

TYPE         chariot warrior / young son of Conaire (Ard Righ

             Eirinn)

CULTURE      Goidel / Danann

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Meath

TERRITORY    Connacht

LANDMARKS    Magh mBreg / Magh Liffey / Magh Cnamroiss

             (Field of Bonewood)

SITES        Da Derga's Hostel

CENTERS      Raith Rig - Tara

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Ath Cliath

RELATIVES    Mess Buachalla (grandmother); Conaire Mor

             (father); Cairbre Musc, Cairbre Baschain,

             Cairbre Riada, Oball and Oblene (brothers)

ENEMIES      Ingcel / sons of Donn Desa

SEE ALSO     Cairbre Musc / Cairbre Riada / Conaire Mor / Da

             Derga / Donn Desa / Ingcel / Mac Cecht / Mess

             Buachalla / Red Riders

REMARKS      Le Fer Flaith was with his father the high

  chieftain of Ireland on their way to Da Derga's Hostel when

  they came up behind the 3 Red Riders.  Le Fer Flaith rode

  ahead on his horse to ask the 3 Reds if they would allow

  the entourage of the high chieftain of Ireland to pass.  He

  could not get any closer than the distance of a good spear

  cast, but one of the red warriors recited a poem of coming

  doom, bloodshed and destruction.

       Ingcel described Le Fer Flaith as a boy of 7 years

  with 3 colors of hair: green, yellow-crimson and gold.  He

  had red-freckled skin and wore a cloak of purple.  He and

  3x50 boys sat on blue-silver chairs.  Le Fer Flaith carried

  15 darts made from the stocks of bullrushes with thorns for

  heads.  During the destruction at Da Derga's, Le Fer Flaith

  put out 15 right eyes including one of Ingcel's which had

  seven pupils.

       When Conaire asked Mac Cecht to get him water to

  quench his terrible thirst due to a druidic spell, Mac

  Cecht took Le Fer Flaith with him.  Mac Cecht hid him under

  his arm for protection but by the time his wild ride for

  water met with success, Mac Cecht's warrior heat had melted

  the flesh from Le Fer Flaith's body, leaving only bones.

  Mac Cecht buried his remains at Magh Cnamroiss (Field of

  Bonewood).

 

 

NAME         Lebarcham

ALTERNATIVE  Lavarcham / Lebharcham / Lebhorcham

GENDER       F

FESTIVAL     Samhain (Night of the Dead)

CATEGORY     warrior / filidh

TYPE         warrior / watch guard / messenger / poet

CULTURE      Danann

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Armagh

TERRITORY    Ulster

LANDMARKS    Magh Muirthemni

SITES        Emain Macha (Navan)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

RELATIVES    Aue (Ear) (mother); Adarc (Horn) (father);

             Deirdre (foster-daughter)

SEE ALSO     Conchobar / Cu Chulainn / Deirdre / Fand / Li

             Ban / Naoise

REMARKS      Lebarcham daughter of Aue (Ear) and Adarc (Horn)

  was on watch when Cu Chulainn approached the raith of Emain

  Macha and she gave the warning to Conchobar that the 7-

  year-old Cu Chulainn was returning in a battle frenzy.

       Conchobar sent Lebarcham to fetch Cu Chulainn for the

  Samhain festival at Emain Macha which led to the drunken

  ride to Temair Luachra.

       During another Samhain celebration, Lebarcham

  suggested to Cu Chulainn that he capture some birds for the

  women to wear on their shoulders.  Cu Chulainn was angry

  because of the frivolousness of the deed until she reminded

  him that many of the women blemished themselves by going

  around with one eye closed in imitation of him when he was

  in his riastartha.  The situation led to him trying to

  shoot down two Danann goddesses, Fand and Li Ban, who were

  disguised as birds.

       Lebarcham was the filidh whom Conchobar appointed to

  oversee the upbringing of Deirdre who would be his

  concubine when she was old enough.  They lived in seclusion

  away from males with their female servants and Deirdre's

  maidens in a great wood of Ulster.  One day when Deirdre

  was reaching womanhood and pining for a handsome man,

  Lebarcham told her of Naoise, a youth of raven-black hair,

  blood-red cheeks on snow-white skin.  Deirdre immediately

  fell in love and demanded to meet this Red Branch warrior.

  When they finally met, Deirdre used her charms to persuade

  Naoise to take her away from her dreary life.  Naoise and

  Deirdre eloped to Albainn (Scotland/northern England) where

  Naoise and his brothers hired out as mercanaries and lived

  a life of youthful adventure.

       When Conchobar was forced by the warriors of the Red

  Branch to allow Deirdre and Naoise to return to Ulster,

  Conchobar sent for Lebhoecham and asked if Deirdre was

  still beautiful.  Lebarcham spoke of her bad points and

  tried to convince Conchobar that Deirdre had lost her

  looks.  The situation eventually led to the the civil war

  of Ulster.

       Years later when Cu Chulainn prepared for his death

  ride, Lebarcham begged him not to go and instigated 3x150

  women to keen, lament and hit their hands in protest that

  they would not see him again.

 

 

NAME         Leil

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / Rix

TYPE         chariot warrior / high chieftain of Britain

CULTURE      Goidel - Coritani tribe

COUNTRY      England / Wales / Scotland

TERRITORY    Lloegr / Cambria / Albainn

SITES        Caer Leil (Carlisle)

CENTERS      Caer Troia (Town of Troy) present-day Ilford

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 10th c (ruled 25 years) / BC 935 ca. (died)

RELATIVES    Brute Greenshield (father); Rud Hud Hudibras

             (son); Ebraucos (grandfather)

SEE ALSO     Ebraucos / Rud Hud Hudibras

REMARKS      During Leil's time as high chieftain of Britain

  he brought peace and prosperity to his people.  He

  constructed a fort in northwestern England which he called

  Caer Leil.

       In the last years of his rule, civil war broke out

  among the tribes and was still raging when his son Rud

  established himself as head chieftain.

 

 

NAME         Leir

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / Rix

TYPE         chariot warrior / high chieftain of Britain

CULTURE      Goidel - Coritani tribe

COUNTRY      England / Wales / Scotland

REGION       Leicestershire / Lincolnshire

TERRITORY    Lloegr / Cambria / Albainn

LANDMARKS    Thames / Soar

SITES        burial chamber just south of Leinster

CENTERS      Caer Troia (Town of Troy) present-day Ilford /

             Caerleir (Leir's fort), present-day Leicester

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 9th (ruled 60 years) / BC 816 ca. (died)

RELATIVES    Bladud (father); Goneril, Regan and Cordelia

             (daughters); Marganus and Cunedagius (grandsons)

ENEMIES      Goneril / Regan

SEE ALSO     Bladud / Cordelia / Cunedagius / Dianos /

             Goneril / Marganus / Regan

REMARKS      Leir succeeded his father as the high chieftain

  of Britain and ruled for sixty years.  During his reign he

  founded Caerleir (Leir's fort) on a tributary of the Soar

  river where present-day Leicester now stands.

       Leir had three daughters and when he became older he

  asked his daughters how much they loved him.  Goneril and

  Regan, the two oldest, flattered the old man and were

  married off to two important chieftains with dowries of

  huge sections of Britain.

       Cordelia, who was his favorite daughter and who loved

  him the most, refused to answer such a silly question.  The

  old man became angry and refused her a dowry, but she was

  allowed to marry a chieftain of Gaul.

       Not long after, the two elder daughters conspired and

  divided his territory between themselves.  Leir was

  maintained by his elder daughter Goneril and was allowed to

  keep a retinue of 140 warriors, which were soon reduced to

  30.  Leir appealed to his second daughter Regan, who took

  him in but reduced his retinue to 5 warriors.  This was a

  major insult to the once-powerful chieftain so he returned

  to live with Goneril who added insult to injury by reducing

  his retinue to 1.

       Leir, highly insulted, sailed to Gaul to visit his

  youngest daughter and there he was treated with the dignity

  he deserved.  Cordelia outfitted her father with fine

  clothing that befitted his status and provided him with an

  army to recapture his territory.

       When Leir died, his daughter Cordelia buried him in a

  chamber under the Soar river downriver from Leicester and

  dedicated the chamber to Dianos, god of the portal.

 

 

NAME         Len

EPITHET      Of the Many Hammers

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     artisan

TYPE         goldsmith

CULTURE      Danann

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Killarney

TERRITORY    Munster

SITES        Loch Leann (Lake of Learning)

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 16th-15th c

SEE ALSO     Bobd Dearg

REMARKS      Len was a goldsmith for Bodb Dearg.  Loch Leann

  (Lough Lena) was named after him.

 

 

NAME         Lena

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     herder

TYPE         swineherd

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Leinster

SITES        Hostel (Bruidhean)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

RELATIVES    Mac Da Tho (father); Ucha (mother)

SEE ALSO     Eochaid Belbuide / Mac Da Tho / Ucha /

REMARKS      Lena found Mac Da Tho's boar in the oak forest

  and reared it for 7 years until it buried him alive with

  earth that it pushed over him when he was sleeping.

       Mac Da Tho's swineherd Follscaide took the animal to

  the hostel to be slaughtered for the feast.  Lena was also

  accused of capturing 7 cows from Eochaid Belbuide.

 

 

NAME         Lendabair

GENDER       F

CATEGORY     rigbean (noble woman)

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Ulster

LANDMARKS    Dun Rudrige

SITES        Tech Midchuarta

CENTERS      Taltiu (Teltown)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

RELATIVES    Eogan (father); Findige (mother); Conall

             (husband); Rathand and Irial Glunmar (sons)

SEE ALSO     Bricriu / Conall Cernacht / Cu Chulainn / Emer /

             Eogan mac Durthacht / Fedlimid Nocruthach /

             Loeghaire Buadhach / Sencha mac Ailella

REMARKS      During the feast given by Bricriu at his new

  home Tech Midchuarta, he convinced Lendabair that because

  of her beauty and fame she should be the first of the women

  to enter the great hall ahead of Fedlimid and Emer: a

  privilege called first footing.

       When the time came for the women to make their grand

  entrance to the feast, the three wives of the champions and

  their 3x50 maidens began their procession slowly and with

  great dignity.  As they came closer to the entrance they

  each began to hurry so they would be the first to enter.

  When each realized that the other was also trying to get

  there first, all three hiked their dresses to their hips

  and ran.

       Sencha realized that Bricriu was behind this and

  ordered the guards to close the door.  Outside the door the

  women began a war of words as they praised their husbands.

  Conall and Loeghaire tore poles from the walls to let their

  women in but Cu Chulainn lifted the side of the building so

  Emer could make her grand entrance with her 150 women.

       When Cu Chulainn dropped the wall back into place it

  sunk 7 feet into the ground and the house shook so much

  that Bricriu's bower fell and he and his wife ended in the

  garbage heap with the dogs.  Bricriu put a geis of not

  eating and drinking on the host until the raith wall was

  fixed.  Cu Chulainn completed the repairs in record time

  and the party continued.

 

 

NAME         Leno

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         sun god

CULTURE      Ligurian

COUNTRY      France

REGION       Alpes-Maritimes

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    island of Lerins

AGE          Bronze

REMARKS      Leno was a sun god who was venerated on the

  island of Lerins in the Alpes-Maritimes region of France.

  This area of southern France was populated by people of the

  Ligurian culture who migrated into the area in the Bronze

  Age.

 

 

NAME         Lenus

ALTERNATIVE  Lenos

GENDER       M

SYMBOL       goose

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         sun healer god

CULTURE      Belgae - Treveri tribe

COUNTRY      Germany / Luxembourg / France

REGION       Rhineland

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Ardenne Highlands / Moselle

SITES        curative spring

CENTERS      Trier

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 9th c / BC 1st c

RELATIVES    Ancamna (consort)

SEE ALSO     Ancamna

REMARKS      Lenus was a male consort of the goddess Ancamna

  who was venerated at Trier.  He was venerated in a small

  wooded valley with steep sides across the river Moselle

  from Trier.  The territory belonged to the Treveri tribe

  who had settled the area by BC 9th century and were still

  in the area when the Romans invaded Gaul in BC 1st century.

  The Nemetes tribe of the Celto-Germani culture also moved

  into the area during BC 1st century.

 

 

NAME         Leonnorios

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / chieftain

TYPE         horse warrior / war leader

CULTURE      Galatian - Tolistoboii, Tectosages and Trogmi

             tribes

COUNTRY      Turkey

TERRITORY    Gaul / Galatia

LANDMARKS    Plateau of Phrygia

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 3rd c / BC 278 / BC 270

SEE ALSO     Brennus / Lutarios

REMARKS      Leonnorios and Lutarios were two chieftains who

  separated from Brennus and in BC 278 took 20,000 warriors

  across the Bosporus to present-day Turkey.

       There they fought as mercenaries for Nicomedes, leader

  of Bithynia.  They must have had a large proportion of

  female warriors because one of the four subjects of the

  sculptures by Attalo and Eumenes was The Battle of the

  Amazons which was dedicated to the Gauls.  St Jerome

  remarked about the Gallic virgins who killed themselves to

  avoid outrage.

       In BC 270 the warriors of Leonnorios were badly

  defeated by Antiochos Soter and his war elephants.  The

  survivors settled on the Plateau of Phrygia and developed

  the Territory of the Galatians with its tetrarchy system of

  rule.

 

 

NAME         Lethan

EPITHET      The Broad

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior

TYPE         chariot warrior

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Connacht / Conalle Muirthemni

SITES        Guala Mulchi (Mulcha's shoulder) / Ath Lethain

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Cualnge Cattle Raid (died)

ACCESSORIES  Mulcha was his charioteer

RELATIVES    Meslethain (fosterling)

ENEMIES      Cualnge / Pictland / Ulster / Cu Chulainn

SEE ALSO     Cu Chulainn / Diliu macGarach

REMARKS      Lethan was angered because a mere boy had killed

  so many of Connacht's warriors, so he challenged Cu

  Chulainn to combat.  During the combat, the two charioteers

  also fought and both chariots were smashed.  The edge of

  the river was called Mulcha's shoulder (Guala Mulchi).  Cu

  Chulainn took Lethan's head, and the ford in the district

  of Conalle Muirthemni was named Ath Lethain.  Lethan's

  fosterling was the charioteer for Diliu macArach.

 

 

NAME         Li Ban

EPITHET      Paragon of Women

ALTERNATIVE  Le Bane

GENDER       F

FESTIVAL     Samhain (Night of the Dead)

CATEGORY     rigbean (noble woman)

CULTURE      Danann

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    The Otherworld - Field of Happiness (Magh Mell)

LANDMARKS    Magh Muirthemni

SITES        An Téte Brecc

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

ACCESSORIES  bronze boat

RELATIVES    Aed Abrat (father); Labhraidh (husband); Fand

             (sister); Aeonghus (brother)

SEE ALSO     Aed Abrat / Aeonghus mac Aedh Abrat / Cu

             Chulainn / Emer / Fand / Labhraidh / Laeg /

             Manannan

REMARKS      Li Ban was of the Danann and a daughter of Aed

  Abrat.  She was asked by her husband Labhraidh to solicit

  the help of the Ulster champion Cu Chulainn.

       Li Ban and her sister Fand changed themselves into

  birds and flew to the lake at Magh Muirthemni where Cu

  Chulainn was holding a Samhain festival.  Cu Chulainn,

  against the wishes of his wife Emer, slung stones at the

  birds and grazed one.  Later when he had fallen asleep

  sitting against a rock, he had a vision of two women

  approaching him.  One wore a green cloak with five folds

  and the other wore a red cloak.  They began to beat him

  with horsewhips and he went into a coma-like state that

  lasted for a year.

       On the following Samhain after her brother Aeonghus

  had cured Cu Chulainn, Li Ban arrived at Magh Muirthemni

  and made this proposal to Cu Chulainn: if he would help

  Labhraidh in his fight against his enemies, he would be

  rewarded with the love of Fand who had been deserted by

  Manannan.

       Li Ban took Laeg to the far side of the lake looking

  toward the island and they were met by a bronze boat that

  took them to the island and on to Magh Mell in The

  Otherworld.  She took Laeg through a door into a house

  where there were 3x50 couches with a beautiful woman on

  each couch.  She then took him to Oenach Fidgai to meet her

  father Aed Abrat and her sister Fand.  Fand told Laeg to go

  and get Cu Chulainn because the battle would be that day.

 

 

NAME         Li mac Dedaid

ALTERNATIVE  Li mic dedad

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior

TYPE         chariot warrior

CULTURE      Goidel - Clanna Dedad (The Degads)

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Kerry

TERRITORY    Munster

SITES        Temair Luachra (Tara of the Rushes)

CENTERS      Raith Traigh Li - Tralee (Strand of Li)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

RELATIVES    Dedad (father); Dare, Conganchness, Echbel,

             Gabalglinde and Foenglinde (brothers); CuRoi

             (nephew); Eremon and Tea (ancestors)

SEE ALSO     Conganchness mac Dedaid / CuRoi macDaire / Dare

             mac Dedaid / Dedad / Echbel mac Dedaid  /

             Foenglinde mac Dedaid / Gabalglinde mac Dedaid

REMARKS      Li was a champion warrior of the Clanna Dedad of

  Munster.  Temair Luachra was the headquarters of the clan

  but his own fortress was Raith Traigh Li (Tralee).

 

 

NAME         Lia

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / chieftain / treasurer

TYPE         battle-line

CULTURE      Fianna - Clanna Morna

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Connacht / Luachar

CENTERS      Raith Luachar

AGE          Iron

DATES        AD 3rd c

RELATIVES    Morna (wife); Goll and Conan (sons); Eremon and

             Tea (ancestors)

ENEMIES      Fionn

SEE ALSO     Aoife / Conan Maol / Cumhal / Eremon / Fionn mac

             Cumhaill / Goll / Morna / Tea

REMARKS      When his son Goll killed Cumhal and became the

  chieftain of the Fianna, Lia was appointed treasurer.  The

  wealth of the Fianna was kept in a bag from ancient times.

  It was made from the skin of Aoife taken when she was in

  the form of a crane.  The treasure had been kept at Raith

  Luachar.

       Fionn killed Lia and took the crane bag with all its

  wealth.  Lia's son Conan harassed Fionn for 7 years trying

  to avenge his father's death.

 

 

NAME         Liath

ALTERNATIVE  Leithe (gray)

GENDER       M

FESTIVAL     Beltainn (Brilliant Fires)

CATEGORY     warrior / wood cutter

CULTURE      Nemedian tribe

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Meath

TERRITORY    Mide

SITES        Druim Leith (Tara)

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 19th-18th c

RELATIVES    son of Laigne Lethan-glas

ENEMIES      Fomorii

SEE ALSO     Nemhedh

REMARKS      Liath, a follower of Nemhedh, chopped the

  tangled woods off the hill of Tara (Druim Leith) so that

  its corn would grow rich.  Until his time it had been

  covered with hazel trees.

 

 

NAME         Lir

EPITHET      Of the Sorrow

ALTERNATIVE  Ler

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     deity / chieftain

CULTURE      Danann

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Armagh

TERRITORY    Ulster

LANDMARKS    Sliabh Fuait (Fuad's mountain)

CENTERS      Sidhe Fionnachaidh (Hill of the Whitefield)

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 16th-15th c

BATTLES      Danann Civil War

RELATIVES    Aebh (1st wife); Fionnula and Fiachra

             (daughters); Aodh and Conn (sons); Aoife (2nd

             wife); Lodan (son): Sinainn (granddaughter)

ENEMIES      Midhir

SEE ALSO     Aebh / Ailill of Aran / Aoife / Bodb Dearg /

             Daghda / Fionnbharr / Fionnula / Ilbhreach /

             Manannan / Midhir / Ochall / Ochne / Sinainn

REMARKS      Lir was a chieftain of the Danann and after the

  Danann were defeated, the Goidel divided the island into

  five coiceda (provinces).  When Daghda allotted his

  chieftains the sidhes of Ireland, Lir was given Sidhe

  Fionnachaidh on Slieve Fuad (Sliabh Fuait), close to

  present-day Newtonhamilton in county Armagh.

       When the Daghda appointed Bodb Dearg as the new head

  chieftain, Lir sided with Midhir during the civil war that

  followed.  The main chieftains involved in the war were

  Bodb Dearg, Ilbhreach, Lir, Midhir, Ochall Ochne and

  Fionnbharr, who replaced Manannan after his death.

       When the civil war was over, Bodb Derg tried to make

  amends with Lir by suggesting that he marry one of his

  foster-daughters who were daughters of Ailill of Aran.  Lir

  chose Aebh because she was the oldest of the three and, he

  hoped, the wisest.  She died giving birth to their second

  set of twins and Lir was very sad until Bobd Dearg

  convinced him to marry again and he chose Aoife, the next

  oldest sister.

       Lir and Aoife were happy for a while and she was a

  good mother to her sister's children but she then started

  to become jealous of the attention they received, so she

  turned them into swans and cursed them to remain in that

  form for 900 years.

 

 

NAME         Litaviccus

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / chieftain

TYPE         freedom fighter / war leader

CULTURE      Gallic - Ĉudi tribe

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul

SITES        Bibracte / Gergovia

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 1st c / BC 55-52

ACCESSORIES  10,000 battle-line soldiers

ENEMIES      Rome

SEE ALSO     Convictolitavis / Eporedorix / Vercingetorix /

             Viridomarus

REMARKS      Litaviccus was a youth of noble birth who set

  out to destroy the Roman domination over his people.  He

  convinced his troops that the Romans had killed two Ĉdui

  chieftains named Eporedorix and Viridomarus and that they

  should attack Romans wherever they found them.  After his

  trick was exposed, Litaviccus went to the Aedui stronghold

  of Bibracte where he convinced the Ĉdui vergobret

  (magistrate) Convictolitavis and other Ĉdui chieftains to

  raise troops to help Vercingetorix fight the invading

  Romans.  They all made treaties with Vercingetorix and sent

  troops to help him at the fortress Gergovia.

       Eporedorix and Viridomarus arrived at the Ĉdui

  stronghold of Noviodunum and heard that their tribe was

  rebelling against the Romans.  They killed the Roman guards

  and civilians at the fort, set Caesar's hostages free to

  return to their different tribes and recovered their stolen

  goods from the Romans.

       Litaviccus continued to fight skirmishes, recruited

  warriors to help Vercingetorix and disrupted the Roman

  grain supply and baggage trains.

 

 

NAME         Llassar Llaes Gyfnewid

ALTERNATIVE  Llasar Laes Gyngwyd {Hlass-ar Lyze Gung-wud} /

             Llassar Llaesgyvnewid

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     deity / warrior / druid

TYPE         war god / giant / master artificer / smith /

             saddle-maker

COUNTRY      Ireland / Wales

REGION       Gwynedd {Gwin-eth} / Clwyd {clud}

TERRITORY    Gwynedd / The Otherworld

SITES        Lake of the Cauldron

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

ACCESSORIES  supernatural cauldron / Azur Chaulk (Blue

             Enamel)

RELATIVES    Cymidei Cymeinvoll (wife); Lassar (son)

ENEMIES      Matholwch

SEE ALSO     Bran / Cassubellaunos / Cymidei Cymeinvoll /

             Matholwch

REMARKS      Llassar Llaes Gyfnewid was a supernatural being

  from The Otherworld who emerged from the Lake of the

  Cauldron.  He was a giant of man with yellow-red hair

  carrying a cauldron and followed by his wife who was even

  larger than he was.

       Matholwch the high chieftain of Ireland was present

  when they appeared and agreed to support them for 16

  months.  As time went on, the couple and their children

  became a burden so he decided to rid Ireland of them.

       Matholwch built an iron house and invited Llassar and

  his family to a feast.  When all had drunk their fill and

  had fallen asleep, Matholwch had the iron house covered

  with charcoal and fired white-hot.  Llassar and his wife

  used their incredible strength to break a hole through the

  wall and escaped with the cauldron to Wales but lost their

  children in the iron house.

       Bran granted the two sanctuary in exchange for the

  supernatural cauldron.  The cauldron had the gift of

  reviving the dead although it left them speechless.  In

  Wales, the couple prospered and produced many fine

  warriors.  They forged the best weapons and Llassar proved

  to be a master saddle-maker renowned for his system of

  coloring the saddlehorn with blue enamel (Azur Chaulk), a

  process called "Calch Llassar".  Llassar and Cymidei had a

  son named Lassar who was one of the Seith Marchawg (7

  horsemen) left to protect Wales when Bran and his warriors

  invaded Ireland.  He was killed by the Belgae chieftain

  Cassubellaunos when he invaded Wales.

 

 

NAME         Llevelys

ALTERNATIVE  Llefelys / Llevelys {Hlev-ell-iss} / Lluelys

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / Brenin

TYPE         chariot warrior / head chieftain

CULTURE      Belgae - Catuvellauni tribe

COUNTRY      England / Belgium

TERRITORY    Lloegr / Gaul

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

RELATIVES    Beli (father); Lludd, Cassubellaunos, Nynniaw

             (brothers); Penaraddun (aunt); Tasciovanos and

             Epaticcos (nephews)

SEE ALSO     Beli / Cassubellaunos / Epaticcos / Lludd /

             Nynniaw / Penarddon / Tasciovanos

REMARKS      Llevelys married the daughter of an important

  Gaulish chieftain and moved to Gaul to rule the territory.

  Llevelys' brother Lludd had a problem with 3 pests that

  were infecting England and he asked him for help.

       The two brothers met in the middle of the channel

  between the territories and spoke through a copper tube to

  keep their conversation from being overheard by the

  Corainied who were one of the pests.  The tube was infested

  with a demon who twisted their words but pouring wine

  through the tube cured the problem.

       Llevelys then explained to his brother that the 3

  pests or plagues of England were: the Corainied who could

  hear every whisper, two dragons that fought every Beltainn

  Eve, and a giant who was robbing his larder after using his

  sorcery to put everyone to sleep.  Llevelys explained how

  Lludd could solve his problem, then sailed back to Gaul.

 

 

NAME         Llew Llaw Gyffes

EPITHET      Lion of the Skillful Hand (Llew Llawgyffes)

ALTERNATIVE  Lieu Llaw Gyffes {hlahy' hlau' guh'-es, hlye low

             guff-ez}

GENDER       M

SYMBOL       Lynx / eagle / holly

CATEGORY     deity / warrior / chieftain

TYPE         sun god / horse warrior / divine warrior

CULTURE      Danann

COUNTRY      Wales

REGION       Gwynedd {Gwin-eth} / Clwyd {clud}

TERRITORY    Gwynedd / the Cantref of Dinoding

SITES        Caer Dathl (Fort Dathal) at Caernarfon

CENTERS      Mur Castell

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

RELATIVES    Arianrod (mother); Gwyddion (father); Blodeuedd

             (wife); Dylan (half-brother); Gilfaethwy

             (uncle); Math (great-uncle)

ENEMIES      Grown

SEE ALSO     Arianrod / Blodeuedd / Dylan / Gilfaethwy /

             Gwyddion ap Don / Gronw Pebyr / Math

REMARKS      Llew was raised by his father at Caer Dathl

  (Fort Dathal) at present-day Caernarfon.  His mother

  Arianrod was the moon goddess and would have nothing to do

  with Llew because he was conceived by rape.  Because they

  were of the Danann, it was the mother's privilege to supply

  the child with a name, weapons and a wife.

       Llew's father Gwyddion tricked Arianrod into giving

  Llew a name by disguising himself and his son as shoemakers

  and visiting Arianrod at her rath.  Arianrod saw Llew pin a

  wren to the boat with an arrow without killing it.  She

  asked who was the lion with the skillful hand and thus the

  boy was named.

       When it was time for Llew to be armed, Gwyddion took

  him to Arianrod's raith Caer Sidin disguised as bard.

  Gwyddion used his sorcery to create the illusion that

  Arianrod's raith was under attack.  Arianrod armed everyone

  including her son only to find that she had been tricked

  into arming Llew and that her fortress was not under

  attack.

       Because Arianrod had cursed Llew never to have a wife

  of any known race that inhabited the earth, Math set about

  to create one for him.  With the help of his student

  Gwyddion, they welded the flowers of oak, broom and

  meadowsweet and produced a maiden that was the most

  beautiful of all.  She was named Blodeuedd and the two were

  married.

       Math gave Llew the Cantref of Dinoding (Eifynydd /

  Ardudwy) to rule over from Mur Castell.  Llew and his wife

  Blodeuedd lived happily and were loved by his people until,

  by chance, Blodeuedd met a young noble while he was hunting

  in their territory.  Unknown to Llew, they began plotting

  to dispose of him.

       Llew had to be tricked into revealing his

  vulnerability because as a solar deity he was almost

  impossible to kill.  As it turned out, Llew could be killed

  by a special spear that was forged during the special

  sacrificial days and took a year in the making.  Llew could

  be killed neither inside nor outside a house; neither on

  horseback nor on foot; neither standing in water nor on dry

  land; neither naked nor clothed.

       One day, Blodeuedd tricked Llew into standing in a

  vulnerable situation and out from a hidden position came

  Gronw with the supernatural spear that he threw at Llew.

  The spear with its poisonous head sank into Llew's body.

       Llew let out a scream, changed into an eagle and flew

  off.  Gwyddion found him by following a sow until it

  stopped beneath a tree beside a brook now called Nant y

  Llew.  Gwyddion knew that the dying eagle was his son and

  beckoned him close so he could touch him with his wand.

       Llew changed back into his human shape and was taken

  to Caer Dathl where he was healed back to his former

  strength.  Llew and Gwyddion went to take vengeance on his

  wife and her lover.  After the ordeal was over, Llew

  invited the people of Gronw's territory to join with his,

  which they did.

 

 

NAME         Lludd

ALTERNATIVE  Llud {hlood} / Lludd {Hlooth} / Lud

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     hero / warrior / Brenin

TYPE         horse warrior / head chieftain

CULTURE      Belgae - Catuvellauni tribe

COUNTRY      England / Wales

REGION       Greater London / Buckinghamshire / Oxfordshire

TERRITORY    Lloegr

LANDMARKS    Thames

SITES        Oxford / Dinas Ffaraon Dandde (Dinas Emrys) /

             Parth Ludd (Ludgate Hill)

CENTERS      Trinovantum - Caer Lludd (Kaerlud) present-day

             London

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

RELATIVES    Beli (father); Tasciovanos and Epaticcos (sons);

             Cassubellaunos, Nynniaw, Llevelys (brothers);

             Penarddun (aunt)

SEE ALSO     Beli / Cassubellaunos / Epaticcos / Llevelys /

             Nynniaw / Penarddun / Tasciovanos

REMARKS      Lludd was a son of Beli and the head chieftain

  of the Belgae in England.  During his time, England was

  plagued by 3 pests: the Corainied, a people who could hear

  every whisper on the breeze; a horrible scream that was

  heard every Beltainn Eve that would cause the crops to fail

  to grow and make the cows go barren; and the mysterious

  disappearance of all food from the larder every night.

       Lludd was perplexed about how to resolve the situation

  and sent a message for help to his brother Llevelys, a head

  chieftain in Gaul, to meet him in the channel between the

  two territories.  The brothers spoke through a copper tube

  so that their conversation could not be overheard by the

  Corainied.  The tube was infested with a demon who twisted

  the words of the two brothers and they were ready to fight

  until wine was poured down the tube to cure the problem.

       Lludd returned with poisonous insects given to him by

  his brother.  He ground the insects and sprinkled them over

  the assembly of people.   Because his own people were

  immune to them, only the Corainied died.

       The horrible scream was coming from the dragon of

  Britain who was fighting off a foreign dragon.  Lludd dug a

  pit in the center of Belgic Britain near present-day

  Oxford.  In the pit he placed a vat of beer and covered it

  with a sheet.  When the monsters fought long enough they

  changed into the shape of two wild boars and settled onto

  the sheet where they sank into the vat and became drunk on

  the mead.  He then trapped them in the sheet and took them

  to Wales and at Dinas Ffaraon Dandde (Flaming Pharaoh),

  which later became known as Dinas Emrys, they were buried

  in a stone chamber (tumulus).

       The third pest that was plaguing England was a giant

  who cast a spell over the raith, then stole all the food

  from the larder.  Lludd stayed awake by submerging his head

  continuously into a vat of cold water.  When the giant

  appeared, Lludd fought him and beat him by force and the

  giant swore that he would be Lludd's most loyal subject.

       During his rule, Lludd captured Trinovantum, the

  center of the Trinovantes tribe, and renamed it Caer Lludd

  (Lludd's fort) or Lludd-din (Lludd's city).  The name

  slowly evolved as Lundein and eventually London.  He also

  built a sun temple on the top of a hill.  He was buried

  there and it was called Parth Ludd (Ludgate Hill).  After

  his death, Cassubellaunos became the head chieftain of the

  Belgic tribes because the children of Lludd were too young

  to rule.

 

 

NAME         Llwyd fab Cil Coed

EPITHET      Gray Son of the Wood Retreat (Llwyd fab Cil

             Coed)

ALTERNATIVE  Llwyd {Hloid} / Lloyd / Loid

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     ovate

TYPE         sorcerer

CULTURE      Pictish

COUNTRY      Scotland / Wales

LANDMARKS    River Clyde (Clud)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

ENEMIES      Manawydan

SEE ALSO     Gwawl fab Clud / Manawyddan / Pryderi / Pwyll /

             Rhiannon

REMARKS      Llwyd was a friend of Gwawl son of Clud and

  sought revenge for him by making Rhiannon and Pryderi

  prisoners along with all their people and possessions.

       Manawyddan captured Llywd's wife while she and some of

  Gwawl's warriors were stealing the grain from Rhiannon's

  land in the disguise of mice.  This was in revenge for the

  way Gwawl had been made a fool of when they used him to

  play Badger in the Bag after Rhiannon rejected Gwawl for

  Pwyll.  In exchange for the safe return of his pregnant

  wife, Llwyd had to promise to do no more damage and seek no

  revenge.

 

 

NAME         Llyr

EPITHET      Llediaith (half tongue / foreign accent)

ALTERNATIVE  Llyr {hloorr, hleer}

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     deity / hero / warrior / Brenin

TYPE         sun god / chariot warrior / head chieftain

CULTURE      Goidel - Coritani tribe

COUNTRY      Wales / England

REGION       Leicestershire

TERRITORY    Lloegr

LANDMARKS    Soar river

SITES        Leicester (Caerleir)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

RELATIVES    Iwerydd (1st wife); Bran (son); Branwen

             (daughter); Penarddun (2nd wife); Manawyddan

             (son)

SEE ALSO     Bran / Branwen / Iwerydd / Manawyddan /

             Penarddun

REMARKS      Llyr was a sun god of the Coritani tribe and was

  venerated at present-day Leicester, the camp of Llyr on the

  Soar river in Leicestershire.  He married a sea goddess

  named Iwerydd (Atlantic) of the Danann and she bore a son

  (Bran) and a daughter (Branwen).

       Llyr also married Penarddun of the Belgae culture and

  she bore a son Manawyddan.  Both consorts were of cultures

  that were invading Britain, one from the west and one from

  the east.

 

 

NAME         Loarn macEirc

EPITHET      The Great (Mor)

ALTERNATIVE  Loarn mac Earca

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / Ri Ruirech

TYPE         head chieftain

CULTURE      Goidel - Dal Riada / Danann / Pictish / Scotti -

             Clanna Loarn

COUNTRY      Ireland / Scotland / England

REGION       Argyll

TERRITORY    Albainn / Cinel Loairn / Islay / Jura / Kintyre

CENTERS      Dunadd

AGE          Ui Néill

DATES        AD 6th c / AD 538 (died)

RELATIVES    Earc (mother); Muiredach (father); Fergus,

             Angus, Muirchertach (brothers); Domangart

             (nephew); Comgall and Gabran (great-nephews);

             Eremon, Tea and Cairbre Riada (ancestors)

ENEMIES      Pictish - Caledonians

SEE ALSO     Angus macEirc / Cairbre Riada / Comgall /

             Domangart / Eremon / Fergus macEirc / Gabran /

             Muirchertach / Muiredach / Niall Noighiallach /

             Tea

REMARKS      Loarn, son of Muiredach, son of Eogan, son of

  Niall Noighiallach, was a descendant of Eremon and Tea of

  the Milesian (Goidel) invaders to Ireland.  He was the

  chieftain of the Clanna Loarn which settled on the north

  side of Loch Fyne.  His territory was called Cinel Loair.

       After the death of his nephew, Loarn became the 3rd

  head chieftain of the Dal Riada of Albainn.  Under his

  leadership the Dal Riada expanded their territory into the

  islands of Kintyre, Islay and Jura.  The invading Goidel

  became known as Scotti, which meant Irish.  Comgall son of

  Domangart was appointed head chieftain after him, and their

  descendants expanded into Morvern.

 

 

NAME         Loch Lethglas

EPITHET      Green-gray Lake / Halfgreen

ALTERNATIVE  Liath Leathghlas mac Luasgaigh / Luog / Luoch

GENDER       M

FESTIVAL     summer solstice

CATEGORY     filidh

TYPE         negotiator / poet

CULTURE      Fir Domnann tribe

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Sligo

TERRITORY    Connacht

LANDMARKS    Plain of Towers (Magh Tuireadh)

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 16th-15th c

BATTLES      second battle of Magh Tuireadh (north Moytura)

ENEMIES      Danann

SEE ALSO     Lugh

REMARKS      Loch Lethglas was the poet to Indech mac De

  Domnann and fought on the side of the Fomorii during the

  battle of north Moytura.  He kept the record of the

  fomorian causilities during the battle and asked the

  identity of the wounder of Balor.

       Loch was taken prisoner by Lugh during the second

  battle of Magh Tuireadh.  Lugh agreed to spare his life in

  return for 3 wishes.  Lugh asked for Loch's cooperation in

  stopping the Fomorians from plundering Ireland.  His three

  desires were granted.

       Loch then named Lugh's 9 chariots; Luachta, Anagat,

  Achad, Feochair, Fer, Golla, Fosad, Craeb and Carpat.  When

  Lug asked him the names of the charioteers he receited

  Medol, Medon, Moth, Mothach, Foimtinne, Tenda, tres and

  Morb.

 

 

NAME         Loch macMofebis

EPITHET      Great Lake (Loch Mor)

ALTERNATIVE  Loc mac Mofebis

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     hero / warrior

TYPE         chariot warrior / champion

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Munster / cause of Connacht

LANDMARKS    Cenn Tire Moir (Great Headland)

SITES        Ath Traged (Foot-Ford)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Cualnge Cattle Raid (died)

RELATIVES    Mofemis (father); Emonis (mother); Long

             (brother)

ENEMIES      Cu Chulainn

SEE ALSO     Bricriu / Cu Chulainn / Ferghus mac Roig / Laeg

             / Long macEmonis / Medbh / Morrighan

REMARKS      During the Cualnge Cattle Raid, Loch's brother

  was killed by Cu Chulainn.  Loch swore that if Cu Chulainn

  was not a beardless youth he would kill him in combat.

  Medbh happened to hear him swear this and had her women

  convince Cu Chulainn to wear a false beard because none of

  the older warriors would fight with him.

       Cu Chulainn took a handful of grass and, chanting a

  magical spell, made it into a beard on his face.  He walked

  onto a hill so the warriors of the Host of Connacht could

  see him.  Loch son of Mofemis saw that Cu Chulainn had a

  beard and when Medbh offered him the same deal as she had

  his brother, Loch said he would fight Cu Chulainn in 7

  days' time.  Medbh placed guards to watch Cu Chulainn

  throughout the night but in the morning they were always

  dead.

       When the day came for the combat between Loch and Cu

  Chulainn, Loch refused to fight at the ford where his

  brother had died, so they moved to the next ford upstream.

  While they were moving up to the ford at Cenn Tire Moir,

  the Host of Connacht drove the cattle across, showing again

  that Medbh's word was not worthy of consideration.

       It was at this time that the Morrighan decided to

  interfere with Cu Chulainn while in combat.  First she came

  in the form of a red-eared white hornless heifer with her

  50 heifers, each 2 with a silvered bronze chain between

  them.  Cu Chulainn used a shot from his stick-sling to

  break the heifer's leg.

       As Loch and Cu Chulainn resumed their fight, the

  Morrigan came again in the form of a black eel and wound

  around Cu Chulainn's legs and tripped him.  Loch took the

  opportunity to thrust a spear through his chest from side

  to side.  Ferghus, who was watching the combat, said it was

  an evil deed and they should taunt Cu Chulainn to get up

  his rage.  Bricriu Nemthenga, the exiled Ulster bard, began

  to belittle Cu Chulainn.  Cu Chulainn flew into a rage and

  crushed the eel with his heel on the head, squashing its

  brains and crushing its ribs.

       The Morrighan came next as a red she-wolf and attacked

  Cu Chulainn, but he took out her eye with a little dart.

  Loch then wounded him again in the loins and Cu Chulainn

  called Laeg for his Gae Bulga which he sent downstream to

  his master.  Loch drove his shield into the river bed to

  protect himself but Cu Chulainn aimed over his shield and

  hit him in the chest, piercing his horned-skin armor and

  his heart.

       Loch knew he was dying and he asked Cu Chulainn to

  move back so that he could fall on his face pointing east

  so that no one could say that he was running away as he

  died.  Cu Chulainn answered that it was a true warrior's

  request and he would honor it for he had fought a valiant

  fight.  Loch fell forward and Cu Chulainn took his head.

  The ford was named Ath Traged (Foot-Ford) in Cenn Tire Moir

  (Great Headland).

 

 

NAME         Loche

GENDER       F

CATEGORY     servant

TYPE         handmaiden to Medbh

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Connacht

SITES        Rede Loche (smooth lake)

CENTERS      Raith Cruachain

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Cualnge Cattle Raid

SEE ALSO     Cu Chulainn / Medbh

REMARKS      One evening when the Host of Connacht was camped

  by Rede Loche in Cualnge, Medbh sent her handmaiden Loche

  disguised as herself to go to the river for water.  Cu

  Chulainn, who was hovering around the camp looking for a

  worthy target to sling a stone at, spied her and thought it

  was Medbh.  He shot a stone from his sling and hit her on

  the head, breaking Medbh's diadem and splitting Loche's

  skull.

 

 

NAME         Locrinus

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     hero / warrior / Rix

TYPE         chariot warrior / high chieftain of Britain

CULTURE      Latin / Goidel / Greek - Coritani tribe

COUNTRY      England / Wales / Scotland

REGION       Cornwall

TERRITORY    Lloegr / Cambria / Albainn

CENTERS      Caer Troia (town of Troy) present-day Ilford

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 11th c (ruled 10 years) / BC 1086 ca. (died)

RELATIVES    Brute (father); Ignoge (mother); Camber and

             Albanactus (brothers); Gwendolen (wife); Maddan

             (son); Estrildis (consort); Habren (daughter);

             Corineus (father-in-law)

ENEMIES      Humber

SEE ALSO     Albanactus / Brute / Camber / Corineus /

             Gwendolen / Maddan

REMARKS      Locrinus was the oldest of Brute's sons and

  became the head chieftain of his people.  His brother

  Camber took his followers into present-day Wales and

  conquered a territory west of the Severn.  Albanactus took

  his followers north of the Humber and carved out a

  territory there.

       When Albanactus was attacked by a chieftain named

  Humber from the continent, both Locrinus and Camber raised

  armies and came to the aid of their brother.  The combined

  forces drove off the invaders and their chieftain drowned

  in the river, giving it his name, but Locrinus' brother

  Albanactus was killed.

       Among the spoils for the victors were 3 maidens who

  had been taken hostage by Humber back on the continent.

  Locrinus fell in love with Estrildis who had skin whiter

  than any new snow.  He would have married her except that

  Corineus and his battle-axe reminded him that his daughter

  Gwendolen was promised to him as wife.

       Locrinus married Gwendolen and she bore him a son

  named Maddan.  He also had a secret relationship with

  Estrildis whom he kept hidden in subterranean quarters

  beneath the fortress, where she gave birth to a female

  child whom they named Habren.

       When Corineus died, Locrinus sent his wife to her

  father's land in Cornwall and brought Estrildis and Habren

  out of hiding.  Gwendolen, being her father's daughter,

  raised an army of her father's people from Cornwall and

  attacked her husband.  Locrinos was killed in the battle

  and his wife Gwendolen became the new high chieftain of

  Britain.

 

 

NAME         Loeghaire Buadhach

EPITHET      The Triumphant / The Victorious

ALTERNATIVE  Laegaire / Laeghaire / Laoghaire / Leaghaire /

             Loegaire {Layeray} / Loegure Buadach / Loghaire

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     hero / warrior / chieftain

TYPE         chariot warrior / Red Branch champion

CULTURE      Goidel - Dal nAraide

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Ulster / Immail

SITES        Tech Midchuarta / Hostel (Bruidhean)

CENTERS      Raith Imbil

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Mac Da Tho's / Cualnge Cattle Raid / Gairech &

             Irgairech

ACCESSORIES  Sword (Nitach the Wounder) / 5-pronged spear /

             charioteer - Sedlang son of Riangbur

RELATIVES    Connad (father); Fedlimid (wife); Iliach

             (grandfather)

ENEMIES      Host of Connacht

SEE ALSO     Bricriu / Cet mac Magach / Conall Cernacht /

             Connad Buide / Cu Chulainn / Derbhorgill /

             Domhnall / Fedlimid Nocruthach / Finnabair /

             Iliach / Mac Da Tho / Sedlang

REMARKS      Loeghaire was a Red Branch champion of Ulster

  and had his fortress at Raith Imbil at Immail in the north

  of Ulster.  Loeghaire studied under the Albainn champion

  Domhnall along with Cu Chulainn and Conall Cernacht.

       During Bricriu's feast, Loeghaire was described as

  wearing his hair in braids that were brown at the base,

  blood-red at the centre and blond at the tips.  He had

  three circlets of gold on his head and he wore a scarlet

  tunic embroidered with silver and gold.  He carried a 5-

  pointed spear and a speckled shield with a border of white

  gold.

       When the 3 heroes Cu Chulainn, Conall and Loeghaire

  were sent to the Raith Cruachain, Finnabair who was on

  guard duty described Loeghaire's horses as dapple-gray in

  color, high heads with pointed ears, narrow nostrils, curly

  manes and tails.  They had broad chests and backs with

  narrow girths.  They were aggressive, wild, sinous and

  fast.  Finnabair also described Loeghaire's chariot as

  being made of spruce with a wicker covering and having

  black iron wheels.  Its reins were yellow and it had a

  silver yoke and straight poles.  There was also a flock of

  birds flying above the chariot.

       Loeghaire was one of the candidates for the hero of

  Ulster and he went against the wildman (Geilt) in the head-

  chopping contest but lost his nerve when it came time to

  put his head on the block.

       During the feast at Mac Da Tho's hostel, Cet mac

  Magach seemed to have topped everyone in the boasting

  contest and because no one could match his deeds he was

  about to carve the boar.  Loegaire said it was hard to

  tolerate Cet cutting up the boar before their eyes.  Cet

  reminded Loeghaire that in his youth on a border raid into

  Connacht he had to leave his chariot and horses behind. The

  only item he had taken from Connacht was a spear in his

  side.  Loeghaire sat down again and was quiet.

       During the Cualnge Cattle Raid, Loeghaire led a troop

  of warriors from the north.  He was described as a fierce-

  looking warrior with sparse grizzly hair on his head.  He

  had huge yellow eyes and wore a yellow tunic with lace

  covered by a yellow cloak held with a pin of gold.  He wore

  a great smiting sword at his waist and carried a broad-

  plated spear with a long shaft and a drop of blood on its

  edge.  His charioteer was Sedlang son of Riangabar.

 

 

NAME         Lomna Druth

EPITHET      The Buffoon

GENDER       M

FESTIVAL     Samhain (Night of the Dead)

CATEGORY     warrior / filidh

TYPE         seer

CULTURE      Baperi tribe (they of the Porcupine)

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Dublin

TERRITORY    Mide

LANDMARKS    Magh Liffey

SITES        Da Derga's Hostel

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Ath Cliath

RELATIVES    Donn Desa (father); Fer Lee, Fer Rogain and Fer

             Gar (brothers)

ENEMIES      Host of Eirinn / Conaire

SEE ALSO     Conaire / Da Derga / Donn Desa / Fer Gar / Fer

             Lee / Fer Rogain / Ingcel

REMARKS      Lomna Druth was a seer with the raiders when

  they attacked the hostel of Da Derga.  After Ingcel went to

  do a reckoning of the hostel, he described the people he

  saw to Fer Rogain, who identified them, then Lomna Druth

  prophesied the outcome of their deeds.

       Lomna Druth prophesied that Ingcel would carry off the

  head of a chieftain of a foreign country and that Ingcel

  and his brothers would come through the destruction alive.

  He also prophesied that he himself would be the first to

  lose his head and that it would be thrown into the hostel 3

  times and thrown back out 3 times.

       Lomna Druth led the raiders in the initial attack and

  as he stepped into the hostel, a door guard sliced off his

  head which rolled outside only to be thrown back in three

  times as he had prophesied.

 

 

NAME         Lon macGarach

EPITHET      Blackbird

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior

TYPE         chariot warrior

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Connacht

SITES        Ard Ciannacht / Ath meic Garach

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Cualnge Cattle Raid (died)

ACCESSORIES  Meslir was his charioteer

RELATIVES    son of Garach; Uala and Diliu (brothers)

ENEMIES      Ulster / Cu Chulainn

SEE ALSO     Cu Chulainn / Diliu macGarach / Nera / Orlam /

             Uala macGarach

REMARKS      The three sons of Garach were distraught at the

  deaths of Orlam and the two sons of Nera, and decided to

  take revenge upon Cu Chulainn.  Lon and his two brothers

  thought they could have their charioteers hold strips of

  aspen-wood so as to attach themselves into one unit and

  attack Cu Chulainn together.

       To a champion warrior this was a dishonorable deed,

  and Cu Chulainn cut the heads off all six of them, showing

  no mercy.

 

 

NAME         Lon macLiovun

EPITHET      The Big Man

ALTERNATIVE  Lon Maclivin

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / druid

TYPE         master artificer / supernatural blacksmith

COUNTRY      Ireland / Scotland

TERRITORY    The Otherworld - in the west

AGE          Iron

DATES        AD 3rd c

ACCESSORIES  large skin helmet

RELATIVES    Una (mother)

SEE ALSO     Caoilte / Fionn

REMARKS      Lon was described by the Fianna as a tall man on

  one leg with one eye in his forehead and wearing an

  exceptionally large skin helmet.  He told Fionn that he was

  a smith and he wanted the Fianna to come to his smithy to

  make their swords.  There were 7 smiths at work, and

  Derglas served them all and gained the name the Thinman

  (Caoilte).

 

 

NAME         Lond

GENDER       M

FESTIVAL     Samhain (Night of the Dead)

CATEGORY     warrior / guard

TYPE         one of the 12 guards of Tara

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Meath / Dublin

TERRITORY    Mide

LANDMARKS    Magh mBreg / Magh Liffey

SITES        Da Derga's Hostel

CENTERS      Raith Rig - Tara

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Ath Cliath

ACCESSORIES  horse-rod / ivory hilted sword

ENEMIES      Ingcel / sons of Donn Desa

SEE ALSO     Art / Buder / Conaire / Da Derga / Donn Desa /

             Ingcel / Trefers

REMARKS      There were 12 guardsmen of Tara protecting the

  high chieftain of Ireland.  They were described in three's:

  the 3 Londs, the 3 Arts, the 3 Buders, and the 3 Trenfers

  of Cuilenn.

       They all had yellow hair, wore blue kilts and were

  described as handsome, hardy and well-built.  They wore

  ivory-hilted swords at their sides and carried horse-rods

  in their right hands.  They were present at the battle of

  Ath Cliath on Magh Liffey but failed in their job of

  protecting the high chieftain of Ireland.

 

 

NAME         Long macEmonis

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior

TYPE         chariot warrior

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Munster / cause of Connacht

SITES        Ath Grenca

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Cualnge Cattle Raid (died)

RELATIVES    Mofemis (father); Emonis (mother); Loch

             (brother)

ENEMIES      Cu Chulainn / Cualnge / Pictland / Ulster

SEE ALSO     Ailill macMata / Cu Chulainn / Finnabair / Loch

             macMofebis / Medbh

REMARKS      Long was beckoned to the tent of Ailill and

  Medbh because his older brother refused to fight Cu

  chulainn, a youth who had no beard.  Medbh offered Long the

  hand of Finnabair for his wife; a livery for 12 men from

  cloth of every color; a chariot worth 4x7 bondmaids and

  entertainment at all times at Raith Cruachen if he killed

  Cu Chulainn.

       Long accepted Medbh's offer and stayed the night

  there.  In the morning he rose, drove to the ford to do

  battle with Cu Chulainn, and was killed immediately.

 

 

NAME         Los Lurgann

EPITHET      Speedy Foot

ALTERNATIVE  Laith Luachra / Luath Lurgann

GENDER       F

CATEGORY     rigbean (noble woman)

TYPE         guardian of Fionn

CULTURE      Danann / Goidel / Pictish

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Offaly / Laois

TERRITORY    Leinster

LANDMARKS    Sliabh Bladhma (Bladh's mountain)

SITES        Loch Lurgan (burial site)

AGE          Iron

DATES        AD 2nd-3rd c

RELATIVES    Trein Mor (father); Cumhal (brother); Fionn

             (nephew/foster-son); Tuireann (niece)

SEE ALSO     Cumhal / Fionn mac Cumhaill / Murna / Tadhg mac

             Nuadat / Tuireann

REMARKS      Los Lurgann was present when the twins of her

  brother, Cumhal, were born.  Tadhg, the grandfather,

  condemned the male child to death by sacrificing him to the

  sea.  Los Lurgann rescued him from the loch and found that

  he was holding a salmon in his hand.  The baby's mother

  Murna gave him the birth-name Demna.  Los Lurgann escaped

  with Demna to the forest of Slievebloom (Sliabh Bladhma) in

  the counties of Offaly and Laois in Leinster.  Here she

  raised him from a babe to a youth in secret and safety of

  their hideout.  Los Lurgann trained the youth in the art of

  weapons, making sure that he excelled at running, leaping

  and swimming which were necessary skills for the Fianna.

       Demna learned to run faster than anyone else because

  Los Lurgann armed themselves with hawthorn switchs while

  they chased each other around a tree.  If Los Lurgann

  caught up to him she would beat him with the switch and he

  became so fast that in time he could catch her and beat her

  with his hawthorn.

       Los Lurgann also trained Demna to leap better than

  anyone else.  She dug a hole in the ground for him to jump

  out of and when he succeeded she would make the hole a

  little deeper.  This was kept up until he could jump out of

  a hole that was chest high.

       Los Lurgann also taught him to swim better than anyone

  else by throwing him into the water day after day until he

  could swim over 9 waves.

       When he was old enough, Los Lurgann took Demna to find

  his name and avenge his father's death.  He found the

  children of his father's enemies swimming in a lake and

  drowned them.  One of the parents on shore saw Demna and

  asked the identity of the fair-haired one who was drowning

  their children.  From then on he was called Fionn (fair).

       Los Lurgann then ran back to the woods carrying Fionn

  on her back until she was tired.  Then Fionn threw her over

  his back and raced as fast as he could to escape his

  enemies, the Clanna Morna.  Fionn ran so fast that Los

  Lurgann was killed from the friction heat.  Fionn buried

  her by a lake that became known as Loch Lurgan.

 

 

NAME         Lot

EPITHET      Blubber Lips / The Active

ALTERNATIVE  Loth Luamnach

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / chieftain

TYPE         supernatural

CULTURE      Fomorii

COUNTRY      Ireland

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 19th c

BATTLES      Magh Ibha

RELATIVES    Goll (husband); Cichol Gricenchos (son)

ENEMIES      Partholean

SEE ALSO     Cichol Gricenchos / Partholon

REMARKS      Lot daughter of Neir from the land of Sliab

  Emoir (Mount Hermon) was a Fomorian chieftain who was

  described as a monstrous warrior equal to all her troops.

  She had four eyes on her back and her bloated lips were in

  her breasts.  When her son Cichol led an attack against

  partholon and his followers on their settlement in Ireland,

  each Fomorian ship contained 150 female and 50 male

  warriors.

 

 

NAME         Loth mac Fergusa maic Leti

EPITHET      Loth the Great (Loth Mor)

ALTERNATIVE  Inloth

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior

TYPE         chariot warrior

CULTURE      Goidel - Dal nAraide tribe

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Ulster

SITES        Temair Luachra

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Temuir Luachra

RELATIVES    Fergus mac Leti (father); Cur mac Da Lot (son);

ENEMIES      Echbel mac Dedaid

SEE ALSO     Cur mac Da Lot / Echbel mac Dedaid / Fergus mac

             Leti

REMARKS      Loth mac Fergusa maic Leti was killed by Echbel

  mac Dedaid during the battle of Temuir Luachra in Munster.

 

 

NAME         Lothar

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     herder

TYPE         cowherd

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Kerry

TERRITORY    Connacht

SITES        Finnabair of Cualnge

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Cualnge Cattle Raid

ENEMIES      Cualnge / Pictland / Ulster

SEE ALSO     Medbh

REMARKS      Lothar was sent by Medbh to retrieve the Brown

  Bull and bring it to their camp.  The bull gored Lothar and

  with his 150 heifers attacked the Connacht camp and killed

  50 warriors.

 

 

NAME         Lovernios

EPITHET      The Fox

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / chieftain

CULTURE      Belgae - Arverni tribe

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd c

RELATIVES    Bituitus (son)

SEE ALSO     Bituitus

REMARKS      Lovernios was a chieftain of the Arverni tribe

  before the Roman invasion into southern France during BC

  2nd century.

 

 

NAME         Luchtine

EPITHET      The Divine Wright

ALTERNATIVE  Luachaid / Luachadhae / Luchne / Luchta {looch-

             ta} mac Luachadhae / Luchta Sear / Luchtai /

             Luchtaine / Luchtar / Luchra / Luichne /

             Luichtne / Luicne / Luicni / Luigne

GENDER       M

FESTIVAL     summer solstice

CATEGORY     deity / hero / druid

TYPE         god of woodworkers / artificer / Tri De Dana

CULTURE      Danann

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Sligo

TERRITORY    Connacht

LANDMARKS    Plain of Towers (Magh Tuireadh)

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 16th-15th c

BATTLES      second battle of Magh Tuireadh (north Moytura)

RELATIVES    Esaire (mother); Luachaid (father); Creidhne,

             Goibhniu, Diancecht and Samhain (half-brothers);

             Net (grandfather); Magog and Iarbonel

             (ancestors)

ENEMIES      Fomorii

SEE ALSO     Creidhne / Diancecht / Esaire / Goibhniu /

             Iarbonel / Magog / Net / Samhain

REMARKS      Luchtine, son of Esaire, daughter of Net, and

  his 2 brothers Goibhniu and Luchtine were referred to as

  the Tri De Dana (3 for the Danann).  The three artificers

  built an arsenal of weapons in preparation for a war with

  the Fomorii.

       The spears were made as follows: Goibhniu flung the

  red-hot spearhead into a doorpost, Luchtaine drove the

  handle into the hot shaft and Creidhne pinned the two

  together with hot nails from his tongs.  Luchtine also made

  the wooden parts of the shields.  Weapons made by the Tri

  De Dana always hit their mark and no one ever recovered

  from their wounds (poison).

       Luchtine made a shield for Manannan using hazel wood

  that was split by the poison which leaked from the head

  wound that Lug gave Balor when he killed him.  Luchtine

  died from a fire dart during battle of north Moytura.

 

 

NAME         Lucterius

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     hero / warrior / chieftain

TYPE         horse warrior / freedom fighter

CULTURE      Gallic - Cadurci tribe

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Garonne (Garumna) / Isle / Dordogne / Lot

SITES        Alesia (Alise Ste Reine)

CENTERS      Uxellodunum (oppidum)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 1st c / BC 52

BATTLES      Uxellodunum / Alesia

ENEMIES      Rome

SEE ALSO     Drappes / Vercingetorix

REMARKS      Lucterius was sent by Vercingetorix to recruit

  warriors from other tribes to help fight the invading

  Romans.  He received support and hostages from the Ruteni,

  Nitiobriges and Gabali tribes and was on his way into the

  territory of the Narbonne tribe when he found out that

  Caesar had arrived with fresh troops from Italy.  Lucterius

  decided that it was best to get his warriors out of the

  territories which were full of Romans.

       Later in the war for Gaul, Lucterius teamed up with

  Drappes, whose specialty was attacking wagon-trains of

  supplies and baggage.  Once, when Lucterius, Drappes and

  their warriors were being chased by the Romans, they headed

  to his fortress Uxennodunum which was located in a position

  of natural strength.

       The legions of Romans who had been following them set

  up three camps around the oppidum.  Because Lucterius had

  survived the seige of Alesia he knew the importance of

  grain supplies so he, Drappes, and a group of lightly-armed

  warriors left to obtain grain.  They succeeded in getting

  grain from the Cadurci tribe and some they stole from the

  Romans.  When they were 12 miles from the oppidum they

  divided into two groups.

       Drappes stayed put with his grain and Lucterius tried

  to sneak into the fortress before dawn.  Lucterius was

  unlucky, as the Romans found out and attacked.  Lucterius

  and a few of his warriors escaped but the Romans discovered

  from one of the prisoners that half of the grain was still

  out there only 12 miles from the oppida.

       The Romans attacked Drappes' group and he was taken

  prisoner.  Caesar then arrived on the scene at Uxellodunum

  and proceeded to cut off their water supply.  The warriors

  inside filled barrels with talon, pitch and wood and rolled

  them down on the Roman siege works, causing great

  destruction to the Romans.  Finally the Romans succeeded in

  cutting off the water supply and the Celts had to

  surrender.

       Caesar ordered the sword hand to be cut off all

  prisoners as an example to anyone else who would think

  about challenging the might of Rome.  Lucterius was

  captured by a Roman lackey and turned over to Caesar in

  chains.  One can only guess at his fate.

 

 

NAME         Lugaid Lamderg

EPITHET      Of the Red Hand (Lamderg)

ALTERNATIVE  Lugaidh / Lugdach / Lughaidh / Luighdeach

GENDER       M

FESTIVAL     Samhain (Night of the Dead)

CATEGORY     warrior

TYPE         chariot warrior

CULTURE      Goidel - Dal nAraide tribe

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Armagh

TERRITORY    Ulster / Lough Neagh

SITES        Temair Luachra

CENTERS      Emain Macha (Navan)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Temuir Luachra

RELATIVES    Lete (father); Fergus mac Leti (brother)

SEE ALSO     Ailill macMata / Cu Chulainn / Fergus mac Leti /

             Mane Milscothach / Medbh

REMARKS      Lugaid Lamderg, a son of Lete, chieftain of the

  Dal nAraide, was with Cu Chulainn on his wild Samhain ride

  which led them to Temuir Luachra at the same time that

  Medbh and Ailill of Connacht were there to celebrate the

  first month of their son Mane Milscothach's life.

 

 

NAME         Lugaid mac Curoi

ALTERNATIVE  Lugaid mac Conrui / Lugaidh / Lugdach / Lughaidh

             / Luighdeach

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     hero / warrior

TYPE         chariot warrior / champion

CULTURE      Goidel / Danann - Clanna Dedad (The Degads)

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Armagh

TERRITORY    Munster / cause of Connacht

LANDMARKS    Slievegallion (Sliabh Fauit) / Liffey

SITES        Hostel (Bruidhean)

CENTERS      Cathair Chonroi

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Mac Da Tho's / Cualnge Cattle Raid

ACCESSORIES  supernatural spears

RELATIVES    CuRoi (father); Blathnat (mother); Dare

             (grandfather); Eremon and Tea (ancestors)

ENEMIES      Ulster / Cu Chulainn / Conall Cernacht

SEE ALSO     Blathnat / Calatin Dana / Conall Cernacht / Cu

             Chulainn / CuRoi macDaire / Dare mac Dedaid /

             Echbel mac Dedaid / Erc mac Cairbre / Eremon /

             Laeg / Loth mac Fergus maic Leti / Mac Da Tho /

             Medbh / Tea

REMARKS      Lugaid, son of CuRoi, son of Dare, son of

  Dedaid, was a champion warrior of the Clanna Dedad and a

  descendant of Eremon and Tea of the Milesian (Goidel)

  invaders.

       To irritate the Ulster warriors during the feast of

  Mac Da Tho's, Lugaid mentioned the killing of the Ulster

  warrior Loth mac Fergusa maic Leti by the Munster warrior

  Echbel mac Dedaid.

       During the Cualnge Cattle Raid, Lugaid fought on the

  side of Connacht.  After the raid was over, Medbh swayed

  Lugaid, Erc mac Cairbre and the remainder of the Clanna

  Calatin to seek revenge on Cu Chulainn for the humiliation

  she had received.  The battle took place near Slievegallion

  (Sliabh Fauit) south of Armagh.

       Afterwards, Erc mac Cairbre set up a sham fight to

  entice Cu Chulainn to enter.  A filidh asked Cu Chulainn if

  he could borrow one of his spears made by the sons of

  Calatin.  Cu Chulainn threw it to him butt end first and it

  passed through his head and killed 9 warrriors behind him.

  Lugaid threw the spear back and killed Cu Chulainn's horse

  the Black of Saingliu.

       Another filidh, overseeing a sham combat, called upon

  Cu Chulainn to give him a spear of the Clanna Calatin or be

  satirized.  Again Cu Chulainn threw the spear butt first,

  killing the filidh and 9 warrriors.  Again Lugaid retrieved

  the spear and this time his throw killed Cu Chulainn's

  charioteer Laeg.

       Cu Chulainn observed another combat by two warriors

  watched over by a filidh and was asked for his spear and

  again the filidh lost his life along with 9 warriors.

  Lugaid retrieved the spear and his cast hit Cu Chulainn in

  the stomach which spilled his bowels.

       Cu Chulainn tied himself to a pillar and his remaining

  steed, the Gray of Macha, came to his side and fought 3 red

  routs, killing 50 warriors with his teeth and 30 with his

  hoofs.  Erc mac Cairbre threw a spear of the Clanna Calatin

  and hit the Gray of Macha.  Cu Chulainn died and Lugaid

  finally had his revenge for Cu Chulainn having killed his

  father.  When Lugaid went to arrange Cu Chulainn's hair and

  cut off his head, Cu Chulainn's sword dropped from his hand

  and cut off Lugaid's right hand.

       While Lugaid was heading south, he was set upon by

  Conall Cernacht by the river Liffey.  Because Lugaid had

  only one hand, Conall tied one hand behind his back and for

  half a day they fought with neither gaining over the other.

  Finally Conall's horse bit Lugaid and tore flesh from his

  side, then Conall finished him and took his head.

 

 

NAME         Lugaid macDare

ALTERNATIVE  Lugaidh Laigde Daire / Lugdach / Lughaidh mac

             Daire / Luighdeach

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     hero / warrior / chieftain

TYPE         chariot warrior

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 10th-9th c.

RELATIVES    Lugaid Cal, Lugaid Corr, Lugaid Corp, Lugaid

             Oircthe and Lugaid Laeg (sons); Ith (ancestor)

SEE ALSO     Ith / Lugaidh mac Conn

REMARKS      A divination revealed to Lugaid macDare that a

  descendant of his would become the high chieftain of

  Ireland so he named each son Lugaid after himself.

       One day during a hunt, the 5 boys were chasing a

  golden fawn when it turned into a hag who demanded that

  they sleep with her.  Lugaid Laeg (Laige/Laigdech/Laoighdhe) was

  the only one who would agree and the hag turned into the

  earth goddess or Sovereignty of Munster.  She told him that

  he would become a great chieftain.

       From Lugaid Cal came the Calraige of Connachta, of

  Lugaid Corr (Coir) were the Corpraige, Lugaid Corp was the

  progenitor of the Dal Coirpre of Clíu (Clíach), from Lugaid

  Oircthe sprang the Corcu Oircthi (Oircte) and from the seed

  of Lugaid Laeg came the Corcu Laegde of whom one was

  Lugaidh mac Conn.

 

 

NAME         Lugaid macNois

ALTERNATIVE  Lugaidh / Lugdach / Lughaidh  / Luighdeach

GENDER       M

FESTIVAL     Samhain (Night of the Dead)

CATEGORY     warrior / Ri Ruirech

TYPE         chariot warrior / head chieftain

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Munster / cause of Connacht

SITES        Ath Cruinn (Ford of Cronn) at Glaiss Cruinn

             (Cronn's stream)

CENTERS      Raith Cashel (Caisel)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Cualnge Cattle Raid

RELATIVES    son of Nos; Cu Chulainn (foster-brother)

ENEMIES      Cualnge / Pictland / Ulster

SEE ALSO     Ailill macMata / Cu Chulainn / Cuillius / Larine

             / Mane / Medbh

REMARKS      Lugaid, son of Nos and grandson of Lomarc, was a

  foster-brother to Cu Chulainn.  While the Host of Connacht

  was camped by the ford of the Cronn, Cu Chulainn slayed

  Mane, a son of Medbh and Ailill, and many other warriors.

       Lugaid was sent to parley with Cu Chulainn and was

  made welcome by the offer of goose, salmon, a sprig of sea-

  grass, cresses and a sprig of lavender.  Lugaid and Cu

  Chulainn paid each other compliments and discussed an

  agreement by which Cu Chulainn could fight the champions of

  the Host of Connacht one by one.  Lugaid reported back to

  Ailill and Medbh but they rejected the idea.  Cu Chulainn

  went back to slinging stones on the Host of Connacht during

  the night.  Ailill's charioteer Cuillius was unfortunately

  one of his victims.

       Medbh and Ailill had convinced Lugaid's brother Larine

  to fight Cu Chulainn so that Lugaid would have to take

  revenge for him when he died.  Lugaid went to Cu Chulainn

  and asked him not to kill his brother Larine and Cu

  Chulainn agreed.

 

 

NAME         Lugaid Reoderg

EPITHET      Of the Red Frost (Reoderg)

ALTERNATIVE  Lugaidh / Lugdach / Lughaidh / Luighdeach

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior

TYPE         chariot warrior / champion

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Armagh

TERRITORY    Ulster

SITES        Tech Midchuarta

CENTERS      Emain Macha (Navan)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

RELATIVES    Derbhorgill (wife)

SEE ALSO     Aeonghus mac Aedh Abrat / Bricriu / Conchobar

             mac Nessa / Cu Chulainn / Derbhorgill

REMARKS      Lugaid Reoderg was a champion of Ulster and a

  good friend of Cu Chulainn's.  When Cu Chulainn was visited

  by Aeonghus at An Téte Brecc, Lugaid was sitting by his

  head as he lay under a Danann spell.  During the feast of

  Bricrui Nemhthenga at Tech Midchuarta, Lugaid sat in the

  8th position to the champion's side of Conchobar.

 

 

NAME         Lugaid Riab nDerg

EPITHET      Of the Red Stripes

ALTERNATIVE  Lugaidh / Lugdach / Lughaidh / Luighdeach

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / Ard Righ Eirinn

TYPE         chariot warrior / high chieftain

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Meath

TERRITORY    Connacht / Leinster / Mide / Munster / Ulster

LANDMARKS    Magh mBreg

CENTERS      Raith Rig - Tara

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 1st c / BC 33-8 (Ard Righ - Kings List)

RELATIVES    Bres, Nar and Lothar (fathers/uncles); Clothra

             (mother/aunt/consort); Crimthann (son);

             Derbhorgill (wife); Medbh (aunt); Eochaidh

             (grandfather)

SEE ALSO     Clothra / Conaire Mor / Crimthann Nia Nair /

             Derbhorgill / Eochaidh Feidhleach

REMARKS      Lugaid Riab nDerg was a son of Clothra and her

  brothers Bres, Nar and Lothar (The 3 Finns of Emain).  His

  body was divided by three stripes which represented each of

  his fathers.  This made Lugaid a fullblooded grandson of

  Eochaidh Feidhleach.  Lugaid sired a son Crimthann by his

  mother.

       Lugaid became the high chieftain of Ireland 5 years

  after the death Conaire Mor.  He married Derbhorgill, the

  daughter of the head chieftain of Lochlann.  After 25 years

  ruling Ireland, he died when he fell on his sword while

  travelling to the assembly of Tailtiu.  It was said that he

  died in sorrow for his wife.

 

 

NAME         Lugaidh mac Conn

ALTERNATIVE  Lugaid mac Con / Lugaid mac Dairine / Lugdach /

             Lughaidh / Luighdeach

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / Ard Righ Eirinn

TYPE         chariot warrior / high chieftain

CULTURE      Danann / Goidel - Corcu Laegde / Pictish

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Meath

TERRITORY    Connacht / Leinster / Mide / Munster / Ulster

LANDMARKS    Magh mBreg

CENTERS      Raith Rig - Tara

AGE          Iron

DATES        AD 2nd-3rd c / AD 170-200 (Ard Righ - Kings List)

BATTLES      Cinna

RELATIVES    Connla (father); Dairine (mother); Achtan

             (wife); Nia (son); Art Aenfer (uncle); Cormac

             macAirt (cousin/stepson); Conn (grandfather);

             Eremon, Tea, Ith and Eochu Apthach (ancestors)

ENEMIES      Art Aenfer / Cormac macAirt / Ferches / Fergus

             Dubdetach

SEE ALSO     Achtan / Art Aenfer / Conn Cetcathach / Connla /

             Cormac macAirt / Eochu Apthach / Eremon / Fergus

             Dubdetach / Ith / Lugna / Nia / Tadg mac Cein /

             Tea

REMARKS      Lugaidh mac Conn, son of Connla, son of Conn

  Cetcathach, was a descendant of Eremon and Tea.  On his

  mother's side (disstaff) he was of the Corcu Laegde and a

  descendant of Ith.  Lugaidh attacked Ireland with a force

  of Britons and claimed his right to the position as high

  chieftain of Ireland when he killed Art Aenfer in battle.

  He then married Achtan, mother of Cormac macAirt.

       Lugna sent his foster-son Cormac to Tara to continue

  his training with Lugaidh.  One day Lugaidh was making a

  judgment on a situation where a sheep had eaten the woad

  plants of a woman.  Lugaidh said that the sheep would be

  equal compensation for the woad.  However, Cormac pointed

  out that the wool of the sheep would be fair compensation

  for the eaten woad because both the wool and the woad would

  grow back.

       The people claimed Cormac's decision as true and his

  side of the house stood.  Lugaidh's judgment was declared

  false and his side of the house fell down the hill.  After

  30 years of rule, Lugaidh was deposed and Cormac became the

  new high chieftain of Ireland.

       Soon after, Cormac was driven from Tara by Fergus

  Blacktooth, the head chieftain of Ulster.  While in exile,

  Cormac approached Tadg mac Cein and asked him to be his war

  leader in return for all the land Tadg could encircle in

  one day.  Tadg agreed to this so Cormac then went to

  Lugaidh, put a spear to his heart and demanded that Lugaidh

  be his champion and bring him the head of Fergus Blacktooth

  as compensation for having taken his father's life.

       Lugaidh first tried to trick Cormac by bringing the

  the head of Fergus's brother, then that of another warrior

  who looked like him, and when that did not work he finally

  brought the head of Fergus.  When Cormac accepted this as

  the real head of Fergus Blacktooth, Lugaidh then sliced off

  the head of Cormac mac Airt, only to find he had been

  tricked and that it was a look-alike dressed as the high

  chieftain of Ireland.  Lugaidh was finally slain by the

  poet Ferches son of Comman.

 

 

NAME         Lugh

EPITHET      The Shining One / Fair-haired of the Long Reach

             (Lugh Lam Fhada) / Master of All Talents

             (Samildanach) / Stubborn Born (Dul-Dana)

ALTERNATIVE  Lochca / Logai / Logo / Logones / Lucc / Luch /

             Lug mac Cein / Lugh mac Ethnenn / Lugh {Luhkh,

             Lookh} / Lugos / Luog

GENDER       M

SYMBOL       Lynx / T (Holly) / sunwheel / Milky Way (chain

             of Lugh)

FESTIVAL     Tailteann games / summer solstice / Lugnasadh

             (Lugh's Wedding)

CATEGORY     deity / hero / warrior / druid / 4th Ri Ruirech

TYPE         sun god / god of war / god of crafts / chariot

             warrior / sorcerer / leech / architect / bard /

             head chieftain

CULTURE      Danann / Fomorii

COUNTRY      Ireland / England / France / Netherlands /

             Romania / Spain / Switzerland / Canada / United

             States

REGION       Sligo

TERRITORY    Lloegr / Connacht

LANDMARKS    Plain of Towers (Magh Tuiredh)

SITES        Tara / Croagh Patrick / Coem-druim (died)

CENTERS      Sidhe Rodruban (Fodrubain)

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 16th-15th c / BC 17th c / BC 1686-1646

             (Kings List)

BATTLES      second battle of Magh Tuireadh (north Moytura)

ACCESSORIES  gold helmet / gold breastplate / golden boots /

             green cloak / lance / pronged spear / sword /

             shield / sling / ravens (prophetic birds)

RELATIVES    Cian (father); Ethniu (mother); Echtach, Bua,

             Buach and Englecc (consorts); Naas (wife);

             Ainnle and Abartach (sons); Tailtiu (foster-

             mother); Eochaid, Gobhniu and Manannan (foster-

             fathers); Cailleach (consort); Ebliu (half-

             sister); Diancecht and Balor (grandfathers);

             Esaire (great-grandmother); Magog, Iarbonel and

             Net (ancestors)

ENEMIES      Balor / Birog / MacCuill

SEE ALSO     Abartach / Balor / Birog / Cailleach Beara /

             Cian / Cu Chulainn / Daghda / Diancecht / Ebliu

             / Eochaid mac Eirc / Esaire / Ethniu / Goibhniu

             / Iarbonel / Magog / Manannan / MacCuill / Naas

             / Net / Nuadha / Oghma / Tailtiu

REMARKS      Lugh was the son of Cian, son of Diancecht, son

  of Esaire, daughter of Net.  He was also the son of Ethniu,

  daughter of Balor, son of Dot, son of Net.  Lugh's

  bloodline made him a very important boy.  Because of a

  prophecy that his grandfather Balor, head chieftain of the

  Fomorii, was to die at the hands of a grandson, Balor tried

  to sacrifice him to the sea at birth.  Lugh was rescued by

  a filidh named Birog.

       Lugh received his name from his grandfather Balor

  while he was with Cian picking apples.  Lugh was picking

  the best apples from the top branches and Balor yelled

  "Away with you, Lui!" Cian heard this and named his son

  Lugh Lam Fhada (Fair-haired of the Long Reach).  Lugh was

  fostered by his uncle Goibhniu, the goddess Tailtui,

  Eochaid the rough son of Dui and Manannan who called him

  Dul-Dana (blind, stubborn-born).

       Lugh grew into a tall fair warrior, close-shaven with

  black and blond curly hair.  He had a countenance so

  radiant that no mortal could look upon him.  When Lugh

  approached the entrance to Tara, he was challenged.  He had

  to prove that he had an art which they needed, because none

  could enter Tara without a useful art.  Lugh named off his

  many talents one by one, but each time the guard at the

  gate replied that they already had someone with that

  talent.  Lugh was refused entry until he asked if they had

  anyone who had all the talents.  He was given entry and

  announced as a Samildanach.

       Once inside, Nuadha asked him to play fidchell and

  Lugh won every game.  Oghma threw a great flagstone through

  the wall so that it landed outside of Tara.  It should have

  taken fourscore (4x20) yoke of oxen to move it back into

  place but Lugh put it back into place himself and expertly

  repaired the damage.  He was then asked to play the harp.

  The first melody Lugh played on the harp caused the

  warriors to fall into a healing sleep.  The second melody

  was so sad the warriors began to weep but the third caused

  them to be of such good cheer that they began to celebrate.

       The Danann had beaten the Firbolg when they arrived in

  Ireland, but they were then subjugated by the Fomorians and

  taxed very heavily.  Lugh was asked if he could help them

  win a battle against the Fomorians and was given the head

  chieftain's chair for 13 days.  He then interviewed the

  different chieftains and masters until he was satisfied

  with their qualifications.  He was elected as war leader

  and for the next 7 years prepared for a battle with the

  Fomorians.

       Lugh acquired a supernatural spear from the city

  Gorias which he gave to Manannan; an invincible sword,

  Cliamh Soluis (the sword of light) from the city of Finias

  (city of wisdom) which he gave to Nuadha; a supernatural

  cauldron from the city of Muirias which he gave to Daghda;

  and the stone of Fail from Falias that became the sacred

  stone of the Danann.

       The battle between the Danann and the Fomorians took

  place on a summer solstice and was fought in the county of

  northern Sligo in the province of Connacht on the Plain of

  Towers (Magh Tuireadh).  Lugh initiated the war when he

  killed 18 out of 27 of the Fomorian tax collectors.  Before

  the battle began, Lugh made the first reckoning in Ireland

  by calculating the number of Fomorian warriors against the

  Danann.  Lugh then performed a druidic dance around his

  warriors by hopping on one foot, hat pulled down over one

  eye and holding one hand in the air and chanting spells.

       Lugh wore his knee-length silk kirtle with red gold

  woven into the fabric.  Over this he wore the golden helmet

  and breastplate given him by Manannan.  He also wore

  Manannan's green cloak held with a silver fibula and his

  golden boots.  For weapons Lugh carried his large single-

  edged sword at his waist, a 5-barbed lance, a bi-pronged

  spear, his sling and his black shield with a silvered

  bronze rim.  It is said that Lugh was the first person to

  use a horse in battle, introduce ball play and fidchell.

       Lugh always had a flock of ravens swarming around his

  head whispering messages into his ears.  During the battle,

  Lugh was kept in the background until Nuadha was killed and

  he assumed the position of head chieftain.  He went into

  battle as a chariot warrior and led his people from the

  front.  When his grandfather Balor came on to the

  battlefield with his magical eye that could destroy

  hundreds of warriors, Lugh entered into the forefront of

  the battle and took out Balor's eye with his sling.  This

  decisive move caused the end of the Fomorian influence in

  Ireland. (Balor was the bull, sun god of the D [oak] or

  waxing half of the year and Lugh was the Lynx, the sun god

  who killed him and ruled the T [holly] or waning half of

  the year.)

       Lugh killed Cermat in combat when he found that Cermat

  was having an affair with his wife Naas.  When Naas died,

  her burial place became known by her name.  Lugh lam-fhada

  Lonn-beimeannac (Long-Armed Lugh of the Mighty Blows) was

  killed by MacCuill at Coem-druim in revenge for his

  father's death.

       Lugh ruled as head chieftain of the Danann for a span

  of 40 years and was replaced by The Daghda.  When Daghda

  was allotting sidhes to his chieftains, Lugh was given

  Sidhe Rodruban as his home.

       For many centuries, Lugh has been venerated on the

  tops of hills and mountains.  Croagh Patrick in county Mayo

  was the most noted in Ireland.  Lugnasadh (Lugh's Wedding)

  was held at Carmun.  The festival suggests the names Lugh

  and Naas as well as tying, bonding and good fortune.

       Some of the many sites named after him are:

England -  Carlisle (Luguvallos) - stronghold of Lug (or he

           who is strong like Lug)

France  -  Loudun in the department of Vienne

        -  Laon (Laudunum) in the department of Aisne

        -  Lyons (Lugudunum) the fort of Lugh

Ireland -  Precipice Lugnanarrib, Croagh Patrick, co. Mayo

        -  Lugnasadh (Lugh's Wedding) at Carmun

Italy   -  Lugo in the northeast province of Ravenna

Netherlands - Leyden (Lughdunum Batavorum) north of the

              Hague

Poland  -  Liegnitz (Legnica) in Silesia at the confluence

           of the Katzbach and the Schwarzwasser

Romania -  Lugoj (Lugos) - town on the River Temes (Tamis)

Spain   -  Tarragona - the Lugoves tribe

        -  Lugo, town and province in Galicia

Switzerland - Lugano in Ticino district

            - Lugoues at the town of Avenches

U.S.A.  -  New England ogham stone - Lugh Mab Mabimo

           (LGH MB MBM) Lugh son of Valiant

        -  Wyoming - pictograph and name in ogham

        -  Colorado - Arkansas River (Lughnasadh site)

 

 

NAME         Lugna

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / chieftain

TYPE         chariot warrior

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Connacht

AGE          Iron

DATES        AD 3rd c

RELATIVES    Cormac macAirt (foster-son)

SEE ALSO     Achtan / Art / Cormac macAirt / Lugaidh mac Conn

REMARKS      Lugna agreed to foster Art's child when he was

  born.  When Art's consort Achtan did not show up at his

  raith at the appointed time to give birth to their child

  and it began to thunder and lightning, Lugna knew that the

  child had been born and set off to find him.

       When he finally found the distraught mother and her

  maid in the woods, she told him that the boy had been taken

  away by a she-wolf.  One of Lugna's warriors Grec found the

  boy in a cave with the wolf and her whelps.  He had to kill

  the bitch but he rescued the boy and the wolf pups.

       Lugna named the boy Cormac macAirt as his father had

  wished.  When Cormac was young, he was teased by one of the

  other fosters about not knowing who his clan and race were

  because he was without a father.  He went to his foster-

  father to complain, only to find out that he was the son of

  Art who had been the high chieftain of Ireland.

       Lugna took the boy and his wolves to Tara where he was

  taken into fosterage by Lugaidh mac Conn, the high

  chieftain of Ireland and Cormac's step-father.

 

 

NAME         Lutarios

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / Brenin

TYPE         horse warrior / war leader

CULTURE      Galatian - Tolistiboii, Tectosages, Trocni

             tribes

COUNTRY      Turkey

TERRITORY    Galatia

LANDMARKS    Plateau of Phrygia

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 3rd c / BC 278 / BC 270

ACCESSORIES  horses

SEE ALSO     Brennus / Leonnorios

REMARKS      Lutarios and Leonnorios were chieftains who

  separated from Brennus's horde and in BC 278 crossed to

  Asia Minor to fight as mercenaries for Nicomedes, the

  leader of Bithynia.

       Lutarios must have had a large proportion of female

  warriors because there was a reference by St Jerome of the

  Gallic virgins who killed themselves to avoid outrage.

  Also, one of the four subjects for the sculptures by Attalo

  and Eumenes and dedicated to the Gauls was The Battle of

  the Amazons.

       Lutarios and Leonnorios led a force of approximately

  20,000 warriors.  They terrorized Asia Minor for a while

  before being defeated in BC 270 by Antiochos Soter and his

  war elephants.  The survivors settled on the Plateau of

  Phrygia where they developed the Territory of the Galatians

  with its tetrarchy system of rule.

 

 

NAME         Luxovio

ALTERNATIVE  Luxovius / Luxovios

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         healing sun god / tutelary god

CULTURE      Gallic - Lingones tribe

COUNTRY      France

REGION       Haute-Saône

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Vosges

SITES        Waters of Luxeuil (thermal spring)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 1st c

RELATIVES    Bricta (consort)

SEE ALSO     Bricta

REMARKS      Luxovio gave his name to the settlement of

  Luxeuil, at the base of the Vosges mountains, which has

  been known since ancient times for its mineral waters.  The

  Lingones tribe settled in the area around BC 6th century

  and were still there when Caesar conquered the area in BC

  1st century.  Luxovio was most likely the healing sun god

  consort to Bricta.