Chapter 5

 

 

GODS / HEROES / WARRIORS

 

 

A - Ailm (Silver Fir) - Tree Alphabet / (─●─) Line Ogham

 

 

 

 

NAME         Abandinus

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         river god

CULTURE      Pictish / Briton - Iceni and Trinovantes tribes

COUNTRY      England

REGION       Cambridgeshire

TERRITORY    Lloegr

LANDMARKS    Ouse river

SITES        Godmanchester

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 13th

ACCESSORIES  feathers / leaves

SEE ALSO     Hu Gardarn

REMARKS      The deity Abandinus was venerated in the

  territories of the Iceni and Trinovantes tribes at

  Godmanchester on the Ouse river.

       The Iceni were one of the tribes that were led from

  Turkey by Hu Gardarn and settled in England sometime around

  BC 13th century.  Abandinus may have its roots in the east.

  Abana (Barada) was the name of an ancient river in Damascus

  and Syria, the land of the Phoenicians.

       Welsh mythology suggests that the Iceni were formed

  from Tumulus-Urnfield warriors known as the Sea People who

  were warring in the east as far south as Egypt.

 

 

NAME         Abaris

ALTERNATIVE  Abarui / Avarwy

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     druid

TYPE         teacher

CULTURE      Pictish / Briton - Abroi tribe

COUNTRY      France / England

REGION       Brittany / Cornwall

TERRITORY    Gaul / Llydaw / Lloegr

LANDMARKS    Loire

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 550 ca.

SEE ALSO     Prydain

REMARKS      Abaris claimed to have been a teacher of

  Pythagoras.  He was involved in the migration of the La

  Tène A Pictish tribes led by Prydain.  They sailed from the

  Loire river in Llydaw (Brittany) to Cornwall in Lloegr

  (England) where they settled and became known as the

  Pretani (Britons).

 

 

NAME         Abarta

EPITHET      The Performer of Feats / Hard Servant (Giolla

             Deacair)

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     filidh / chieftain

TYPE         sorcerer

CULTURE      Danann

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    The Otherworld / Leinster

SITES        Raith Almu - Allen Hill

AGE          Iron

DATES        AD 3rd c

ACCESSORIES  supernatural horse

RELATIVES    Tasha (daughter); Fionn (son-in-law)

SEE ALSO     Conan Maol / Faruach / Fionn mac Cumhaill /

             Foltor / Liagan / Tasha

REMARKS      Abarta was a filidh of the Danann from the

  Otherworld who appeared suddenly one day at Raith Almu on

  Allen Hill, the camp of Fionn mac Cumhaill and his Fianna.

  He was in disguise and had with him a large mean-tempered

  decrepit gray horse that derived its pleasure from

  attacking the horses of the warriors.

       Conan Maol tried to ride the horse but it would not

  budge so 14 other warriors climbed on its back as well.

  Abarta jumped on behind the warriors and the horse raced

  off with Liagan holding on behind.  No one could let go and

  before they realized it they were prisoners in The

  Otherworld.

       With the aid of Faruach, a magician, and Foltor, the

  best tracker in Ireland, Fionn and the rest of the Fianna

  found their way to Abarta and their captured friends in The

  Otherworld.

       Abarta turned out to be a chieftain who needed help

  from the Fianna in a war against a rival chieftain of the

  Otherworld.  Fionn and his warriors defeated the other

  chieftain and, at the insistence of Conan, Abarta rewarded

  the Fianna by sending 13 of his most beautiful women on the

  gray horse with his beautiful daughter Tasha of the White

  Arms holding its tail.

 

 

NAME         Abartach

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior

CULTURE      Danann / Fomorii

COUNTRY      Ireland

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 16th-15th c

RELATIVES    Lugh (father); Naas (mother); Helen (consort);

             Sabrann (daughter); Ainnle (brother); Cian

             (grandfather); Ethniu (grandmother); Esaire

             (great-grandmother); Balor (great-grandfather);

             Magog and Iarbonel (ancestors)

SEE ALSO     Balor / Cian / Ethniu / Esaire / Helen /

             Iarbonel / Lugh / Magog / Naas

REMARKS      Abartach was a consort to Helen, daughter of

  Leda and Tyndareus (Tyndarus), chieftain of Lacedaemon

  which Iman Wilkens (Where Troy Once Stood) places in

  southern Spain.

       Helen's territory was (and still is) rich in the

  highly-sought-after resources of copper, tin and silver,

  and was strategically positioned on the gateway between the

  Atlantic and the Mediterranean.  Helen bore Abartach a

  daughter called Sabrann.  Sabrann then married Cail (The

  100-wounder), son of Lugaid, son of Leda.

 

 

NAME         Abcan

ALTERNATIVE  Abcan mac Bicelmois / Abhean / Auhcan / Ebricc

GENDER       M

FESTIVAL     summer solstice

CATEGORY     bard (Poet of Lug)

TYPE         musician / harper

CULTURE      Danann

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Sligo

TERRITORY    Connacht

LANDMARKS    Plain of Towers (Magh Tuireadh)

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 16th-15th c

BATTLES      second battle of Magh Tuireadh (north Moytura)

ACCESSORIES  supernatural harp

RELATIVES    Bicfelmas (father); Etain (consort); Senbecc

             (son); Diancecht (great-grandfather); Magog,

             Iarbonel and Net (ancestors)

ENEMIES      Fomorii / Anghus

SEE ALSO     Anghus mac Og / Diancecht / Esaire / Etain /

             Iarbonel / Magog / Midhir / Net

REMARKS      Abcan, son of Bicfelmas, son of Cu, son of

  Diancecht, son of Esaire, daughter of Net became the harper

  for Lugh and accompanied him in the battle of north

  Moytura.  He raped Etain but was killed by Anghus mac Og in

  the presence of Midhir.

 

 

NAME         Abilus

GENDER       M

SYMBOL       snake

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         god of health

CULTURE      Gallic - Sequani

COUNTRY      France

REGION       Côte d'Or / Haute-Marne

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Seine / Saône

SITES        Arnay-le-Duc

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 12th c / AD 1st c

ACCESSORIES  snakes

RELATIVES    Damona (consort)

SEE ALSO     Damona

REMARKS      Abilus was a deity who was venerated by the sick

  at a site at Arnay-le-Duc, Côte d'Or in France.  He was

  associated with the snake and was a consort of the goddess

  Damona.

       The site was in the territory of the Sequani who were

  settled in the area by BC 12th century.  The deity was

  still being venerated in Roman times after AD 1st century

  and a statue has survived.

 

 

NAME         Abnoba

EPITHET      The Divine Hunter

GENDER       F

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         goddess of animal fertility

COUNTRY      Germany

LANDMARKS    Abnoba / Black Forest / Danube

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 1st c

REMARKS      Abnoba gave her name to the mountain range in

  Germany which contains the headwaters of the Danube.  This

  was an ancient Celtic territory until the Germani tribes

  moved in during BC 1st century.

 

 

NAME         Accasbel

ALTERNATIVE  Beoir

GENDER       M

FESTIVAL     Beltainn (Brilliant Fires)

CATEGORY     steward / hosteller

CULTURE      Partholean tribe

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Munster

CENTERS      Accasbel's Hostel (Bruidhean)

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 19th c

BATTLES      Magh Ibha

ENEMIES      Fomorii

SEE ALSO     Partholon

REMARKS      Accasbel was the steward of Partholon, and after

  the battle of Magh Ibha he constructed the first hostel

  (Bruidhean) in Ireland.

 

 

NAME         Acco

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     hero / warrior / Brenin

TYPE         freedom fighter / head chieftain

CULTURE      Gallic - Senones tribe

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Seine / Loire

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 1st c / BC 53 / BC 52

ENEMIES      Caesar

SEE ALSO     Vercingetorix

REMARKS      Acco, the head chieftain of the Senones, refused

  to give hostages to Caesar in BC 53.  He became a war

  leader for warriors of the Senones and Carnuti tribes.

  Caesar, angered by this rebellious stance against Rome,

  responded by marching into their territory with his legions

  and demanding that the tribe turn over Acco to him.  He

  then executed him in a time-honored Roman fashion.

       Caesar then demanded 100 Senones hostages to be held

  by the AEdui tribe for the Romans.  Acco's death helped

  fuel the rebellion led by Vercingetorix in BC 52.

 

 

NAME         Achilles

EPITHET      The Ally (Aeacean)

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     deity / hero / warrior / chieftain

TYPE         chariot warrior / battle champion

CULTURE      Goidel / Achaean

COUNTRY      Holland / Beligum

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica / Argos / Pylos / Phthia

LANDMARKS    Rhine Delta

SITES        Troy (died)

CENTERS      Schuring (Scuros)

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 13th c / BC 1240 (defeat of Troy)

BATTLES      Trojan War

ACCESSORIES  ship with oars / horses (Xanthus and Balius) /

             shield with spiral motif

RELATIVES    Zeus (great-grandfather); Aegina (great-

             grandmother); Aeacus (grandfather); Peleus

             (father); Thetis (mother); Briseis and Deidamia

             (consort); Neoptolemus [Pyrrhus] (son); Galatea

             and Amphitrite (aunts); Poseidon (uncle)

ENEMIES      Trojans

SEE ALSO     Agamemnon / Galatea / Hector / Penthesileia /

             Poseidon / Odysseus / Priam / Zeus

REMARKS      Achilles was the son of the sea-goddess Thetis

  and grandson of Aeacus, eponymous ancestor of the Achaeans.

  He was also the son of Peleus the Argonaut and his

  territory was the islands at the mouth of the Rhine.  He

  was in command of 50 ships of his father's fleet and his

  followers were called the Myrmidons (ants).

       During a military campaign into the land of the

  Trojans, the Achaeans destroyed a town of Troad and

  captured several beautiful women.  Out of these, Achilles

  was presented with Briseis, a beautiful woman with whom he

  fell in love.

       In the early years of the war, he fought a single

  combat with the Amazon warrior chieftain Penthesileia.  At

  the moment of her death, he looked into her eyes and was

  overcome with love for her.  Achilles felt great sorrow at

  her passing and sang a lament at her funeral.  Throughout

  the 10 years of the Trojan war, Achilles sacked so many

  cities of Troad that he struck fear into the Trojans more

  than any other Achaean warrior.

       For political reasons Achilles was forced to give up

  Briseis to Agamemnon, his superior.  Achilles, who was

  described as a stubborn man with a volatile temper, pulled

  his troops out of battle in retaliation.  The war began to

  go badly for the Achaeans so Patroclus, who was Achilles's

  best friend, donned Achilles's armor, borrowed his chariot,

  and led his troops into battle.  As fate would have it, he

  was killed by a Trojan named Hector, a son of Priam.

       Achilles, hearing the news of his friend's death, went

  into a battle frenzy and slaughtered masses of Trojan

  warriors in revenge.   When he found Hector, he chased him

  3 times around the fort of Troy before killing him, then

  dragged his body back to his camp where he circled the bier

  of Patroclus.  To further humiliate his enemies, he left

  Hector's body for the dogs until the old head chieftain

  Priam visited Achilles in his camp and begged him to return

  the body of his son.  Achilles obliged the chieftain.

       Towards the end of the siege of Troy, Achilles was

  killed by an arrow that hit him in the heel, the only place

  that was unprotected by armor.  The arrow was probably

  poisonous, as he died from the wound.  Achilles was buried

  on the shores of the Hellespont (Netherlands).  Odysseus

  and Ajax fought over his armor.  His son Neoptolemus killed

  Priam, the Trojan chieftain, and abducted his daughter

  Polyxena whom his father had loved.  On the way home with

  her, the god Achilles appeared and demanded the girl as a

  sacrifice.

 

 

NAME         Achtan

ALTERNATIVE  Etain

GENDER       F

CATEGORY     righbean

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Meath

TERRITORY    Mide

LANDMARKS    Magh mBreg

CENTERS      Raith Rig - Tara

AGE          Iron

DATES        AD 3rd c

RELATIVES    Olc Siche (father); Art (consort); Cormac

             macAirt (son); Lugaidh (husband); Nia (son)

SEE ALSO     Art Aenfer / Cormac mac Airt / Lugaidh mac Conn

             / Lugna / Nia / Olc Siche

REMARKS      Achtan mated with the high chieftain of Ireland,

  Art Aenfer, at the request of her father when Art had

  stopped over on his way to battle.  Art was killed during

  the battle and never returned but he had forseen this and

  had told Achtan that when her time was near she was to

  hurry to the fortress of Lugna in Connacht where the child

  was to be born and fostered.

       When Achtan's time to give birth was near she

  collected her necessities and with her maid set off to her

  destination.  As it was, the child was born on the way and

  his birth was accompanied by flashes of lightning and claps

  of thunder.

       From his raith, Lugna saw the lightning and heard the

  thunder and, knowing that his friend Art's child had been

  born, set out to find mother and child.  When he reached

  their camp he was shocked to find only a distraught mother

  and her maid, because the child had been taken away by a

  wolf during the night.

       Lugna knew his foster was still alive and sent his

  warriors to search the area.  A warrior named Grec found

  the child in a cave among the whelps of a she-wolf.  Grec

  brought the boy and the litter of wolf cubs with him to the

  fortress where he was reunited with his mother and was

  given the name Cormac mac Airt as his father had wished.

       Achtan then married Lugaidh mac Conn who was the son

  of Art's brother.  He had killed Art in battle and was now

  the high chieftain of Ireland.  Achtan paved the way for

  her son Cormac to come to Tara as a foster of the high

  chieftain.

 

 

NAME         Acichorius

EPITHET      Sister's Dog

ALTERNATIVE  Cichorios

GENDER       M

SYMBOL       dog

CATEGORY     hero / warrior / chieftain

TYPE         war leader

COUNTRY      France / Macedonia / Greece / Bulgaria / Turkey

TERRITORY    Gaul / Illyria / Thrace / Paeonia

LANDMARKS    Balkan Peninsula / Haemos

SITES        Delphi / Istanbul (Byzantion)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 3rd c / BC 281 / BC 279-278

SEE ALSO     Cerethrios / Bolgios / Brennus

REMARKS      Celtic warriors invaded the Balkan Peninsula in

  BC 3rd century with three armies that descended on Illyria,

  Thrace and Macedonia.

       Acichorius was second in command under Brennus and

  they led a large force of 20,000 horse warriors and 150,000

  battle-line into Paeonia where they spent a year fighting

  the hillmen of Haemos.  The Celtic army was reinforced with

  Illyrian warriors and they then entered Macedonia and

  continued on into Greece where they sacked the temple of

  Delphi during the winter of BC 279-278.

       The central force was flanked by two armies.  The

  eastern force was led by Cerethrios and the western by

  Bolgios.  The horse warriors were each accompanied by two

  mounted servants and the trio were called a Trimarkisia.

  After Brennus died from his wounds and dysentry, Acichorius

  led the warriors to sack the wealthy port of Byzantion

  (Istanbul).

 

 

NAME         Addedormarus

ALTERNATIVE  Addedormaros / Addepormarus

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / Brenin

TYPE         chariot warrior / head chieftain

CULTURE      Briton - Trinovantes tribe

COUNTRY      England

REGION       Essex / Suffolk

CENTERS      Braughing / Colchester (fortress of Camulos)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 1st c / BC 15

ENEMIES      Rome

SEE ALSO     Avarwy Mandubrad / Camulos / Dumnuvelaunus

REMARKS      Addedormarus succeeded Avarwy Mandubrad as head

  chieftain of the Trinovantes.  In BC 15 he moved his tribal

  headquarters from Braughing to Camulodun (Colchester).  He

  himself was followed by Avarwy's son Dumnuvelaunus as head

  chieftain.

 

 

NAME         Adiatunnus

ALTERNATIVE  Adiatunnos

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / chieftain

TYPE         horse warrior / solduri

CULTURE      Aquitani - Sontiati tribe

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aquitanica

LANDMARKS    Garonne (Garumna) river

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 56

ENEMIES      Rome

REMARKS      Adiatunnus was the chieftain who led the

  Sontiati tribe against the invading Romans in BC 56.  At

  first he fought open battles using horse warriors and

  soldiers of the battle-line, then he made the mistake of

  moving into an oppidum and was put under siege.

       The Aquitani were experienced tunnel diggers and tried

  to escape by digging their way out but their plan was

  discovered.  Adiatunnus then sent envoys to the Romans to

  discuss peace and during the negotiations he and his 600

  soldurii tried to escape.  The escape was a failure so they

  sent hostages and surrendered.

 

 

NAME         Adminius

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / Rex

TYPE         traitor / Roman-appointed head chieftain

CULTURE      Belgae - Catuvellauni tribe

COUNTRY      England

REGION       Essex

CENTERS      Colchester (fortress of Camulos)

AGE          Iron

DATES        AD 1st c / AD 43 (became Rex)

RELATIVES    Cunobel (father); Togodumnos and Caratacus

             (brothers)

ENEMIES      Cunobel / Togodumnos / Caratacus

SEE ALSO     Camulos / Caratacus / Cunobel / Togodumnos

REMARKS      Because of his pro-Roman stance, Adminius's

  father exiled him from Catuvellauni territory.  Adminius

  then went straight to the Romans in Gaul.  When the Romans

  invaded southern England, Adminius was made a client king

  of Rome with his center at Camulodun (fort of Camulos).

 

 

NAME         Adna

EPITHET      Ollamh

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     ollamh

TYPE         chief poet to Ri Ruirech

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Armagh

TERRITORY    Ulster

CENTERS      Emain Macha (Navan)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

RELATIVES    Neide (son)

SEE ALSO     Conchobar / Neide

REMARKS      Adna was the Ollamh (chief poet) of Ulster

  during the time of Conchobar.

 

 

NAME         Aebh

ALTERNATIVE  Aobh

GENDER       F

CATEGORY     rigbean (noble woman)

CULTURE      Danann

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Island of Aran / Tipperary

TERRITORY    East Munster / Ulster

CENTERS      Sidhe ar Femuin / Sidhe Fionnachaidh

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 16th-15th c

RELATIVES    Ailill of Aran (father); Bodb Dearg (foster-

             father); Lir (husband); Fionnula and Fiachra

             (daughters); Aedh and Conn (sons); Aoife and

             Arbha (sisters)

SEE ALSO     Ailill of Aran / Aoife / Bodb Dearg / Fionnula /

             Lir

REMARKS      Aebh was the daughter of Ailill of Aran and was

  fostered to Bodb Dearg along with her two sisters Aoife and

  Arbha.  One day, Lir came to visit Bodb Dearg at the Sidhe

  ar Femuin.  He was still depressed by the civil war that

  had torn apart the Danann.  Bodb Dearg suggested that Lir

  should marry and proposed that he select one of his foster-

  daughters who were of noble birth.

       Lir chose Aebh because she was the oldest and he hoped

  the wisest.  Aebh and Lir were much in love and soon he was

  a happy man again and the father of twins: a female child

  named Fionnula and a male child called Aedh.  Sometime

  later Aebh died while giving birth to another set of twins.

  They were Fiachra, a female, and Conn, a male.

 

 

NAME         Aed

ALTERNATIVE  Aed {ed} / AEda {ay'da} / Aedh (fire) / Aodh

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     bard

TYPE         court dwarf to Fergus mac Leti

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Down

TERRITORY    Ulster / The Otherworld - Faylinn (Pond of the

             Fay)

CENTERS      Dun Rury (Dundrum castle)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

SEE ALSO     Eisirt / Fergus mac Leti / Iubdan

REMARKS      Aed was a bard and the court dwarf to Fergus mac

  Leti of Dun Rury (Dundrum castle) in the ancient province

  of Ulster.  Aed was informed one day that a royal bard was

  at the gate demanding entrance to the fortress.  He went to

  the entrance and there was a man so small that Aed carried

  him into the court on the palm of his hand.

       Aed accompanied Eisirt when he returned to the court

  of Iubdan at Faylinn in the Otherworld.  When the Fay Folk

  (Elfin) saw Aed they were terrified because they thought he

  was a Fomorian giant.

 

 

NAME         Aed Abrat

EPITHET      The Eye of Fire

ALTERNATIVE  Aed {ed} / AEda {ay'da} / Aedh (fire) / Aodh

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         sun god

CULTURE      Danann

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    The Otherworld - Magh Cruaich

CENTERS      Oenach Fidgai

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

RELATIVES    Li Ban and Fand (daughters); Aeonghus mac Aedh

             Abrat (son)

SEE ALSO     Aeonghus mac Aedh Abrat / Fand / Li Ban

REMARKS      Aed Abrat was a deity from Magh Cruaich (Mag

  Cruath) in The Otherworld and had two daughters named Li

  Ban and Fand and a son named Aeonghus.

 

 

NAME         Aed Caem

EPITHET      The sledgehammer (Ord)

ALTERNATIVE  Aed {ed} / AEda {ay'da} / Aedh (fire) Coem /

             Aodh

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior

CULTURE      Danann

COUNTRY      Ireland

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 16th-15th c

RELATIVES    Daghda (father); Anghus and Cermat (half-

             brothers); Adair, Aine and Brighid (half-

             sister); Magog, Iarbonel, Ordan and Net

             (ancestors)

ENEMIES      Corrchend the Fair

SEE ALSO     Anghus mac Og / Brighid / Cermat Milbel /

             Daghda / Iarbonel / Magog / Net / Ordan

REMARKS      Aed Caem son of Daghda was slain by Corrchend

  the Fair because Aed had violated his wife.  Corrchend was

  then forced to carry the body until a stone of suitable

  size was found.

 

 

NAME         Aeda

ALTERNATIVE  Aed {ed} / AEda {ay'da} / Aedh (fire) / Aodh

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior

TYPE         giant

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    The Otherworld - Land of Giants (Tir na Fathach)

AGE          Iron

DATES        AD 3rd c

ACCESSORIES  red shield / large spear

SEE ALSO     Bebhionn / Fionn

REMARKS      The beautiful giantess Bebhionn, daughter of

  Treon, had been betrothed to Aeda but refused to marry him.

  She fled to Ireland to seek refuge with Fionn and the

  Fianna.

       Aeda followed after her in his ship and caught up to

  her on the shore talking to Fionn and his warriors.  He was

  described as a handsome young man carrying a red shield and

  a huge spear.  He threw his spear at Bebhionn and mortally

  wounded her.  He then fled with the Fianna at his heels but

  escaped to his ship and sailed away.

 

 

NAME         Aedan

ALTERNATIVE  Aedan {ay'dan}

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior

TYPE         chariot warrior

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Leinster

AGE          Iron

ENEMIES      children of Mael Fhothartaig

SEE ALSO     Mael Fhothartaig / Ronan

REMARKS      The head chieftain of Leinster hired Aedan to

  kill his son Mael for him.  Aedan agreed to this and killed

  Mael with a spear.  Aedan was then killed by Mael's

  children in revenge for the death of their father.

 

 

NAME         Aedd Mawr

EPITHET      Of the Lower Region

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     deity / warrior / Brenin

TYPE         ancestral god / head chieftain

CULTURE      Pictish - Trinovantes

COUNTRY      France

REGION       Brittany

TERRITORY    Gaul / Llydaw

LANDMARKS    Loire

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c

RELATIVES    Prydain (son)

SEE ALSO     Prydain

REMARKS      Aedd Mawr was the head chieftain of the Pictish

  tribes in Llydaw (Brittany) and his territory was around

  the mouth of the Loire river.  His son Prydain led warriors

  from there to Lloegr (England) where they became known as

  the Pretani (Britons).

 

 

NAME         Aedh

ALTERNATIVE  Aed {ed} / Aedh (fire) / Aeda / Aodh

GENDER       M

SYMBOL       raven

CATEGORY     warrior / chieftain

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Oriel (Airgialla)

ACCESSORIES  shield - Dubhghiolla (Black Servant)

SEE ALSO     Badbh Catha

REMARKS      Aedh was the chieftain of Oriel and when he went

  into combat the battle goddess Badbh was said to perch on

  the rim of his shield in the form of a raven.

 

 

NAME         Aedh Dubh

EPITHET      Black Fire

ALTERNATIVE  Aed {ed} Dub / Aedh (fire) / Aeda / Aodh

GENDER       M

FESTIVAL     Samhain (Night of the Dead)

CATEGORY     warrior

TYPR         chariot warrior

CULTURE      Goidel - Ui Néill / Danann / Pictish

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Ulster

SITES        Hostel of Banban

AGE          Ui Nèill

DATES        AD 6th c

RELATIVES    Suibne (father); Flann (kinsman)

ENEMIES      Diarmuid mac Cearbhail

SEE ALSO     Banban / Bec Mac De / Diarmuid mac Cearbhail

REMARKS      Aedh Dubh attacked the Bruidhean (Hostel) of

  Banban looking for Diarmuid, the high chieftain of Ireland.

  He was seeking revenge on behalf of his kinsman who had

  been executed by the high chieftain of Ireland for having

  an affair with his wife.

       When Aedh Dubh found Diarmuid he stabbed him with his

  spear.  The wounded high chieftain managed to secure

  himself in his room, so Aedh Dubh had his warriors set the

  hostel on fire.  Diarmuid tried to escape the blaze by

  climbing into a vat of ale.  Fortunately for Aedh Dubh, a

  burning roof beam fell on Diarmuid and he drowned in the

  vat.  His death fulfilled a prophecy of his filidh Bec Mac

  De.

 

 

NAME         Aedh mac Ainmireach

ALTERNATIVE  Aed {ed} / Aedh (fire) / Aeda / Aodh

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / Ard Righ Eirinn

TYPE         chariot warrior / high chieftain

CULTURE      Goidel - Ui Néill / Danann / Pictish

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Meath

TERRITORY    Connacht / Leinster / Mide / Munster / Ulster

LANDMARKS    Magh mBreg

CENTERS      Raith Rig - Tara

AGE          Ui Néill

DATES        AD 6th c / AD 542-565 (Ard Righ - Kings List)

BATTLES      Dun Bolg

ACCESSORIES  supernatural caul that protected him in battle /

             Boramha Tribute (cattle counting)

RELATIVES    Ainmire (father); Domnall, Mael-Coba, Garban and

             Cumascach (sons); Eremon and Tea (ancestors)

ENEMIES      Brandubh / Ron Cerr

SEE ALSO     Brandubh / Domnall mac Aedh / Dubhdun / Eremon /

             Ron Cerr / Tea

REMARKS      Aedh mac Ainmireach son of Ainmire was a

  descendant of Eremon and Tea and ruled Ireland as the high

  chieftain for 28 years.  While he was awaiting the arrival

  of his tax from Leinster (Boramha Tribute), he was

  approached by a leper who informed him that the head

  chieftain of Leinster was sending his tribute by wagons and

  they would be there by nightfall.

       Aedh became suspicious of the story of the leper and

  sent for Dubhdun, chieftain of Oriel, and had him place his

  troops in preparation for a suprise attack from the

  warriors of Leinster.  They did this and when the wagons

  arrived they checked the cargo, finding only salted meats,

  grains and other such provisions included in the tax.

       The guards led the wagons into the camp and as soon as

  he had his chance the leper let the Leinster warriors out

  of their hiding places in the wagons.  The warriors of

  Leinster then attacked the Clanna Conall and Clanna Owen

  who protected the high chieftain of Ireland.

       Aedh mac Ainmireach realized too late that he had been

  tricked and was dragged from his horse by Ron Cerr, the

  leper, who was raising his sword for the final blow that

  took off his head.

 

 

NAME         Aedh Ruad

ALTERNATIVE  Aed Ruadh

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / Ard Righ Eirinn

TYPE         chariot warrior / high chieftain

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Meath

TERRITORY    Connacht / Leinster / Mide / Munster / Ulster

LANDMARKS    Magh mBreg

CENTERS      Raith Rig - Tara

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 7th c / BC 671-650 (Ard Righ - Kings List)

RELATIVES    Badarn (father); Macha (daughter); Cimbaeth and

             Dithorba (cousins); Airgetmar (grandfather); Ir

             (ancestor)

ENEMIES      Lugaid Laigdech

SEE ALSO     Airgetmar / Cimbaeth / Macha / Ir

REMARKS      Aedh Ruad, son of Badarn, son of Airgetmar was a

  descendant of Ir of the Milesian (Goidel).  He and his

  cousin Cimbaeth, head chieftain of Ulster, attacked Lugaid

  Laigdech the high chieftain of Ireland, and Aedh killed him

  in combat.

       Aedh then ruled Ireland for 21 years with his cousin

  Cimbaeth in Ulster and his other cousin Dithorba as the

  head chieftain of the Fianna of Inis Fail ruling the south.

  When Aedh died his position was taken by his cousin

  Cimbaeth.

 

 

NAME         Aeneas

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     hero / warrior

TYPE         chariot warrior

CULTURE      Goidel / Trojan / Phoenician

COUNTRY      England / Tunisia / Italy

REGION       Cambridgeshire

TERRITORY    Troad

LANDMARKS    Wash

CENTERS      Troy (Gogmagog Hills) / Carthage / Latium

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 13th c / BC 1240 (defeat of Troy)

BATTLES      Trojan War

RELATIVES    Dione (grandmother); Zeus (grandfather);

             Aphrodite (mother); Anchises (father); Ascanius

             [Iulus] (son); Dido (consort); Lavinia (wife);

             Silvius (son); Brute (grandson); Iafeth

             (ancestor)

ENEMIES      Achaean / Danann

SEE ALSO     Aphrodite / Brute / Iafeth / Virgil / Zeus

REMARKS      Aeneas was a hero of the Trojan War who escaped

  with his father and son after the defeat of his people.

  Their ship became lost in a storm and he ended up in

  Carthage, where he fell in love with Dido, the chieftain.

       After a period of time Aeneas went to Latium in Italy.

  There the chieftain Latinus promised him his daughter

  Lavinia, but another local chieftain who was in love with

  her declared war against him.  The other suitor was finally

  killed and Aeneas married Lavinia.  He died in battle

  against the Rutulians and was declared a god by the Latins.

  His story was related by the Celtic writer Virgil under the

  title of the Aeneid.  Aeneas's great-grandson Brut led

  warriors of the Trojan culture back to England 109 years

  after the Trojan War ended and founded the center Caer

  Troia (New Troy).

 

 

NAME         Aengus mac Lamh Gabuid

ALTERNATIVE  Oengus {Engus} / Oengus mac Lama Gabuid

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior

TYPE         chariot warrior

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Ulster

SITES        Hostel (Bruidhean)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Mac Da Tho's

RELATIVES    Lam Gabuid (father)

ENEMIES      Cet

SEE ALSO     Cet mac Magach / Mac Da Tho

REMARKS      Aengus, a tall blond warrior of Ulster, arose

  during the verbal battle for the hero's portion of Mac Da

  Tho's boar and challenged the right of Cet of Connacht to

  cut up the boar.  Cet asked Aengus if he knew why his

  father was called Lam Gabuid.  The warriors of Connacht

  demanded to know why.

       Cet told them that one day while he was capturing wild

  cattle in Ulster, Lam Gabuid threw a spear at him.  Cet

  caught the spear and threw it back, cutting off Lam

  Gabuid's hand.  That was how Aengus's father had acquired

  his name.  Aengus sat down.

 

 

NAME         Aeonghus mac Aedh Abrat

ALTERNATIVE  Oengus {Engus}

GENDER       M

FESTIVAL     Samhain (Night of the Dead)

CATEGORY     deity / bard

TYPE         healer god / singer / messenger

CULTURE      Danann

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    The Otherworld - Magh Cruaich

SITES        An Tete Brecc

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

RELATIVES    Aed Abrat (father); Fand and Li Ban (sisters)

SEE ALSO     Aed Abrat / Conall Cernacht / Cu Chulainn / Emer

             / Fand / Ferghus mac Roig / Li Ban / Lugaid

             Reoderg

REMARKS      Aeonghus mac Aedh Abrat was a deity from Magh

  Cruaich famed for his healing songs.  One Samhain as Cu

  Chulainn lay on his sick bed at An Tete Brecc, Aeonghus

  appeared before him.  Ferghus, Conall, Lugaid and Emer, who

  surrounded his bed, watched as the god chanted healing

  verses over Cu Chulainn, reviving him from his year-long

  coma.

       Aeonghus then told Cu Chulainn to return to the exact

  spot on Magh Muirthemni where he had met the two women.  Cu

  Chulainn did this and he found the goddess Li Ban waiting

  for him.

 

 

NAME         Aericura

EPITHET      Of the Underworld

ALTERNATIVE  Aeracura / Herecura

GENDER       F

SYMBOL       dog

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         moon goddess / fertility goddess

CULTURE      Pictish - Brigantes tribe

COUNTRY      Germany

REGION       Wurttemberg

LANDMARKS    Neckar

SITES        mineral springs at Cannstadt / Sulzbach

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 13th c

ACCESSORIES  key of white / blue / red

RELATIVES    Aericuros, Dis and Sucellos (consorts)

SEE ALSO     Aericuros / Dis / Sucellos

REMARKS      The ancient goddess of the underworld

  (subconscious) was venerated at Cannstadt, a place with

  many mineral springs used for curing diseases of the throat

  and nervous complaints.  A stone from the town of Cannstadt

  in Germany depicts her as a goddess of plenty, represented

  by a basket of fruit.  The first part of the name Aericura

  may relate to basket (aero) or to copper (aereus).

       Near the town of Ettlingen in the Baden-Wurttemberg

  region, the goddess sits with a basket of fruit while her

  partner unrolls the scroll of life.  The god is accompanied

  by a 3-headed dog and Aericura holds a key with the three

  colors white, blue, and red symbol of the moon goddess

  which is based on the corona of the moon.

       In Sulzbach she was sometimes represented with

  Sucellos.  This was an ancient Celtic area until the

  Germani tribes moved in during BC 1st century.  The

  Brigantes tribe was settled in this area by BC 13th century

  with another branch of the tribe in England.

 

 

NAME         Aericuros

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         fertility god

CULTURE      Pictish - Brigantes tribe / Britons

COUNTRY      England

REGION       Northumberland

TERRITORY    Lloegr

SITES        Corbridge

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 13th c

RELATIVES    Aericura (consort)

SEE ALSO     Aericura

REMARKS      Aericuros a Celtic fertility god was venerated

  in the Northumberland area of England.  This was the

  territory of the Brigantes who settled in BC 13th century.

 

 

NAME         Agamemnon

EPITHET      Lord of Many Isles and Argos

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     hero / warrior / chieftain

TYPE         chariot warrior / war leader

CULTURE      Achaean / Danann / Mycenaean / Argives

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica / Argos

LANDMARKS    Seine

SITES        Troy

CENTERS      Troyes (Mycenae)

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 13th c / BC 1240 (defeat of Troy)

BATTLES      Trojan War

ACCESSORIES  ship with oars

RELATIVES    Atreus (father); Aerope (mother); Clytaemnestra

             (wife); Iphigeneia and Electra (daughters);

             Orestes (son); Chryseis and Cassandra

             (consorts); Menelaus and Pleisthenes (brothers);

             Helen (sister-in-law); Pelops (grandfather);

             Hippodamia (grandmother); Thyestes (uncle)

ENEMIES      Troy

SEE ALSO     Achilles / Artio / Hector / Helen / Menelaus /

             Priam

REMARKS      In BC 13th century at the time of the Trojan

  War, Agamemnon was the head chieftain of Argos (northern

  France) and was made war leader for the Achaean armies.  He

  came from a very troubled family that had the curse of the

  gods on them.  He continued to aggravate the gods by

  killing a stag that was sacred to Artio and in revenge she

  becalmed the fleet he led to attack Troy.  To appease the

  goddess, he sacrificed his daughter Iphigenia.  Artio then

  spirited her away to the land of the Tauri where she

  trained as a druid.

       During a military campaign into the land of the

  Trojans, the Achaeans destroyed a town of Troad and

  captured several beautiful women.  Out of these, Agamemnon

  was presented with Chryseis, a daughter of a priest to the

  sun god.  During the 10th year of the war, a plague broke

  out in a camp of the Achaeans.  It was believed that the

  plague was caused by the father of Chryseis in revenge for

  his daughter's abduction, so the Achaean army persuaded

  Agamemnon to return her to her people.  Agamemnon then

  demanded Briseis, Achilles's consort.  Achilles withdrew

  his troops in retaliation and the war began to go badly for

  the Achaeans.

       In an attempt to lure his best battle champion back to

  the conflict, Agamennon offered Achilles 7 towns: Aipeia

  (Eupen) east of Liège; Antheia (Anthée) west of Dinant;

  Cardamyle (Karden) on the Moselle River; Enope (Enneptal)

  on the Ruhr; Hire (Irrel) north of Luxembourg; Pedasus

  (Pedenberg) north of Duisburg; and Pherae (Vervier) east of

  Liège, all in the region of the lower Rhine.

       A bribe of 7 towns, great quantities of wealth and

  numerous women including Briseis still failed to bring back

  Achilles.  Then fate intervened and Achilles' best friend

  Patroclus was killed by the battle champion Hector.  This

  drove Achilles into a battle rage and he helped swing the

  tide of battle back to the Achaeans.

       The war ended in favor of the Achaean, and a

  victorious Agamemnon returned home with a new consort,

  Cassandra, daughter of Priam.  On his arrival he was

  assassinated by his wife Clytemnestra and her lover.

  Agamemnon's son, Orestes, revenged his murder.

 

 

NAME         Agdistis

GENDER       F

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         fertility goddess

CULTURE      Belgae

COUNTRY      France / Belgium / Netherlands

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 3rd c

REMARKS      Agdistis was venerated as a fertility goddess in

  the area since ancient times.

 

 

NAME         Agrona

EPITHET      Of the Slaughter

GENDER       F

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         forerunner of death

CULTURE      Battle Axe - Ordovices tribe

COUNTRY      Wales

REGION       Ceredigion

LANDMARKS    Aeron river

AGE          Chalcolithic / Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 3rd mill / AD 47

REMARKS      Agrona was sometimes seen at the Aeron river

  washing the clothing of those who were going to be killed

  in an upcoming battle.  This was the territory of the

  Ordovices tribe, an ancient people who arriving in BC 3rd

  millenium.

 

 

NAME         Ai mac Ollamain

ALTERNATIVE  Ai (poem) / Aoi

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     poet

TYPE         popular poet

CULTURE      Danann

COUNTRY      Ireland

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 16th-15th c

RELATIVES    Olloman (father); Ernmas (grandmother); Delbaeth

             (grandfather); Fiachu (uncle); Magog, Iarbonel,

             Net and Ordan (ancestors)

ENEMIES      Eogan

SEE ALSO     Delbaeth / Ernmas / Fiachu / Iarbonel / Magog /

             Net / Oghma / Olloman / Ordan

REMARKS      Ai the son of Olloman was a descendant of Net

  and Ordan.  When Ai mac Ollamain was born, his dwelling was

  rocked by such great winds that the filidh predicted the

  boy would become a great man.  The chieftain wanted the boy

  slain but the newborn child pleaded for his own life.  He

  was named "Ai" which means "poem" and grew to become a

  famous poet.  Ai and his uncle were killed by by Eogan of

  Imbir Mor.

 

 

NAME         Aideen

ALTERNATIVE  Aidin

GENDER       F

CATEGORY     rigbean (noble woman)

CULTURE      Fianna - Clanna Baoisgne {Bascna}

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Munster

SITES        Ben Edar (Howth)

AGE          Iron

DATES        AD 3rd c / AD 287 (died)

RELATIVES    Oscar (husband); Oisin (father-in-law)

SEE ALSO     Oisin / Oscar

REMARKS      Aideen was the noble wife of the great Fianna

  chieftain Oscar.  When she heard that her husband had died

  in battle, her sense of loss was so great that she

  committed suicide.  Oscar's father Oisin buried her under

  an ogham stone on Ben Edar (Howth), the same stone under

  which he himself would be buried a century later.

 

 

NAME         Aife

EPITHET      The Handsome / Greatest of Female Warriors

ALTERNATIVE  Aifa {eefa, ee-fe} / Aife {eefe} / Aoife

             {eef-ay}

GENDER       F

CATEGORY     hero / warrior / chieftain

TYPE         chariot warrior / battle champion / combat

             instructor

CULTURE      Pictish

COUNTRY      Scotland

TERRITORY    The Otherworld - Land of Shadow (Tir na Scath) /

             Albainn

SITES        Isle of Women (Oiléan na mBan)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

ACCESSORIES  chariot / horses

RELATIVES    Airdgreme (father); Scathach (sister); Condlae

             (son); Cu Chulainn (consort); Uathach (niece)

SEE ALSO     Airdgreme / Condlae / Cu Chulainn / Ferdiad /

             Scathach / Uathach

REMARKS      Aife was the mightiest of female warriors and

  lived in the Land of Shadow of The Otherworld on the Island

  of Women.  When Scathach and her warriors attacked Aife,

  she killed many of her sister's best champions.  Aife then

  challenged her sister Scathach to single combat but before

  she could answer, Cu Chulainn appeared and challenged Aife

  to single combat.

       Aife was a superior warrior to Cu Chulainn but he knew

  that her greatest worry was her chariot and her horses.  As

  she was about to slay him he yelled for her to look to her

  horses and when she turned he captured her.

       In exchange for not killing her, he extracted three

  promises from her.  They were: that she and her sister

  would make peace, that she would bear his child and that

  she would train the child to be a mighty warrior.  She

  agreed to this arrangement and Cu Chulainn stayed and

  trained with her until she bore him a son.

       Cu Chulainn told her to name the child Condlae and

  gave her his thumb ring.  When the boy was old enough he

  was to be given the ring and sent out into the world with

  the geis that he was not to reveal his name to anyone

  should they ask.  Aife also trained Ferdiad, Cu Chulainn's

  foster brother, and numerous other warriors.

 

 

NAME         Aige

GENDER       F

SYMBOL       hind

CATEGORY     character

COUNTRY      Ireland

RELATIVES    Broccaid mac Bric (father); Fafne (brother)

ENEMIES      Meilge

REMARKS      Aige was turned into a hind by a filidh under

  orders from Meilge, the high chieftain of Ireland, because

  she refused to marry him.  He and his warriors then hunted,

  killed and ate her.

       Aige's brother Fafne was a poet and composed a satire

  which raised 3 blotches on the face of Meilge.  Fafne's act

  was a serious offense because the high chieftain of Ireland

  had to be without physical blemishes or disfigurations.

  Fafne was captured and executed at the command of the high

  chieftain.

 

 

NAME         Ailbe

GENDER       F

CATEGORY     rigbean (noble woman)

CULTURE      Danann / Goidel / Pictish / Fianna - Clanna Ui

             Tarsigh

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Meath

TERRITORY    Mide / Leinster

LANDMARKS    Magh mBreg

SITES        Allen Hill

CENTERS      Raith Rig - Tara / Raith Almu (Fort of Almain)

AGE          Iron

DATES        AD 3rd c

RELATIVES    Cormac macAirt (father); Ethne (mother); Grainne

             (sister); Cairbre and Celleach (brothers); Fionn

             mac Cumhaill (consort); Art (grandfather);

             Eremon and Tea (ancestors)

SEE ALSO     Art Aenfer / Cairbre Lifechair / Celleach /

             Cormac macAirt / Eremon / Fionn mac Cumhaill /

             Grainne / Tea

REMARKS      Ailbe, daughter of Cormac macAirt the high

  chieftain of Ireland, fell in love with Fionn mac Cumhaill.

  When she correctly answered a series of riddles, Fionn

  invited her to live with him as a consort.

 

 

NAME         Ailbhinn

ALTERNATIVE  Alvin

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior

TYPE         battle-line / champion

CULTURE      Danann / Goidel / Pictish / Fomorii / Fianna -

             Clanna Ui Tarsigh

COUNTRY      Ireland / Scotland

REGION       Dublin

TERRITORY    Leinster / The Otherworld - Lochlinners

LANDMARKS    Hill of Howth

SITES        Allen Hill / Dun Kincorry

CENTERS      Raith Almu (Fort of Almain)

AGE          Iron

DATES        AD 3rd c

RELATIVES    Fionn mac Cumhaill (father); Samhair and Cebha

             (half-sisters); Aedh, Ailbhinn, Cairell, Daire,

             Fergus Finnbheoil, Oisin and Raighne (half-

             brothers)

ENEMIES      Manus

SEE ALSO     Ailbhinn / Cairell / Caoilte / Cebha / Daire /

             Fergus Finnbheoil / Fionn mac Cumhaill / Goll /

             Manus / Oisin / Samhair

REMARKS      Ailbhinn and Caoilte and many of the Fianna's

  best warriors were not invited to a feast given by Fionn at

  Raith Almu.  They were so insulted by this snub that they

  decided to take their services elsewhere and sailed to the

  territory of Lochlinners where they took service for a year

  and a day with Manus, the head chieftain of the Red

  Shields.

       The wife of the head chieftain fell in love with

  Ailbhinn and they all had to flee to escape her husband.

  The warriors of the Fianna decided to head to their summer

  hunting grounds and the head chieftain of Lochlinners

  followed with nine of his chieftains and their warriors.

       When Manus arrived at Dun Kincorry near the Hill of

  Howth, his champion Erragon waded into the Fianna with his

  sword.  Ailbhinn was at the front of his warriors and he

  and the son of Leirr as well as 30 other Fianna lost their

  heads to the champion.

       Finally Goll, champion of the Fianna, challenged

  Erragon to combat.  The two dragons of combat fought for 9

  hours with mighty deeds and feats.  In the end, Goll was

  the victor.

 

 

NAME         Ailell macMailchlo

EPITHET      The Listener

ALTERNATIVE  Ailill {al-il, al-ill, ayeleel, el'yill} /

             Ailill Estech / Oilill

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     filidh

CULTURE      Goidel - Dal nAraide

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Ulster

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Cualnge Cattle Raid

RELATIVES    Rudraige (father); Maelchod (mother); Sencha

             (son); Congal Clairingnech, Bresal Bo-dibad,

             Cass and Ross (brothers); Sitric (grandfather);

             Ir (ancestors)

ENEMIES      Host of Connacht

SEE ALSO     Maelchod / Ir / Ross the Red / Rudraige / Sencha

             macAilella

REMARKS      Ailell macMailchlo's mother was a filidh and his

  son Sencha macAilella was known as The Wise Counsellor and

  the most respected filidh in Ulster.  Ailell used his arts

  during the Cualnge Cattle Raid.

 

 

NAME         Ailill Agach

EPITHET      Edge of Battle

ALTERNATIVE  Ailbill / Ailell / Ailill {al-il, al-ill,

             ayeleel, el'yill} / Oilill

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / chieftain

TYPE         sea raider

REGION       Goidel - Eoghanachta tribe

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Connacht

LANDMARKS    Galway Bay / Arans

AGE          Ui Néill

DATES        AD 7th c

RELATIVES    Maelduin (son)

SEE ALSO     Maelduin

REMARKS      Ailill was a chieftain of a sept of the

  Eoghanachta tribe in Thomond of the Arans, 3 islands in

  Galway Bay.  During a raid on the mainland of Ireland they

  camped by a church and he took advantage of one of the

  women of the new religon.  She gave birth to a beautiful

  male child whom she named Maelduin who she then gave to her

  sister to be raised as her own.

       Ailill was killed by raiders, and when his son

  finished training as a warrior he went off in search of his

  father's killer.

 

 

NAME         Ailill Aine

ALTERNATIVE  Ailbill / Ailell / Ailill {al-il, ayeleel,

             al-ill, el'yill} / Oilill

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior

TYPE         chariot warrior / son of the Ard Righ Eirinn

CULTURE      Goidel / Pictish

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Meath

TERRITORY    Mide

LANDMARKS    Magh mBreg

CENTERS      Raith Rig - Tara

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th

RELATIVES    Laoghaire Loc (father); Labraid (son); Ugaine

             Mor (grandfather); Cesair (grandmother);

             Cobhthach (uncle); Eremon and Tea (ancestors)

ENEMIES      Cobhthach

SEE ALSO     Cesair / Cobhthach Coel / Eremon / Labraid

             Loingsech / Laoghaire Loc / Tea / Ugaine  Mor

REMARKS      Ailill Aine was poisoned by his uncle Cobhthach

  Coel in an attempt to get rid of any family members who

  might have a right to the position of high chieftain of

  Ireland.

 

 

NAME         Ailill Anubhaill

ALTERNATIVE  Ailbill / Ailell / Ailill {al-il, ayeleel,

             al-ill, el'yill} / Oilill Angubae

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior

TYPE         chariot warrior

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Meath

TERRITORY    Mide

LANDMARKS    Magh mBreg

SITES        hill of Tara

CENTERS      Raith Rig - Tara

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

RELATIVES    Find (father); Eochaidh Feidhleach and Eochaidh

             Airemh (brothers); Etain Echraidhe (consort ?);

             Etain Oig (daughter ?); Eremon and Tea

             (ancestors)

SEE ALSO     Eochaidh Airemh / Eochaidh Feidhleach / Etain

             Echraidhe / Etain Oig / Eremon / Midhir / Tea

REMARKS      Ailill, son of Find, son of Findlug, fell in

  love with Etain Echraidhe, the wife of Eochaidh Airemh who

  was his brother and the high chieftain of Ireland.  The

  frustration of not being able to consummate his love with

  her brought about a wasting sickness.

       When the high chieftain of Ireland left for his tour

  of the five provinces of Ireland, Ailill was on his death

  bed.  Believing the end had come, he confided in Etain and

  told of his love for her.  Etain came each day and bathed

  his face and hands and cut his meat and in 3x9 days he was

  in good health again.

       Now that Ailill was in better spirits he convinced

  Etain to make a tryst on the hill of Tara the next day.

  When the time came Ailill slept throughout the day and did

  not wake until evening.  They again made a tryst to meet on

  the hill and again he slept throughout the day.  The 3rd

  appointment to meet went the same way.  When they finally

  discussed the matter, Etain told him that she had met him

  each day on top of the hill and had spent the day with him.

       It was then that Midhir, a deity of the Danann,

  appeared and told her that he had taken on the likeness of

  Ailill and had met with her on the hill.  He had used his

  gifts to make Ailill fall in love with Etain and now he

  would reverse the process so that he would forget her.

 

 

NAME         Ailill Dubhdedach

EPITHET      Blacktoothed Ailill

ALTERNATIVE  Ailbill / Ailell / Ailill {al-il, ayeleel,

             al-ill, el'yill} / Oilill

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior

TYPE         giant / door guard

CULTURE      Danann

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    The Otherworld - Land of Wonder (Tir na Iontas)

AGE          Iron

DATES        AD 3rd c

RELATIVES    Morgan (father); Coinchend (mother); Delbchaem

             (sister)

ENEMIES      Art Aenfer

SEE ALSO     Art Aenfer / Coinchend / Delbchaem / Morgan

REMARKS      Blacktoothed Ailill guarded the gates of the

  family fortress on an island in the Land of Wonder.

       Ailill could not be killed by any weapon and when Art

  Aenfer came to the gates of the fortress, he was sharpening

  his teeth on a pillar stone.  Art killed him, gaining entry

  to the fortress in his search for the beautiful Delbchaem.

 

 

NAME         Ailill Find Miltenga

ALTERNATIVE  Ailbill / Ailell / Ailill {al-il, ayeleel,

             al-ill, el'yill} / Oilill

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     hero / warrior

TYPE         chariot warrior / Red Branch champion

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Armagh

TERRITORY    Ulster

CENTERS      Emain Macha (Navan)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Cualnge Cattle Raid

ENEMIES      Host of Connacht

REMARKS      Ailill Find Miltenga was a Red Branch champion

  who fought for Ulster during the Cualnge Cattle Raid.

 

 

NAME         Ailill Finn

ALTERNATIVE  Ailbill / Ailell / Ailill {al-il, ayeleel,

             al-ill, el'yill} / Oilill

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / chieftain

TYPE         chariot warrior

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Connacht

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Cualnge Cattle Raid

RELATIVES    Flidhais (wife)

SEE ALSO     Flidhais

REMARKS      Ailill Finn was a chariot-warrior of Connacht

  and was married to Flidhais the chariot goddess.  He was

  killed during the Cualnge Cattle Raid.

 

 

NAME         Ailill macMata

EPITHET      Ailill of Leinster

ALTERNATIVE  Ailbill / Ailell / Ailill {al-il, ayeleel,

             al-ill, el'yill} / Oilill

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / Ri Ruirech

TYPE         chariot warrior / head chieftain

CULTURE      Gailioin

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Carlow / Roscommon

TERRITORY    Leinster / Connacht

LANDMARKS    Magh Ai

SITES        Hostel (Bruidhean)

CENTERS      Dinn Rig / Raith Cruachain (Rathcroghan)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Mac Da Tho's / Cualnge Cattle Raid / Gairech &

             Irgairech

ACCESSORIES  Finnbhenach (The White Horned Bull)

RELATIVES    Maga Muresc (mother); Ross Ruad (father); Medbh

             (wife); Andoe, Athramail, Gaib Uile, Mathramail,

             Milscothach, Mingor, Morgor and Orlam (sons);

             Finnabair and Sadb Sulbair (daughters); Finn and

             Carbre (brothers); Ethne (consort); Furbaide

             (son)

ENEMIES      Cualnge / Pictland / Ulster / Ferghus / Conall

SEE ALSO     Carbre Niafer / Cethern / Conall Cernacht /

             Cuillius / Ethne / Ferghus mac Roig / Finn

             macMata / Finnabair / Froech / Furbaide / Mac Da

             Tho / Maga Muresc / Mane / Medbh / Orlam / Ross

             Ruad

REMARKS      Ailill was born in Leinster, the son of Maga

  Muresc and Ross Ruad.  Ailill had rights to the leadership

  of Connacht through his mother and grandmother.  He was the

  only suitor that Medbh, Sovereign of Ireland, would accept.

  Medbh was the head chieftain of Connacht and her bride

  price was a chariot worth 21 slave women, a wedding ring

  the breadth of his face and made of red gold, silver bronze

  the weight of his left forearm (shield arm), and noble

  clothing for 12 men.  Their union tied Leinster and

  Connacht together.

       Ailill was described as a tall red man wearing a

  diadem of gold on his head.  He carried a hammered sword

  with a gold hilt in a scabbard of silver ornamented in

  gold.  Before the Cualnge Cattle Raid he called on his

  uncles to help in the raid against Ulster.  Cuillius was

  his charioteer during the cattle raid.

       Ailill congratulated himself on the Host of Connacht

  having laid waste to Cualnge, Ulster, the land of the

  Picts, from the end of summer until the beginning of

  spring.  They captured the women, children, horses and

  herds, and he thought it was time to go to Raith Cruachain

  on Magh Ai in Roscommon to await the upcoming battle.  At

  the end of the Cualnge Cattle Raid, Ailill made a 7-year

  peace with Ulster.

       Ailill killed Ferghus mac Roig while Ferghus was

  swimming with Medbh, in revenge for having an affair with

  his wife.  Ailill's wife Medbh helped Conall Cernacht kill

  Ailill on a Beltainn with a spear while he was swimming, in

  revenge for his having killed Ferghus.

 

 

NAME         Ailill Miltenga

EPITHET      The Honey-tongued

ALTERNATIVE  Ailbill / Ailell / Ailill {al-il, ayeleel,

             al-ill, el'yill} / Oilill

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     chariot warrior / poet

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Armagh

TERRITORY    Ulster

SITES        Mound of Slane in Mide

CENTERS      Emain Macha (Navan)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Cualnge Cattle Raid / Gairech & Irgairech

RELATIVES    son of Carba

ENEMIES      Host of Connacht

SEE ALSO     Athairne / Fer Chertnae / MacRoth

REMARKS      During the Cualnge Cattle Raid, MacRoth

  described a company of Ulster poets led by Fer Chertnae as

  they arrived at the Mound of Slane in Mide.   Ailill and

  Athairne flanked their leader Fer Chertnae.

       Ailill was described as a bright-faced youth wearing

  purple boots and a reddish-gray mantle held with a silver

  fibula.  He carried a sword from his waist and his voice

  was as sweet as that of a lute.

 

 

NAME         Ailill of Aran

ALTERNATIVE  Ailbill / Ailell / Ailill {al-il, ayeleel,

             al-ill, el'yill} / Oilill

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / chieftain

CULTURE      Danann

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Island of Aran

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 16th-15th c

RELATIVES    Aebh, Aoife and Arbha (daughters)

SEE ALSO     Aebh / Aoife / Bobd Dearg / Lir

REMARKS      Ailill was the chieftain of the island of Aran

  and he sent his three daughters Aebh, Aoife and Arbha to be

  fostered by the Danann head chieftain Bodb Dearg at his

  raith at Sidhe ar Femuin in East Munster.  Two of his

  daughters married the Danann chieftain Lir.

 

 

NAME         Ailill of Echraidhe

ALTERNATIVE  Ailbill / Ailell / Ailill {al-il, ayeleel,

             al-ill, el'yill} / Oilill

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / chieftain

CULTURE      Danann

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Ulster

LANDMARKS    Magh nInis

CENTERS      Sidhe Ban Find

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 16th-15th c

RELATIVES    Danu (consort); Be Find (daughter)

SEE ALSO     Anghus mac Og / Daghda / Midhir / Be Find

REMARKS      Ailill of Echraidhe was the chieftain of the

  Danann in Ulster.  Anghus travelled to Sidhe Ban Find on

  Magh nInis to obtain permission to woo his daughter Be Find

  on behalf of Anghus's foster-father Midhir.  Ailill said he

  would allow the wooing if Anghus could complete three

  tasks.

       The first task was to clear 12 forests.  Anghus with

  the help of his father Daghda created the 9 plains of Magh

  nDula, Magh nItha, Magh Lemna, Magh Li, Magh Line, Magh

  Machae, Magh Muirthemni, Magh Techt and Magh Tochair in a

  single night.

       The next task was to create 12 rivers.  Anghus agreed

  to this task and with the help of his father again they

  drained the newly-cleared plains creating the 8 rivers

  Amnas, Bandai, Findi, Lochae, Nass, Oichen, Or and Samuir.

       The third task was to provide a bride price of Be

  Find's weight in both gold and silver.  This was done and

  Ailill allowed them to take Be Find to Sidhe Brugh na Boyna

  on Magh mBreg and introduce her to Midhir.

 

 

NAME         Ailill Olomn

EPITHET      Bare Ear

ALTERNATIVE  Ailbill / Ailell / Ailill {al-il, ayeleel,

             al-ill, el'yill} / Ailill Aulum / Ailill Olamh /

             Oilill Olom

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / Ri Ruirech

TYPE         chariot warrior / head chieftain

CULTURE      Goidel - Eoganachata

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Munster / Leth Moga (The Half of Mug)

CENTERS      Raith Cashel (Caisel)

AGE          Iron

DATES        AD 2nd c

ACCESSORIES  supernatural spear

RELATIVES    Eoghan (father); Beara (mother); Cormac Cas

             and Cian (sons); Conaire and Tadhg (brothers);

             Eber (ancestor)

ENEMIES      Aine na gClair

SEE ALSO     Aine na gClair / Beara / Cian / Conaire Coem /

             Cormac Cas / Eber / Eoghan Mor / Tadhg mac

  Nuadat

REMARKS      Ailill Olomn possessed a supernatural spear that

  had 3 gessa against it.  The spear should not be used

  against a woman, its point should never strike a stone and

  its tip should should never be straightened with the teeth.

       Ailill desired the beautiful fertility goddess Aine na

  gClair, and when she refused his advances he raped her.  In

  revenge, Aine cut off both of his ears which prohibited him

  from remaining the head chieftain of Munster.

       In a fit of anger at having his ears cut off, Ailill

  threw his spear at Aine.  The spear went straight through

  her body and hit a rock.  He then retrieved it and

  unwittingly straightened the tip of the spear with his

  teeth.  He realized too late what he had done, as his sight

  faded and his breath became foul.

 

 

NAME         Aille Shnuadh-Gheal

EPITHET      The Fair

GENDER       F

CATEGORY     rigbean (noble woman)

COUNTRY      Ireland

AGE          Iron

DATES        AD 3rd c

BATTLES      Cnoc-an-aire

RELATIVES    Meargach (husband)

ENEMIES      Oscar

SEE ALSO     Conan Maol / Fionn mac Cumhaill / Meargach /

             Oscar

REMARKS      Aille the Fair was wife to Meargach of the Green

  Spear.  When her husband was killed in combat against Oscar

  of the Fianna during the battle of Cnoc-an-aire, she swore

  revenge.

       Aille ordered her filidh Fer Gruadh (The Gray Man) to

  capture Fionn and as many of the Fianna as he could.  He

  used a drug spell but Conan Maol freed them with the use of

  trickery.  When Oscar was freed, he killed the Gray Man and

  soon after, Aille committed suicide.

 

 

NAME         Aillen mac Midhna

ALTERNATIVE  Aillen mac Midna

GENDER       M

FESTIVAL     Samhain (Night of the Dead)

CATEGORY     warrior

CULTURE      Danann

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Meath

TERRITORY    Mide

LANDMARKS    Magh mBreg

SITES        Cave of Cruachan / Raith Rig

AGE          Iron

DATES        AD 3rd c

RELATIVES    son of Midhna

ENEMIES      Fionn

SEE ALSO     Cormac macAirt / Fionn mac Cumhaill / Goll mac

             Morna

REMARKS      For 23 years on the eve of Samhain, Aillen would

  come forth from The Otherworld through the Cave of Cruachan

  and lull the inhabitants of Tara to sleep with his

  enchanting music.  Then he would set the walls of the Raith

  Rig alight and burn down fortress.

       One year, a young Fionn mac Cumhaill decided to

  investigate.  When Samhain eve arrived, he kept himself

  awake by pressing the point of his spear to his forehead.

  Then when Aillen appeared before the walls of Tara, Fionn

  killed him and cut off his head.  In appreciation, the high

  chieftain of Ireland, Cormac macAirt, replaced Goll with

  Fionn as head of all the Fianna.

 

 

NAME         Aillinn

ALTERNATIVE  Ailinn

GENDER       F

SYMBOL       apple tree

FESTIVAL     Samhain (Night of the Dead)

CATEGORY     rigbean (noble woman)

TYPE         grand-daughter of the Ri Ruireach

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Carlow

TERRITORY    Leinster

LANDMARKS    Boyne / Magh mBreg

SITES        Rosnaree

CENTERS      Dinn Rig

AGE          Iron

DATES        AD 1st c

RELATIVES    Lewy Farriga (mother); Eoghan mac Dathi (father)

SEE ALSO     Art Aenfer / Baile mac Buain

REMARKS      Aillinn, grand-daughter of the head chieftain of

  Leinster, was in love with Baile, son of the head chieftain

  of Ulster, at a time when the two provinces were at war.

       The couple made a tryst to meet at Rosnaree on Magh

  mBreg by the bank of the Boyne.  Just before Ailinn was to

  leave for her secret meeting, an apparition told her that

  Baile mac Buain had died on the way to meet his love.

       Aillinn, her heart broken, took poison and died.  In

  time, an apple tree grew from her tomb and the poets of

  Leinster cut a branch from the tree and told her story in

  ogham.  Two hundred years later on a Samhain eve, the high

  chieftain of Ireland Art Aenfer would bring the two

  together again.

 

 

NAME         Aine na gClair

EPITHET      Aine of the Sight / Of the Wisp

GENDER       F

SYMBOL       cliar (wisp)

FESTIVAL     summer solstice

CATEGORY     deity / filidh

TYPE         fertility and love goddess / seer

CULTURE      Danann

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    West Munster

LANDMARKS    Loch Guirr

SITES        Cnoc Aine {knockainy}

AGE          Iron

DATES        AD 2nd c

ACCESSORIES  Seer's ring

RELATIVES    Donn of Uisneach (grandfather); Eogabail

             (father)

ENEMIES      Ailill Olomn

SEE ALSO     Ailill Olomn / Eogabail

REMARKS      Aine na gClair was the beautiful daughter of the

  druid Eogabail.  She was a fertility goddess who was raped

  by Ailill Olomn when she spurned his attention.  Aine took

  revenge on Ailill by cutting off both his ears.  The loss

  of his ears meant that Ailill would never again be the head

  chieftain of Munster because he was blemished.  In anger he

  killed her with his supernatural spear.

       Aine was buried and her burial cairn became known as

  Cnoc Aine (Aine's Hill) near Loch Guirr which is fed by

  water from a sacred spring.  It is said that she appears on

  on the eve of summer solstice and mates with mortal men.

       Devotees would gather on her hill on the eve of summer

  solstice and light a need-fire.  They would evoke Aine to

  come amongst them and ask her to protect them against

  sickness, ensure fertility and bring them good luck.  From

  the need-fire they would light their torches called cliars

  (wisps) which were made by tying hay and straw to a pole

  (broomstick) and spread out into their fields swinging

  their torches in a circle over their crops and cattle.

       One night she appeared among some of her female

  devotees who had stayed late on her hill.  She thanked them

  for their devotion and allowed some to look through her

  seer's ring at a group of people from The Otherworld who

  also wanted to use the hill that night.

 

 

NAME         Airdgeme

EPITHET      Lord of Red Brightness / High Power

ALTERNATIVE  Ard-Greimme

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         sun god

CULTURE      Pictish

COUNTRY      Scotland

TERRITORY    Albainn / The Otherworld - Lethra

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

RELATIVES    Scathach and Aife (daughters); Uathach (grand-

             daughter)

SEE ALSO     Aife / Scathach / Uathach

REMARKS      Airdgeme was the sun god of Lethra and his two

  daughters and a grand-daughter were all battle champions

  and instructors in the art of combat.

 

 

NAME         Airgetmar

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / Ard Righ Eirinn

TYPE         chariot warrior / high chieftain

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Meath

TERRITORY    Connacht / Leinster / Mide / Munster / Ulster

LANDMARKS    Magh mBreg / Oenach Aine

CENTERS      Raith Rig - Tara

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 8th-7th / BC 718-688 (Ard Righ - Kings List)

BATTLES      Brega

RELATIVES    Sirlam (father); Badarn and Fintan (sons);

             Cimbaeth and Aed Ruad (grandsons); Macha (great-

             granddaughter); Ir (ancestor)

ENEMIES      Ailill Finn / Fiachu / Dui Ladgrach

SEE ALSO     Aed Ruad / Fodhla / Ir / Macha / Setna Airt

REMARKS      Airgetmar, son of Sirlam, was a descendant of Ir

  of the Milesian (Goidel) and became the 48th high chieftain

  of Ireland.

       Airgetmar had sided with Fiachu son of Dui Ladgrach

  against the high chieftain Ailill Finn son of Art.  They

  killed the high chieftain but then they themselves fought

  over the title at the battle of Brega.  Fiachu was killed

  in the battle but the descendants of Eremon rallied behind

  Eochu, son of Ailill Finn and drove Airgetmar from Ireland.

       Airgetmar remained in exile for 7 years until he made

  peace with Dui Ladgrach son of Fiachra Tolgrach.  They then

  attacked the high chieftain, Eochu, and killed him at

  Oenach Aine.

       Airgetmar then reigned as high chieftain for 30 years

  until he was killed by Dui Ladgrach who ruled for 10 years

  until he was slain by Lugaid Laigdech who ruled for 7 years

  until he was killed in combat by Aed Ruad, a grandson of

  Airgetmar.  Aed Ruad became the next high chieftain.

 

 

NAME         Airmid

ALTERNATIVE  Airmed / Airmedh / Airmeth

GENDER       F

FESTIVAL     summer solstice

CATEGORY     druid

TYPE         physician (medicinal plants)

CULTURE      Danann

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Sligo

TERRITORY    Connacht

LANDMARKS    Plain of Towers (Magh Tuireadh)

SITES        Spring of Health

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 16th-15th c

BATTLES      second battle of Magh Tuireadh (north Moytura)

RELATIVES    Diancecht (father); Miach, Ochttriuil, Cian, Cu

             and Cethen (brothers); Etain (sister); Esaire

             (grandmother); Net great-grandfather); Magog and

             Iarbonel (ancestors)

SEE ALSO     Cian / Diancecht / Esaire / Etain / Iarbonel /

             Magog / Miach / Net

REMARKS      Airmid, daughter of Diancecht, son of Esaire,

  daughter of Net was a healer like her father and her

  brother.  She was, with her father, responsible for

  guarding the sacred spring (Spring of Health) that could

  raise the dead, mend the wounded and heal the sick.  She

  helped her brother Miach replace a porter's damaged eye

  with that of a cat.  The porter was awake in one eye during

  the day and the other during the night.

       When her father murdered her brother out of jealousy

  of his talents, medicinal herbs grew up on his grave.

  Airmid picked the herbs and laid them on her cloak in the

  order in which they grew.  When her father saw this he

  threw them from the cloak so the secrets would remain his

  alone.

 

 

NAME         Aittit

ALTERNATIVE  Aittit (Furze)

GENDER       M

FESTIVAL     Samhain (Night of the Dead)

CATEGORY     filidh

TYPE         chief lampoonist to Conaire (Ard Righ Eirinn)

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Meath / Dublin

TERRITORY    Mide

LANDMARKS    Magh mBreg / Magh Liffey

SITES        Da Derga's Hostel

CENTERS      Raith Rig - Tara

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Ath Cliath

RELATIVES    sons of Sciath Foilt

ENEMIES      Ingcel / sons of Donn Desa

SEE ALSO     Conaire / Da Derga / Donn Desa / Ingcel

REMARKS      Aittit (Furze), Draigen (Bramble) and Dris

  (Thorn) were the 3 lampooners for Conaire, the high

  chieftain of Ireland.  During the battle of Ath Cliath on

  Magh Liffey, each wore long gowns with red patterns and

  blue mantles.  All three carried arms and each killed a

  warrior while defending the high chieftain.

 

 

NAME         Alawn

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     vate

TYPE         judge

CULTURE      Pictish / Briton

COUNTRY      France / England

REGION       Brittany / Cornwall

TERRITORY    Gaul / Llydaw / Lloegr

LANDMARKS    Loire

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 550 ca.

SEE ALSO     Dyvnwal / Gwron / Plennydd / Prydain

REMARKS      Alawn was an ovate at the druidic center

  established on Ynys Prydain (island of the Pretani) by

  Plennydd.  Alawn and Gwron developed the concept of usage

  and privileges which became the customs of the bards of the

  island of Britain.

       This was during the time of Prydain and his son

  Dyvnwal, when the Pictish warriors came from the Loire

  river in Llydaw (Brittany) to Lloegr (England).  Here they

  became known as the Pretani (Britons).

 

 

NAME         Albanactus

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     hero / warrior / chieftain

TYPE         chariot warrior

CULTURE      Latin / Goidel - Coritani tribe

COUNTRY      England / Scotland

REGION       Humberside

TERRITORY    Albainn

LANDMARKS    Humber river / Caithness

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 11th c

RELATIVES    Brute (father); Ignoge (mother); Locrinus and

             Camber (brothers)

ENEMIES      Humber

SEE ALSO     Brute / Camber / Corineus / Gwendolen / Locrinus

             / Maddan

REMARKS      Since Locrinus was the oldest of Brute's sons,

  he was chosen as the high chieftain of their people.  As

  was tradition among the Celtic people, the other two

  siblings and their followers went off in search of new

  lands.

       Albanactus and his people travelled to the north side

  of the Humber river and conquered to Caithness in the

  northern tip of Scotland.

       A chieftain from the continent, landed near the mouth

  of the Humber river with a force of warriors and Albanactus

  was killed in the battle that followed.  His brothers

  arrived to late to save him but they did drive off the

  invaders.  Albanactus's name was given to the territory

  which was called Albainn.  Humber's name was given to the

  river.

 

 

NAME         Albina

GENDER       F

CATEGORY     warrior / chieftain

CULTURE      Amazon

COUNTRY      England

AGE          Bronze

REMARKS      An Amazon chieftain named Albina landed on the

  shores of England with 50 female warriors.

 

 

NAME         Albiorix

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         mountain god

CULTURE      Gallic - Tricastini

COUNTRY      France

REGION       Vaucluse

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Rhône / Durance

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 3rd c

REMARKS      Albiorix was venerated in the territory of the

  Tricastini tribe a people who settled the area in BC 6th

  century.

 

 

NAME         Alisanos

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         god of rocks

CULTURE      Gallic - Mandubii tribe

COUNTRY      France

REGION       Côte d'Or

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Yonne / Seine / Aube

SITES        Alesia (Alise Ste Reine)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c

REMARKS      Alisanos was venerated as a god of rocks at

  Alise Ste Reine (Alesia) a site in the territory of the

  Mandubii tribe who were settled in the area since BC 6th

  century.

 

 

NAME         Allectus

ALTERNATIVE  Allectos

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / chieftain

CULTURE      Pictish ?

COUNTRY      Scotland / England

AGE          Iron

DATES        AD 3rd c / AD 297

ENEMIES      Rome

REMARKS      Allectus fought against the armies of Emperor

  Constantius I in AD 297.

 

 

NAME         Amaethon

EPITHET      The Divine Plowman

ALTERNATIVE  Amathaon

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     deity / farmer

TYPE         god of agriculture

CULTURE      Danann

COUNTRY      Wales

REGION       Gwynedd {gwin-eth} / Clwyd {clud}

TERRITORY    Gwynedd

CENTERS      Harlech

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

RELATIVES    Don (mother); Arianrod (half-sister); Govannon

             (brother); Gwyddion and Gilfaethwy (half-

             brothers); Dylan and Llew (nephews)

SEE ALSO     Arianrod / Culhwch / Don / Dylan Eil Ton /

             Gilfaethwy / Govannon / Gwyddion ap Don /

             Isbaddaden / Llew Llaw Gyffes

REMARKS      Amaethon was of the family of Don.  Six hundred

  years after his death, Isbaddaden demanded that Culhwch get

  Amaethon to plow, plant and harvest a field in one day.

  Needless to say, Amaethon refused.

 

 

NAME         Amargin

ALTERNATIVE  Amargin {av-ar-ghin}

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / chieftain

TYPE         battle-line champion

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Ulster

SITES        Mound of Slane in Mide

CENTERS      Buas

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Cualnge Cattle Raid / Gairech & Irgairech

ACCESSORIES  sword (Echtach) / fluted spear

RELATIVES    Ecestsalach the Grimy (father)

ENEMIES      Host of Connacht

SEE ALSO     Ferghus mac Roig / MacRoth

REMARKS      Amargin was a champion of the battle line from

  Buas in the north of Ulster.  As he arrived at the Mound of

  slane in Mide, MacRoth described him to Ferghus.

       His uniform consisted of a blue narrow-bordered cloth

  next to his skin and over that was mail of silvered bronze

  chain with sharp red-gold buttons that fastened it to his

  chest.  Over everything he wore a green cloak of many

  shades, held with a gold fibula.  A straight sword hung at

  his side and he carried a shield with 5 gold circles and a

  flaming red-fluted spear.

 

 

NAME         Ambicatus

EPITHET      He Who Gives Battle All Around / Lord of the

             World (Biturix)

ALTERNATIVE  Ambigatos

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     hero / warrior / Rix

TYPE         chariot warrior / high chieftain

CULTURE      Gallic - Bituriges tribe

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Loire / Indre / Creuse / Vienne

CENTERS      Bourges (Avaricum)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 5th-4th c / BC 391

RELATIVES    Bellovesus and Segovesus (nephews)

SEE ALSO     Bellovesus / Segovesus

REMARKS      Ambicatus became the high chieftain of a

  confederation made up of the Aedui, Ambarri, Andes,

  Arverni, Aulerci, Carnuti, Cenomani, Insubres, Lingones and

  Senones tribes.  They were settled in central Gaul with

  Avaricum (Bourges) as the main center.

       In BC 391 Ambicatus initiated the idea of sending his

  sister's sons and heirs (distaff) to lead some of the young

  of the tribes in search of new lands to settle, as Gaul was

  becoming crowded.  He decided to let the omens signify who

  was to go where.

 

 

NAME         Ambiorix

EPITHET      Chieftain of Both Sides

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     hero / warrior / Brenin / Gwledig

TYPE         horse warrior / head chieftain / war leader

CULTURE      Belgae - Eburones tribe

COUNTRY      Germany / France / Belgium / Netherlands

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

LANDMARKS    Maas / Rhine

SITES        Tongres (statue)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 1st c / BC 54-50

ENEMIES      Rome

SEE ALSO     Catuvolcus / Indutiomarus

REMARKS      Ambiorix held the position of head chieftain

  jointly with the elderly Catavolcus.  The tribal territory

  was in the lowlands of present-day Netherlands, Belgium,

  France and Germany.  It was situated on both sides of the

  Maas river and over to the Rhine river.  During the winter

  of BC 54, Caesar decided to winter his legions in the

  territory of the Eburones and demanded that they be fed.

       Indutiomarus, head chieftain of the Treveri,

  encouraged Ambiorix and Catuvolcus to ready their warriors

  for battle.  The Eburones attacked a Roman camp, then sent

  for someone to parley with the Romans and convince them

  that all of Gaul was going to rise against them that

  winter.  Ambiorix convinced the Romans that he was indebted

  to Caesar and that his tribe was small and insignificant so

  he perferred not to fight with the Romans.  Ambiorix

  suggested they should march to a neighboring Roman camp

  where it was safer.

       The next day the Romans left their fort in a long line

  overburdened with baggage.  The Eburones waited along a

  gorge until the Romans were within it, then attacked from

  both ends and sides.  They massacred the troops,

  demonstrating to the rest of Gaul that there was a good

  chance of escaping from the yoke of Roman oppression.

       The Eburones success against the Romans encouraged the

  Aduatuci, Nervii, Ceutrones, Grudii, Levaci, Pleumoxii and

  Geidumni tribes to rise up and attack Rome.  Ambiorix

  continued a guerrilla war against the Romans which cost

  Caesar considerably in prestige, money, time and lives.

       Caesar finally sent troops and German mercenaries into

  his territory to burn the crops and huts, drive off the

  cattle and generally lay waste to the countryside. Ambiorix

  escaped with some of his horse warriors to the safety of

  the Ardennes.

       By BC 50 Caesar was desperate to catch Ambiorix who

  had been making a fool of him for four years with his

  guerrilla warfare.  This time Caesar decided to destroy the

  territory totally and kill the people, burn the remaining

  dwellings and steal the cattle.

       Ambiorix's guerrilla war on Rome was to prove to be

  one of Caesar's greatest failures in Gaul.

 

 

NAME         Amhairghin

ALTERNATIVE  Amairgen / Amairgin / Amargin / Amergin /

             Amerghin {am-org-in} / Amhairghen / Amhairgin /

             Amirgen / Amorgen Glungel

GENDER       M

FESTIVAL     Beltainn (Brilliant Fires)

CATEGORY     hero / warrior / druid

TYPE         chariot warrior / astronomer / judge /

             counsellor / ambassador / poetic warrior

CULTURE      Goidel (Milesian) / Egyptian - Artabri tribe

COUNTRY      Egypt / Spain / Ireland

REGION       Galicia / Kerry / Meath / Donegal

TERRITORY    Munster / Mide

LANDMARKS    Corco Duibne / Dingle Peninsula / Shannon

             Estuary / Boyne Estuary / Magh mBreg

SITES        Sliabh Mish (Slieve Mis) / Teltown (Tailltenn) /

             Millmount Tower

CENTERS      Brigantia (A Corunna)

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 15th c

BATTLES      Sliabh Mish / Taillcenn / Druim Lighean / Bile

             Tened (died)

ACCESSORIES  3 sacred poems

RELATIVES    Golamh (father); Scota (mother); Scena (wife);

             Arannan, Eber, Eremon, Ir, Colptha (brothers);

             Odba and Dil (half-sisters); Donn and Airioch

             (half-brothers); Bile (grandfather/cousin);

             Bregon (great-grandfather); Brego, Bladh, Fuad,

             Murthemne, Cualgne, Cuala, Eibleo, Nar and Ith

             (cousins); Rifath Scot (ancestor)

ENEMIES      Danann / MacGreine / Eremon

SEE ALSO     Arannan / Banbha / Bile / Bladh / Bregon /

             Colptha / Daghda / Donn / Eber / Eire / Eremon /

             Fodhla / Fuad / Golamh / Ir / Ith / MacGreine /

             Odba / Scena / Rifath Scot / Scota

REMARKS      Amhairghin was born in Egypt to Scota, daughter

  of the Pharaoh of Egypt, and Golamh, a Goidel mercenary. He

  was the second child of a twin birth.  After 8 years his

  father quit Egypt and they sailed to the Goidel territory

  in Galicia, northern Spain.

       Amhairghin began his studies in Egypt and by the time

  the Goidel invaded Ireland he was a powerful druid.  The

  head chieftain was Amhairghin's half-brother Donn and the

  reason for the invasion was to take revenge on the Danann

  for the killing of their cousin Ith.  The Goidel arrived in

  Ireland on Beltainn with a fleet of 36 ships, each with a

  chieftain and his or her family and followers.

       It had been prophesied that Ireland would be taken by

  an invading force that made landfall at Inber Scene

  (Shannon Estuary).  The Milesian circled Ireland 3 times

  but each time they came up to Inber Scene the Danann hid

  the estuary with a low fog in the shape of a hog's back.

  Amhairghin's powers were now strong enough to lift the fog

  and the Goidel finally brought their ships into the

  estuary.  Here Amhairghin buried his wife Scena on the

  bank.  He then recited this poem:

    I am an estuary into the sea.

    I am a wave of the ocean.

    I am the roar of the billows.

    I am the stag of seven hines.

    I am a hawk on a cliff.

    I am a dewdrop in the sun.

    I am a flower of beauty.

    I am the wild boar of valor.

    I am a salmon in a pool.

    I am a lake on a plain.

    I am the strength of the artificer.

    I am a mountain of poetry.

    I am a head full of fire.

    Who is it that enlightens the assembly upon the mountain?

    Who tells the ages of the moon?

    Who shows the place where the sun goes to rest?

       After winning a fierce battle at Slieve Mis (Sliabh

  Mish) on the Dingle Peninsula, the landing party led by

  Donn then went to Tara to negotiate with the 3 leaders of

  the Danann.  On the way they were met by the 3 goddesses of

  Ireland: Banbha, Fodhla and Eire.  Eire told Amhairghin

  that the sons of Golamh would conquer Ireland and live

  there forever if they would promise to call the island

  after her.  Her sisters' names would be used as poetic

  reference for the island.  Amhairghin agreed to this but

  Donn insulted the goddesses.

       The Goidel then continued on to Tara to negotiate with

  the Danann.  The Danann asked for three days to decide

  whether they would fight or submit.  Amhairghin made the

  first judgment in Ireland by deciding that the sons of

  Golamh and Breogan would retreat beyond the 9th wave (an

  enchanted boundary).

       The Danann conjured up fierce winds and Amhairghin

  sent Arannan to the top of a mast to see if the storm was

  above them as well.  He fell from the rocking mast but

  before he died on the deck he assured them that there was

  no storm above them.

       Amhairghin then knew it was a supernatural phenomenon

  and called upon the triple goddess of Ireland and she

  calmed the sea and lifted the fog.  The Danann raised

  another wind, catching Donn with his sails up, and his ship

  was wrecked on Bull Island off Beara Peninsula.  Amhairghin

  calmed the seas again and this time the Goidel landed at

  the estuary of the Boyne and prepared for their final

  campaign in the conquest of Ireland.  Amhairghin appointed

  Eremon to the position of head chieftain.

       The Goidel had brought with them their horses and

  chariots and engaged the Danann at Tailltinn (Teltown) in

  Meath and at Drum Lighean (Drumleene) in Donegal.  During

  the battle Amhairghin killed MacGreine, the head chieftain

  of the Danann.

       After the Goidel victory, Amhairghin negotiated for

  his people while the Daghda negotiated for the Danann.

  Ireland was divided in two: the Goidel would control what

  was obvious and above the surface while the Danann would

  have what was hidden and below the surface.

       After the peace between the Goidel and the Danann had

  been settled, Amhairghain decided against his twin Eber and

  in favor of Eremon to rule the Goidel of Ireland.  Eber

  called together his followers and demanded that Ireland be

  divided in half because he would not serve under his

  brother Eremon.

       Amhairghain divided the island and he himself stayed

  with Eremon in the northern half of the island where he

  built Tochar Inbhir Mhoir (the Great Causeway) in the

  territory of the Ui Enechlais of Cualu or the causeway of

  the Avoca Estuary at Arklow which has been identified with

  Togher, Wicklow.

       Before long Eber attacked Eremon but was killed in

  combat.  Amhairghin then divided the island into five

  coiceda or provinces, developed the concept of the high

  chieftain and made Tara the center.  He then appointed

  Eremon to be the first high chieftain of Ireland.

       Amhairghin killed Caicher in combat at a site named

  Cul Caichir, then he himself died when he was killed by his

  brother Eremon in combat during the battle of Bile Tened in

  the province of Mide.  It is claimed that Amhairghin is

  buried in the mound that now lies under the Millmount Tower

  in Drogheda, Meath.

 

 

NAME         Amorgen Iarngiunnach

ALTERNATIVE  Amairgen / Amairgin / Amargin / Amergin

             {am-org-in} / Amhairghen / Amhairgin / Amirgen

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     hero / warrior / poet

TYPE         chariot warrior / satirist

CULTURE      Goidel - Dal nAraide

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Meath

TERRITORY    Mide

SITES        Cave of Cruachan

CENTERS      Raith Taltiu (Teltown)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Cualnge Cattle Raid

ACCESSORIES  sharp tongue

RELATIVES    Cass (father); Findchaem (wife); Fergna and Mess

             Ded (sons); Conall Cernacht (step-son); Iliach

             (brother); Athairne (foster-father); Cu Chulainn

             (foster-son); Ir and Rudraige (ancestors)

ENEMIES      Host of Connacht

SEE ALSO     Athairne / Conall Cernacht / Cu Chulainn /

             Fergna / Findchaem / Illiach / Ir / Ross the Red

             / Rudraige / Tailtiu

REMARKS      Amorgen son of Cass had his raith at Tailltinn,

  the ancient burial site of the goddess Tailtiu.

       During an autumn when his foster-father Athairne was

  visiting, Amorgen composed a poem advising against autumn

  expeditions.  He composed other poems suggesting that the

  seasons of winter and spring were not good times for

  voyaging either.  When summer arrived, his poem referred to

  that season as being the one most suitable for travel.

       Amorgen proved himself a fighting man by slaying

  Helen, the 3-headed supernatural creature, when it emerged

  from the Cave of Cruachan, an entrance to The Otherworld.

  He was also known for his bragging and satire, as many

  warriors found out.  He claimed that he should be allowed

  to foster Cu Chulainn because he was a wise man advanced in

  years, had good fortune and was an eloquent speaker, the

  bane of every chariot-warrior.

       When Conall arrived home from the Destruction at Da

  Derga's Hostel on Magh Liffey, Amorgen accused him of being

  a coward that he should live while the high chieftain of

  Ireland was dead.  However, when he was shown the red

  wounds that Conall received, he sang his son's praise.

       During the Cattle Raid of Cualnge, Amorgen was hunting

  around Taltiu when he spied the warriors of the Host of

  Connacht passing through.  He threw rocks, clumps and sods

  at them for 3 days and 3 nights, causing a great many

  deaths as well as depression and sadness among the Host of

  Connacht.

 

 

NAME         Ancamna

GENDER       F

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         healer goddess

CULTURE      Belgae - Treveri tribe

COUNTRY      Germany / Belgium / Luxembourg /

REGION       Rhineland

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

LANDMARKS    Ardennes Highlands / Moselle river

SITES        curative spring at Mohn

CENTERS      Trier

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 9th c / BC 1st c

RELATIVES    Lenus and Smertrius (consorts)

SEE ALSO     Lenus / Smertrius

REMARKS      Ancamna was a goddess associated with healing.

  She was venerated by the Treveri tribe at a sacred spring

  at Mohn, near Trier.  They settled in the area around BC

  9th century and were still there after the Romans conquered

  Gaul in BC 1st century.

 

 

NAME         Andrasta

EPITHET      Invincible One / Unconquerable / Powerful Bear

ALTERNATIVE  Andraste / Andate / Ancasta / Andarta

GENDER       F

SYMBOL       bear

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         war goddess of victory

CULTURE      Briton - Iceni tribe / Gallic - Vocontii tribe

COUNTRY      England / France

REGION       Norfork

TERRITORY    Gaul / Lloegr

LANDMARKS    Rhône / Durance / Alps

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 12th c / BC 1st c

SEE ALSO     Boudicca

REMARKS      Andrasta was a war goddess and was venerated by

  the Vocontii tribe in Gaul and the Iceni tribe in England.

  Both tribes were in existence in BC 12th century and were

  linked with the Tumulus culture.  In BC 1st century the

  Iceni chieftain Boudicca sacrificed prisoners to Andrasta.

 

 

NAME         Aneroestus

ALTERNATIVE  Aneroestes

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / war leader

TYPE         chariot warrior

COUNTRY      Italy

TERRITORY    Gaul / Cisalpine Gaul

LANDMARKS    Mount Telamon

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 3rd c / BC 225

BATTLES      Cape Telamon

ENEMIES      Rome / Celts

SEE ALSO     Britomartus / Concolitanus

REMARKS      A large force of Gaulish warriors was led over

  the Alps and into northern Italy by the three chieftains

  Aneroestus, Britomarus and Concolitanos.  The force

  consisted of 50,000 battle-line soldiers and 20,000 horse

  and chariot warriors.  They were most likely carrying

  weapons of the La Téne ll period.

       When they descended into the Cisalpine territory, they

  met an army of Romans supported by the Celtic Cenomani and

  Veneti tribes.  They fought north of Rome near the foot of

  Mount Telamon around the cape of Telamon.  The Roman army

  consisted of all the Roman forces plus 20,000 Veneti and an

  auxiliary force.  The Celts had a devastating loss when

  40,000 of their warriors died and 10,000 were taken

  prisoner.

       This was the first time the Romans had won a victory

  over the Celts.  Aneroestus escaped the massacre but he

  committed suicide.

 

 

NAME         Anghus mac Og

EPITHET      The Love God / Young Lad (Ind Og) / Son of Youth

             (mac Ind Og) / Son of the Two Youths (Mac in Da

             Oc)

ALTERNATIVE  Aenghus / Anghus {an'gus) / Angus / Aoenghus Og

             / Aonghus {AEneesh} / Aongus (unique force) /

             Oenghus / Oengus {engus}

GENDER       M

SYMBOL       bird / swan

FESTIVAL     Samhain (Night of the Dead)

CATEGORY     deity / hero / warrior / chieftain

TYPE         fertility and love god

CULTURE      Danann

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Mide / Ulster

LANDMARKS    Magh mBreg

SITES        Sidhe Bri Leith / Lake of the Dragon's Mouth

             (Loch Bel Dracon)

CENTERS      Sidhe Brugh na Boyna {broo na boyna} (New

             Grange)

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 16th-15th c

ACCESSORIES  4 birds that hovered about his head (4 kisses)

RELATIVES    Daghda (father/uncle); Boann (mother/aunt); Caer

             (wife); Aed Caem, Cermat Milbel, Goltrade,

             Gentrade, and Suantrade (half-brothers); Aine

             and Brighid (half-sisters); Eladu and Delbaed

             (grandfathers); Danu (grandmother); Magog,

             Iarbonel, Ordan and Net (ancestors)

SEE ALSO     Aed Caem / Ailill of Echraide / Be Find / Boann

             / Bodb Dearg / Brighid / Caer Ibormeith / Cermat

             Milbel / Dagdha / Danu / Diancecht / Eladu /

             Elcmar / Fergne / Fuamnach / Iarbonel / Magog /

             Midhir / Net / Suantrade / Triath / Ordan

REMARKS      Anghus was the son of Daghda and Boan and was a

  descendant of Ordan and Net.  Mac in Da Oc (Anghus) was

  conceived and born on the same day.  This was done by his

  father so that his mother's husband Elcmar would not find

  out that his wife was having an affair.  Daghda sent Elcmar

  on a mission and then stopped the movement of the sun for 9

  months so that Anghus could be born before he returned.

       Midhir, who fostered many children of the Danann, was

  appointed foster-father and Anghus was brought to his

  sidhe.  Anghus grew to become a handsome youth and was

  always accompanied by 4 birds which hovered around his

  head.  One day on the playing field, Anghus was teased by

  another foster named Triath about not knowing his

  parentage. Anghus went to Midhir and demanded to know who

  his mother and father were.  Midhir told him that he was

  the son of Daghda and Boann and took him to meet his

  father.  Anghus, who was now 9 years old, demanded land of

  his own.  Daghda told Anghus his intention was to give him

  Sidhe Brugh na Boyna on the Boyne River but at the moment

  the chieftain Elcmar was resident there.

       Daghda suggested that he should go to Sidhe Brugh na

  Boyna on Samhain when Elcmar would be armed with only a

  forked stick of white hazel.  He was to overpower Elcmar

  and ransom his life in exchange for Anghus holding the

  position of chieftain of Sidhe Brugh na Boyna for a day and

  a night and that Daghda should judge the situation.

       Anghus followed the instructions, and when Daghda

  judged the dispute he ruled that Elcmar had valued his life

  more than the land so he would lose the right to it.  The

  Daghda, being a fair leader, gave Elcmar new land in the

  vicinity.

       Sidhe Brugh na Boyna had a tumulus where the dead

  heroes were buried.  They were carried through a unicursal

  maze and because of this, the sidhe was also called The

  Spiral Castle.  The fruit trees of the sidhe were always

  full of fruit, a boar was always being roasted and the vat

  of liquor never ran dry.

       A year after Anghus had established himself at Brugh

  na Boyna, he was visited by Midhir on Samhain.  While

  watching a game on the green, Midhir had his eye poked out

  with a piece of holly, and because such a blemish in a

  ruler was not allowed by the Danann, Anghus requested that

  Diancecht replace it with another.  While Midhir was

  recuperating, he asked Anghus to woo him the most beautiful

  maiden in Ireland.  Eventually Anghus found Be Find, the

  daughter of Ailill of Echraide, chieftain of the sidhes of

  Ulster.  Before he could bring her to Sidhe Brugh na Boyna

  to meet Midhir, he and his father Daghda had to complete 3

  tasks for Ailill.  Anghus did this and the couple stayed at

  Sidhe Brugh na Boyna with her for a year.

       Anghus began to have a recurring dream of a beautiful

  young girl playing a timpan.  He began to waste away and

  Fergne, the filidh, was sent to divine the cause of

  Anghus's wasting sickness.  Fergne sent for Boann and told

  her she must locate the beautiful girl who was the center

  of Anghus's dreams.  She in turn called for Daghda to help

  in the seach and he asked Bodb Dearg to search the island

  for her.  After 3 years of frantic searching, it was

  discovered that the girl in question was Caer Ibormeith,

  daughter of the chieftain of the Sidhe Uamuin.

       Caer was a powerful filidh and spent every alternate

  year in the form of a swan on Loch Bel Dracon.  Anghus was

  told to visit her at Samhain when she would be in her human

  form.  Anghus and Bodb Dearg went to Loch Bel Dracon and

  saw 3x50 maidens linked together with a silver chain.  The

  girl of his dreams was taller than the rest by a head, wore

  a silver neckring and was attached to the others by a

  golden chain.

       When Anghus asked her if she would come away with him

  and be his bride, she agreed on the condition that Anghus

  would let her assume the form of a swan every other year.

  Anghus agreed to this and they then both changed into swans

  and circled the lake 3 times before they flew away to Sidhe

  Brugh na Boyna.  There they circled the sidhe and sang a

  song so sweet that the people of the sidhe slept for 3

  days.

       Anghus eventually killed Elcmar for his having slain

  Midhir, his foster-father.  Anghus himself drowned at the

  mouth of the Boyne on a return trip from Albainn.

 

 

NAME         Angus Gae-Aduath

EPITHET      The Terrible Spear

ALTERNATIVE  Aenghus / Anghus {an'gus) / Angus / Aonghus

             {AEneesh} / Aongus (Unique Force) / Oenghus /

             Oengus {engus}

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / chieftain

CULTURE      Desi tribe

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Meath

TERRITORY    Mide

LANDMARKS    Magh mBreg

CENTERS      Raith Rig - Tara

AGE          Iron

DATES        AD 3rd c / AD 277

ACCESSORIES  spear

ENEMIES      Celleach / Cormac

SEE ALSO     Cairbre / Celleach / Cormac macAirt / Eochaidh

             Allmuir

REMARKS      When Angus's niece was raped by Celleach, a son

  of the high chieftain of Ireland, Angus took revenge by

  killing him in the Great Hall at Tara.  Celleach's father

  Cormac macAirt tried to intervene on his behalf but lost an

  eye to the butt of Angus's spear.

       Cormac macAirt had to step down as high chieftain of

  Ireland because a person with a disfigurement could not be

  a chieftain.  When Cormac's son Cairbre was made high

  chieftain and he expelled the Desi tribe from Mide.  Some

  settled in Munster and Leinster while others, led by

  Eochaidh Allmuir, settled in Wales.

 

 

NAME         Angus macEirc

EPITHET      The Great (Mor)

ALTERNATIVE  Aenghus / Anghus {an'gus) / Angus / Aonghus

             {AEneesh} / Aongus (Unique Force) / Oenghus /

             Oengus {engus} / Oengus mar macEarca

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / Ri Ruirech

TYPE         head chieftain

CULTURE      Goidel - Dal Riada / Danann / Pictish / Scotti -

             Clanna Angus

COUNTRY      Ireland / Scotland

REGION       Islay / Jura

TERRITORY    Albainn / Cinel Angus

CENTERS      Caill

AGE          Ui Néill

DATES        AD 5th-6th c

RELATIVES    Earc (mother); Muiredach (father); Fergus, Loarn

             and Muirchertach (brothers); Domangart (nephew);

             Gabran (great-nephew); Eremon, Tea and Cairbre

             Riada (ancestors)

ENEMIES      Picts

SEE ALSO     Cairbre Riada / Domangart / Eremon / Fergus

             macEirc / Gabran / Loarn macEirc / Muirchertach

             / Muiredach / Tea

REMARKS      Angus, son of Muiredach, son of Eogan, son of

  Niall Noighiallach was a descendant of Eremon and Tea of

  the Milesian invaders to Ireland.

       Angus was the third son of Muiredach and chieftain of

  the Clanna Angus.  He led his people from Ireland to the

  islands of Islay and Jura in Scotland which he conquered

  from the Picts.  His territory became known as Cinel Angus

  and he became the 6th head chieftain of the Dal Riada tribe

  after the death of his great-nephew Gabran.  They became

  known as the Scotti (Irish).

 

 

NAME         Anind

ALTERNATIVE  Annind

GENDER       M

FESTIVAL     Beltainn (Brilliant Fires)

CATEGORY     warrior

CULTURE      Nemedian tribe

COUNTRY      Turkey / Ireland

REGION       Asia Minor

TERRITORY    Phrygia (Mygdonia) / Munster / Connacht /

             Ulster / Leinster

LANDMARKS    Plateau of Phrygia / Black Sea / Cork Harbour /

             Loch Ennell (Loch nAnnind)

SITES        Great Island / Dun na Sciath (Fort of the

             Shields)

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 19th-18th c

BATTLES      Ros Fraechain / Murbolg / Cnamros

RELATIVES    Nemhedh (father); Cera (wife); Starn, Iarbonel

             and Fergus (brothers); Magog (ancestor)

ENEMIES      Fomorii

SEE ALSO     Cera / Fergus Lethderg / Iarbonel / Magog /

             Nemhedh / Starn

REMARKS      Anind son of Nemhedh was one of the 5 chieftains

  who led his people from the Plateau of Phrygia of Turkey in

  Asia Minor to Ireland.

       Anind led his warriors to victory in the 3 battles of

  Ros Fraechain in old Connacht, Murbolg in old Ulster and

  the battle of Cnamros (Camross) in old Leinster.

       When Anind died he was buried at Dun na Sciath (Fort

  of Shields).  This was after the 12th year of their landing

  in Ireland.  He was ejected from his grave by flooding

  waters from Loch nAnnind (Loch Ennell).  His Dun eventually

  became a royal residence when Tara was abandoned.

 

 

NAME         Anluan

EPITHET      The Brilliant Light / Of the Great Spear

ALTERNATIVE  Anluann / Anlon / Aulvan

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     hero / warrior

TYPE         chariot warrior

CULTURE      Gailioin

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Connacht

SITES        Hostel (Bruidhean)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Mac Da Tho's / Cualnge Cattle Raid / Gairech &

             Irgairech / Da Choca's

RELATIVES    Magach (mother); Doiche (father); Maga (sister);

             Bascell, Cet, Doche, En, MacCorb and Scandal

             (brothers); Ailill (nephew)

ENEMIES      Cualnge / Picts / Ulster / Conall Cernacht

SEE ALSO     Ailill macMata / Bascell / Conall Cernacht /

             Cormac / Cet mac Magach / Da Choca / Doche

             macMagach / En / Mac Da Tho / MacCorb / Maga

             Muresc / Magach of Connacht / Medbh / Scandal

REMARKS      Anluan fought for Medb and Ailill against Ulster

  in the battle "Tain Bo Cualnge".  He and his brother Cet

  provided 3000 battle-line soldiers.  When Cormac was killed

  at Da Choca's Hostel, Anluan took his head to Athlone on

  the Shannon to be buried.

       During the challenge of the hero's portion in the

  story of Mac da Tho's boar, his brother Cet was about to

  carve the boar when Conall Cernacht challenged him.  Cet

  backed down but insinuated that if Anluan was there things

  would be different, at which point Conall of the victories

  produced Anluan's head.  This was call for battle.

 

 

NAME         Antarios

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / chieftain

TYPE         mercenary

CULTURE      Gallic

COUNTRY      Italy

REGION       Sicily

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 3rd c / BC 241-237

BATTLES      Mercenary Revolt

REMARKS      Antarios was responsible for the mutiny of

  Celtic mercenaries against Carthage during the first Punic

  War.

 

 

NAME         Antedios

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / chieftain

CULTURE      Briton - Iceni tribe

COUNTRY      England

REGION       East Anglia (Norfolk area)

TERRITORY    Lloegr

AGE          Iron

DATES        AD 1st c / AD 25

REMARKS      Antedios was a Celtic chieftain of the Iceni

  tribe in AD 25.

 

 

NAME         Aoibhell

EPITHET      The Beautiful

ALTERNATIVE  Aibell

GENDER       F

CATEGORY     deity / chieftain / bard

TYPE         forerunner of death / harper

CULTURE      Danann - Dal gCais (O'Brien clan)

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Clare

TERRITORY    Connacht

LANDMARKS    Lough Derravaragh

CENTERS      Sidhe Craig Liath

ACCESSORIES  supernatural harp

RELATIVES    Dubhlainn Ua Artigan (consort)

REMARKS      Aoibhell ruled a sidhe in Connacht called Craig

  Liath (gray rocks) a couple of miles north of Killaloe near

  Lough Derravaragh (Lake Derg) in county Clare.  Those that

  heard her harp knew they would die soon.

       She prophesied that Dubhlainn, her consort, would die

  in an upcoming battle if he did not wear the cloak of

  invisibility that she offerred him.

 

 

NAME         Aoife

EPITHET      Demon of the Air

ALTERNATIVE  Aifa {eefa} / Aife {eefe} / Aoife {eef-ay}

GENDER       F

SYMBOL       Crane

FESTIVAL     Fleadh Aise (Feast of Age)

CATEGORY     rigbean (noble woman) / filidh

TYPE         sorcerer

CULTURE      Danann

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Island of Aran / Tipperary / Mayo

TERRITORY    Munster

LANDMARKS    Loch Derg / Sea of Moyle / Innis Gloire

CENTERS      Sidhe ar Femuin / Sidhe Fionnchaidh

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 16th-15th c

RELATIVES    Ailill of Aran (father); Bodb Dearg (foster-

             father); Aebh and Arbha (sisters); Lir

             (husband); Fionnula, Aedh, Fiachra and Conn

             (stepchildren)

SEE ALSO     Aebh / Aedh / Ailill of Aran / Bodb Dearg / Conn

             / Fiachra / Fionnula / Lir

REMARKS      Aoife was one of the three noble daughters of

  Ailill of Aran.  When they were of age they were fostered

  to Bodb Dearg, head chieftain of the Danann.  When Lir came

  to choose a wife, he chose Aoife's older sister Aebh who

  died in childbirth.  Bodb Dearg insisted that Lir choose

  another foster-daughter to be his second wife and mother to

  his children.  Lir agreed and he chose, Aoife, the next

  oldest, to be his wife.

       Aoife's life went well and at first she dearly loved

  her sister's children and treated them as her own.  As time

  went on, though, she became jealous of the attention they

  received from Lir and she slowly began to hate them.

       On the way to attend the Feast of Age at the Sidhe ar

  Femuin, she tried to get her charioteer to murder them.  He

  refused but in a fit of insanity she convinced them to

  enter the water to wash so they would be clean for their

  arrival at the sidhe.  When they entered the water she

  changed them into swans and condemned them to spend 300

  years on Lough Derravaragh (Loch Derg), 300 years on the

  Sea of Moyle between Ireland and Scotland and another 300

  years on Innis Gloire off Erris Head in county Mayo.  At

  this future time, she told them, a northern chieftain will

  take a southern wife who will ask to be given four swans

  and you will be released.

       When Bodb Dearg heard what had happened, he turned

  Aoife into a crane (Demon of the Air) as punishment.  Aoife

  was killed while in the form of a crane and her skin, which

  had magical properties, was used to make a satchel. Fifteen

  centuries later it became the "The Crane Bag" of the Fianna

  and was used to hold their wealth.

 

 

NAME         Aphrodite

EPITHET      Sea Foam

ALTERNATIVE  Venus (Latin)

GENDER       F

SYMBOL       copper / goat / deer / dove / dog / rose /

             myrtle

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         goddess of love / fertility of nature

CULTURE      Goidel / Trojan / Phoenician

COUNTRY      England

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 13th c / BC 1240 (defeat of Troy)

BATTLES      Trojan War

ACCESSORIES  girdle

RELATIVES    Zeus (father); Dione (mother); Hephaistos, Ares,

             Dionysus and Hermes (consorts/half-brothers);

             Poseidon (consort/uncle), Adonis and Anchises

             (consorts); Hermaphroditus, Aeneas, Phobos,

             Deimos and Eros (sons); Artio, Hebe and Athena

             (half-sisters); Aeacus, Apollo, Tantalus and

             Belenos (half-brothers); Oceanus (grandfather);

             Tethys (grandmother)

ENEMIES      Achaeans

SEE ALSO     Aeneas / Apollo / Ares / Artio / Athena /

             Belenos / Helen / Hephaistos / Hermes / Menelaus

             / Paris / Poseidon / Zeus

REMARKS      Aphrodite was the daughter of Zeus and a sea

  goddess named Dione who was a daughter of Tethys and

  Oceanus.  Aphrodite was a fertility goddess and her girdle

  excited sexual desire in gods and humans alike.

       Aphrodite supported the Trojans during the Trojan War

  because she had been picked as the most beautiful of the

  goddesses by Paris, who had been asked to judge the

  contest.  She had offered him the winning of the love of

  the most beautiful woman in the world.

       Aphrodite and Paris then set off to woo Helen, the

  wife of Menelaus, head chieftain of the Achaeans. Aphrodite

  used her skills to cause Helen to fall in love with Paris.

  This was the excuse for the Trojan War, fought between the

  Trojans and the Danann and their allies (Achaeans).

 

 

NAME         Apollo

GENDER       M

SYMBOL       gold / bow / lyre

CATEGORY     herder / deity

TYPE         cowherd / god of disease / healing / prophecy

CULTURE      Goidel / Trojan

COUNTRY      England

REGION       Cambridgeshire

TERRITORY    Troad

LANDMARKS    Mount Ida (Ditton Woods)

SITES        Troy

AGE          Bronze

DATES        13th c / BC 1240 (defeat of Troy)

BATTLES      Trojan War

RELATIVES    Leto (mother); Zeus (father); Asclepiu (son);

             Artio (twin sister); Aphrodite, Hebe and Athena

             (half-sisters); Aeacus, Ares, Hephaistos,

             Belenos, Tantalus and Hermes (half-brothers);

             Poseidon (uncle)

ENEMIES      Achaeans

SEE ALSO     Aphrodite / Artio / Ares / Athena / Belenos /

             Hephaistos / Hermes / Paris / Poseidon / Zeus

REMARKS      Apollo angered his father Zeus and was sent to

  serve Laomedon, high chieftain of Troy and grandfather of

  Paris.  Laomedon appointed Apollo to tend his herd of

  cattle on Mount Ida.

       Apollo supported the Trojans during the Trojan War.

  Homer did not associate him with the sun but referred to

  him as a god of disease and healing.  He also had the

  ability to foretell the future.

       Apollo was portrayed as a tall, handsome young man

  holding a bow or a lyre.  His statue at Amyclae was adorned

  with a new coat every year that was woven by women.  He was

  venerated by athletes.  It was no doubt Apollo who spread

  disease throughout the Achaean camp during the Trojan war.

 

 

NAME         Arannan

ALTERNATIVE  Aranan / Arandan / Erannan / Erennan

GENDER       M

FESTIVAL     Beltainn (Brilliant Fires)

CATEGORY     warrior

TYPE         chariot warrior

CULTURE      Goidel (Milesian) / Egyptian - Artabri tribe

COUNTRY      Egypt / Spain / Ireland

REGION       Galicia / Kerry

LANDMARKS    Imber Scena (burial site)

SITES        Tor Breogain (Tower of Breogan)

CENTER       Brigantia (A Corunna)

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 15th c

RELATIVES    Golamh (father); Scota (mother); Eremon, Eber,

             Amhairghin, Ir, and Colptha (brothers); Odba and

             Dil (half-sisters); Donn and Airioch Feabhruadh

             (half-brothers); Bile (grandfather); Bregon

             (great-grandfather); Brego, Bladh, Fuad,

             Murthemne, Cualgne, Cuala, Eibleo, Nar and Ith

             (cousins); Rifath Scot (ancestor)

ENEMIES      Danann

SEE ALSO     Amhairghin / Bile / Bladh / Bregon / Colptha /

             Donn / Eber / Eremon / Fuad / Golamh / Ir / Ith

             / Scena / Rifath Scot / Scota / Odba

REMARKS      Arannan was the last son born to Golamh and

  Scota.  He was born at the "Tor Breogain" (Tower of

  Breogan) at A Corunna, Spain.  During the Goidel invasion

  of Ireland, Arannan was sent to the top of a mast by

  Amhairghin to see if the storm was blowing above the ships.

  When he reached the top of the mast, he realized that there

  was no wind or fog.  As he began to climb down he was

  thrown from the mast as it shook in the wind, but before he

  hit the deck he yelled that all was calm above.

        When they made landfall he and Scena were buried on

  the opposite side of the Shannon Estuary.

 

 

NAME         Arausio

EPITHET      The Orange

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         sun god

CULTURE      Gallic - Cavares tribe / early Hallstatt

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Cevenne Mountains / Rhône

CENTERS      Arausio

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 9th c

REMARKS      Arausio was a local sun god who gave his name to

  the town of Arausio in France.  He was venerated in the

  territory of the Cavares tribe who settled the area around

  BC 9th century.

 

 

NAME         Arawn

EPITHET      Lord of the Underworld / Ruler of Hades

ALTERNATIVE  Arawn {a-rown} (eloquence)

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     deity / warrior / Brenin

TYPE         god of the dead / hunter god / head chieftain

CULTURE      Danann

COUNTRY      Wales / Isle of Man

REGION       Dyfed

TERRITORY    The Otherworld - The Underworld (Annwn) / Dyfed

SITES        Glynn Cuch / Narberth (Gorsedd Arberth)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

ACCESSORIES  cauldron / gray horse / hounds (Cwn Annwn)

RELATIVES    Rhiannon (consort) / Pryderi (son)

ENEMIES      Heveydd

SEE ALSO     Amathaon / Gwyddion / Heveydd / Rhiannon /

             Pryderi / Pwyll

REMARKS      Arawn was a chieftain of Annwn {an-noon}, a

  Brythonic name for Hades (land of the dead), which is

  thought by many to have been the the Isle of Man.

       One day Arawn was hunting with his dogs in the woods

  of Glynn Cuch when the hounds began to run down a stag. All

  of a sudden, another pack of hounds cut his off and

  surrounded the stag.  The owner of the other pack

  approached him and as the two hunters confronted each other

  over their dogs and the stag, Arawn found he was addressing

  Pwyll, the Brenin of Dyfed.  Pwyll apologized for his dog

  and his own bad manners and offered to make amends.

       Arawn seized the opportunity to explain a problem that

  he was having with another chieftain of Annwn.  The two

  rival chieftains were of equal strength and fought a ritual

  combat every year, but neither could beat the other.  If

  Pwyll would take on the form of Arawn and live in his

  territory for one year he could fight the chieftain and

  defeat him.  Arawn would meanwhile take on Pwyll's form and

  live in Dyfed for a year and it would become more

  prosperous.

       Pwyll, being a young chieftain, jumped at the chance

  of adventure and agreed to the plan.  Arawn then warned

  Pwyll of the sorcery of the other chieftain Heveydd.  Pwyll

  was to hit him only one deadly blow and no more or Heveydd

  would rise more powerful than before.  Arawn then used his

  talents so that each looked like the other.  Arawn then

  went to Gorsedd Hall which was Pwyll's home to spend the

  year as Pwyll.

       After the year was over, the two chieftains met again

  at Glynn Cuch and Arawn used his talents to make each look

  like himself again and they went back to their own

  territories.  Arawn was happy that Heveydd had been

  eliminated and was suprised that Pwyll had not taken

  advantage of his wife in the year that he had replaced him

  as head of Annwn.  The two chieftains remained good

  friends, exchanging gifts, and both territories were the

  better for the exchange.

       Arawn also fought Gwyddion ap Don and Amathaon ap Don

  during the battle of the trees.  In time, Arawn became

  associated with the land of the dead.  The Cwn Annwn

  (Hounds of Annwn) were considered the forerunners of death

  who came at night to find the souls of the dead and lead

  them to Annwn.  They were white with red ears and were

  leashed by a chain to a man with horns who was dressed in

  dark gray and rode a dapple-gray horse.

 

 

NAME         Arca Dubh

EPITHET      Black Arky

ALTERNATIVE  Arcai Dubh Iasgair

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     servant / fisherman

COUNTRY      Ireland / Scotland

AGE          Iron

DATES        AD 2nd c

BATTLES      Cnucha (Knock Castle)

ENEMIES      Cumhal / Fionn

SEE ALSO     Cumhal / Fionn mac Cumhaill

REMARKS      After the battle of Cnucha, Arca Dubh came upon

  Cumhal lying wounded on the ground.  He told Cumhal he

  would help him if they exchanged swords.  Cumhal agreed and

  when Arca Dubh got his hands on Cumhal's sword he stabbed

  him in the back.  Cumhal's own sword was the only weapon

  that could cause his death.

       When Fionn received his wisdom tooth, he perceived

  that Arca Dubh had killed his father Cumhal.  Arca Dubh was

  fishing one day when Fionn came upon him and killed him

  with his own fishing rod.

 

 

NAME         Arduinna

EPITHET      Of the Ardennes / Among the Oaks

ALTERNATIVE  Ardu Enna

GENDER       F

SYMBOL       human riding a boar

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         animal fertility / hunter

CULTURE      Belgae - Treveri / Mediomatrices

COUNTRY      Belgium / Luxembourg / Germany

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

LANDMARKS    Ardennes highlands / Moselle river

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 9th c / BC 1st c

ACCESSORIES  boar / knife

REMARKS      Arduinna was the goddess of the forests of the

  Ardennes highlands where it is dark and shadowy.  She was

  often protrayed riding on the back of a large boar,

  sometimes holding a knife in her right hand.

       A forest in the Ardennes was named Arduenna.  The

  Treveri and Mediomatrices tribes were settled in the

  territory by BC 9th century.

 

 

NAME         Ares

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     deity / warrior

TYPE         god of war / chariot warrior

CULTURE      Goidel / Trojan

COUNTRY      England

REGION       Cambridgeshire

TERRITORY    Troad / Thrace

LANDMARKS    Wash

CENTERS      Troy (Gogmagog Hills)

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 13th c / BC 1240 (defeat of Troy)

BATTLES      Trojan War

RELATIVES    Hera (mother); Zeus (father); Aphrodite (half-

             sister/consort); Hippolyta (daughter); Phobos,

             Deimos and Eros (sons); Hebe (sister);

             Hephaistos (brother); Athena and Artio (half-

             sisters); Aeacus, Apollo, Belenos, Tantalus and

             Hermes (half-brothers)

ENEMIES      Achaean / Danann

SEE ALSO     Aphrodite / Apollo / Artio / Athena / Belenos /

             Hephaistos / Hera / Hermes / Zeus

REMARKS      Ares, a son of Zeus and Hera, had a temple in

  Thrace, an area of Troad.  He had an affair with Aphrodite,

  his brother Hephaistos's wife, but was discovered by his

  brother.  He also sired the Amazon chieftain Hippolyta who

  was killed by Hercules (Belenos).

       During the Trojan War, Ares fought on the side of the

  Trojans and during a skirmish he was wounded by Athena and

  Diomedes.

 

 

NAME         Arganthonios

EPITHET      The Silver King

ALTERNATIVE  Arganthonion

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / chieftain

CULTURE      Tartessian / Goidel ?

COUNTRY      Spain

REGION       Andalucia / Murci

TERRITORY    Tartessus (modern Guadalquivir valley)

LANDMARKS    Guadiana / Guadalquivir / Odiel

CENTERS      Seville (Tartessus)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 7th-6th c / BC 670-550

REMARKS      Legends say that Arganthonios lived for 120

  years and around BC 600 he ruled the territory of Tartessus

  for 80 years.  The center, also called Tartessus, was

  situated around present-day Seville.

       The valley was known for its concentration of silver

  mines and Arganthonios became known as the Silver King.  He

  funded the Phocaean Greeks so that they could build a wall

  to protect themselves from the Persians of Corsica. Arganto

  is the Brythonic word for silver.

 

 

NAME         Argentocoxos

EPITHET      Silver Leg

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / chieftain

CULTURE      Pictish - Caledonian tribe

COUNTRY      Scotland

AGE          Iron

DATES        AD 3rd c / AD 210

ENEMIES      Rome

REMARKS      Argentocoxos represented the Picts when they

  made a truce with the Romans in AD 210.  Arganto is the

  Brythonic word for silver.

 

 

NAME         Arianrod

EPITHET      Silver Wheel / Silver Circle

ALTERNATIVE  Aranrhod {ahr-yahn'-rawd} / Arianrhod {aree-an-

             rod} / Aryanrhod / Goewin

GENDER       F

SYMBOL       moon corona (white / blue / red)

CATEGORY     deity / ovate

TYPE         moon goddess / seer / virgin footholder for Math

CULTURE      Danann

COUNTRY      Wales

REGION       Gwynedd {gwin-eth} / Clwyd {clud}

TERRITORY    Gwynedd / Arfon (Arvon)

SITES        Puffin Island, SE of Anglesey

CENTERS      Caer Dathl (Fort Dathal) at Caernarfon / Caer

             Sidin

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

RELATIVES    Pebin (father); Don (mother); Llew Llaw Gyffes

             and Dylan (sons); Math (uncle/foster-father);

             Amaethon, Govannon, Gilfaethwy and Gwyddion

             (half-brothers)

ENEMIES      Gilfaethwy / Gwyddion

SEE ALSO     Amaethon / Don / Dylan / Gilfaethwy / Goewin /

             Govannon / Gwyddion ap Don / Llew Llaw Gyffes /

             Math

REMARKS      Arianrhod had the name Goewin at birth.  She was

  the daughter of Don and Pebin, of Dole Pebin in Arfon.  She

  was the virgin footholder for her uncle and foster-father

  Math.

       Arianrhod was raped by her brothers Gilfaethwy and

  Gwyddion and gave birth to two children.  The first-born

  was named Dylan and belonged to Gilfaethwy and they left

  the territory.  The second-born was the son of Gwyddion,

  and Goewin cursed him never to have a name, armor or a

  wife.  By use of trickery, Gwyddion caused her to name her

  son Llew Llaw Gyffes and to supply him with armor.  Her

  foster-father conceived of a fitting punishment for the two

  boys.

       Goewin became a seer of the ovate, a priestess of the

  moon and became known as the Silver Circle or Arianrhod.

  Her home was Caer Sidin on Puffin Island, and the spiral

  fortress was called the Cauldron of Inspiration.

       The Corona Borealis constellation which is shaped like

  half a circle was also called Caer Arianrod.  Her symbol

  was the Corona (crown) of the moon.  This phenomenon

  happens usually at full moon when the water vapor in the

  earth's atmosphere creates two rings around the moon.  The

  inner ring is blue and the outer ring is red.  From this

  the colors white, blue and red are given to the moon

  goddesses.

 

 

NAME         Ariovist

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     druid

TYPE         eye surgeon

CULTURE      Briton

COUNTRY      England

TERRITORY    Lloegr

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd c

REMARKS      Ariovist was a druid from an English tribe and

  was known for his skill at eye surgery in BC 2nd century.

 

 

NAME         Ariovistos

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / chieftain

TYPE         war leader

CULTURE      Germani - Suebi tribe

COUNTRY      Germany / France

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Rhine

SITES        Admagetobriga

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 1st c / BC 72-62 / BC 58

ENEMIES      Sequani / Aedui / Caesar

REMARKS      Ariovistos was a Brythonic-speaking Germani

  chieftain of the Suebi tribe.  He became involved in the

  warring between the Sequani and the AEdui tribes sometime

  between BC 72-62.  The Sequani and Arverni hired him and

  15,000 mercenary warriors from across the Rhine.  The

  combined force led by Ariovistos won, and he took one third

  of the conquered territory for his own people.

       The Gauls united against him and gave battle at

  Admagetobriga, but lost.  He forced them to give him

  hostages and to pay tribute.  Ariovistos had gone to the

  Roman senate, gained recognition for his state and received

  the title "Friend of the Roman People".

       When Caesar invaded Gaul in BC 58, he considered

  Ariovistus a threat and a friend of his enemies in the

  senate back home in Rome.  Ariovistus and Caesar both

  wanted possession of Gaul.  Caesar was given his excuse to

  meddle when the Gaulish tribes who had brought Ariovistus

  among themselves complained to Caesar that he was

  dominating them.

       Caesar provoked a fight with Ariovistos and sent 6

  legions against him.  Ariovistos made the mistake of

  holding up in a fortress and was put under siege.  He was

  eventually forced to attack and being at the disadvantage

  was driven across the Rhine into the Suebi territory where

  Caesar was afraid to follow.

 

 

NAME         Arminios

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     hero / warrior / chieftain

CULTURE      Germani - Cherusci tribe

COUNTRY      Germany

LANDMARKS    Main / Barenau Forest (Osnabruck)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 53

ENEMIES      Rome

REMARKS      Arminios was responsible for ambushing 3 legions

  of Romans in the Barenau Forest in BC 53.

 

 

NAME         Arnemetia

EPITHET      She Who Stands Before the Sacred Grove

GENDER       F

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         healer goddess

CULTURE      Pictish - Cornovii tribe

COUNTRY      England

REGION       Derbyshire

TERRITORY    Lloegr

SITES        Aquae Arnemetiae

CENTERS      Buxton

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 9th c / AD 5th c

REMARKS      Arnemetiae was venerated at a sacred spring

  called Aquae Arnemetiae (waters of Arnemetia) at Buxton in

  Derbyshire, England.  This was the territory of the

  Cornovii tribe who established themselves in Britain by BC

  9th century and were still an identifiable tribe by AD 5th

  century.

 

 

NAME         Art

ALTERNATIVE  Art (bear)

GENDER       M

SYMBOL       bear

FESTIVAL     Samhain (Night of the Dead)

CATEGORY     warrior / guard

TYPE         personal guard to Conaire (Ard Righ Eirinn)

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Meath / Dublin

TERRITORY    Mide

LANDMARKS    Magh mBreg / Magh Liffey

SITES        Da Derga's Hostel

CENTERS      Raith Rig - Tara

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Ath Cliath

ENEMIES      Ingcel / sons of Donn Desa

SEE ALSO     Buder / Conaire / Da Derga / Donn Desa / Ingcel

             / Lond / Trefers

REMARKS      Conaire the high chieftain of Ireland had 12

  personal guards.  They were called the 3 Londs, the 3 Arts,

  the 3 Buders and the 3 Trenfers of Cuilenn.

       During the battle of Ath Cliath on Magh Liffey they

  were described as handsome, hardy and well-built.  The 12

  guards had golden hair and wore blue kilts.  They wore

  ivory-hilted swords and carried horse-rods in their right

  hands.

 

 

NAME         Art Aenfer

EPITHET      The Solitary / The Lonely

ALTERNATIVE  Art (bear) / Art Aoinfhear / Oenfer

GENDER       M

SYMBOL       bear

FESTIVAL     Samhain (Night of the Dead)

CATEGORY     hero / warrior / Ard Righ Eirinn

TYPE         chariot warrior / high chieftain

CULTURE      Goidel / Danann / Pictish

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Meath

TERRITORY    Connacht / Leinster / Mide / Munster / Ulster

LANDMARKS    Magh mBreg

SITES        The Otherworld - Land of Wonder (Tir na Iontas)

CENTERS      Raith Rig - Tara

AGE          Iron

DATES        AD 2nd c / AD 150-170 (Ard Righ - Kings List)

BATTLES      Mucrama

ACCESSORIES  sword / ring / ceremonial clothing / Boramha

             Tribute (cattle counting)

RELATIVES    Conn Cetcathach (father); Medb Lethderg

             (consort); Delbchaem (wife); Achtan (consort);

             Cormac macAirt (son); Sadb (sister); Connla

             (brother); Lugaidh (nephew); Becuma Cneisgel

             (step-mother); Eremon and Tea (ancestors)

ENEMIES      Lugaidh mac Conn / Ailill Dubhdedach

SEE ALSO     Achtan / Ailill Dubhdedach / Aillinn / Baile mac

             Buain / Becuma Cneisgel / Conn Cetcathach /

             Connla / Cormac macAirt / Creide Firalaind /

             Delbchaem / Eremon / Golamh / Lugaidh mac Conn /

             Lugna / Medb Lethderg / Olc Siche / Sadb / Tea

REMARKS      Art Aenfer was a son of Conn Cetcathach and a

  descendant of Eremon and Tea.  When he was still a young

  man, his father took as his concubine Becuma Cneisgel, a

  woman of The Otherworld.  One day while she and Art were

  playing fidchell, she won by cheating.  As her prize, she

  placed a geis on him that he must search until he found and

  won the hand of Delbchaem in the Land of Wonder.

       On his voyage to the Land of Wonder he came to an

  island where was received by a seer named Creide Firalaind.

  She said that she had been expecting him and gave Art a

  detailed description of how he was to reach Delbchaem.

       Art had to travel through rivers of ice, avoid giants

  and monstrous toads, and was told he would have to drink

  from one of two golden cups, one of which contained poison.

  He had to kill Ailill Dubhdedach, a warrior who could not

  be harmed by any weapon.  At the end of his voyage he had

  to depose of the parents of Delbchaem before he could

  rescue her.  When Art returned home with his new bride, he

  expelled his step-mother.

       One year when Art was high chieftain of Ireland, he

  hosted a Samhain celebration.  Historical poets came from

  all the provinces of Ireland with their many talking staffs

  (Tamhlorgaibh fileadh) to repeat the stories of old.  Art

  asked to see the staffs that told the sad but beautiful

  stories of Aillinn of Leinster and Baile of Ulster.  When

  he held the two staffs in his hands they leaped together

  and intertwined so as never to be parted again.  Art

  ordered that the entwined staffs of apple and yew branches

  be kept in Tech Screpta, the library of Tara.  The filidh

  of old had prophesied that the couple would never meet in

  life but would never be parted in death.

       While preparing for a battle against his nephew

  Lugaidh mac Conn, Art's filidh prophesied his death if he

  were to participate.  Despite this warning, he continued on

  his way to meet his fate.  On the way, he stayed the night

  at the home of Olc Siche the smith.  The smith asked Art if

  he would mate with his daughter Achtan because he divined

  that the child born would be special.  The next morning

  before Art went on his way to meet his fate he left his

  ring, sword and ceremonial clothing for his son-to-be.  He

  also left instructions for Achtan to go to the raith of his

  friend Lugna in Connacht where the child was to be born and

  fostered, and to name him Cormac macAirt.

       After 20 years as the high chieftain of Ireland, Art

  Aenfer was slain by Lugaidh mac Conn during the battle of

  Mucrama.

 

 

NAME         Arthur

EPITHET      The Bear of Cornwall

GENDER       M

SYMBOL       Bear

CATEGORY     hero / warrior / Rix / Gwledig

TYPE         horse warrior / high chieftain / war leader

CULTURE      Cymry (tribes that fight side by side)

COUNTRY      Wales / England / Scotland / Ireland / France

REGION       Cornwall / Gwent

LANDMARKS    River Usk

SITES        Mont-Saint-Michel / Avalon (buried)

CENTERS      Caerleon-on-Usk (Kaerusk)

AGE          Post-Roman

DATES        AD 6th c / AD 537 (died)

BATTLES      Camluan

ACCESSORIES  spears (Rhongomynyad and Ongomiant) / shield

             (Wynebgwrthyucher - face of evening) sword

             (Caledfwlch) / knife (Carnwennan) / ship

             (Prydwen) / Cafall (dog)

RELATIVES    Uther (father); Igerna (mother); Gwenhyvar

             (wife); Gwyar (sister); Gwalchmai and Medrawt

             (nephews); Culhwch (cousin); Aurelius (uncle);

             Anne (aunt); Hoel (nephew)

ENEMIES      Irish / Picts / Scots / Angles / Saxons / Jutes

             / Medrawt / Gwenhyvar

SEE ALSO     Aurelius / Bedwyr / Cei / Culhwch / Gwalchmai /

             Gwenhyvar / Gwyar / Hoel / Igerna / Isbaddaden /

             Medrawt / Rhitta Gawr / Tristan / Uther

REMARKS      Arthur's father was Uther Pendragon and when he

  was poisoned, Arthur at the age of 16 assumed the role of

  war leader and high chieftain of Britain.  Arthur had his

  camp at Caerleon-on-Usk and immediately set about to bring

  the invading Celtic and Germani tribes under his control.

  Arthur married Gwenhyvar, a maiden from Cornwall who was

  born to a Roman family.

       After Arthur put the two islands of Britain and

  Ireland under his control, he then marched on Gaul.  He

  fought a single combat with Frollo, a mighty Gaulish

  chieftain.  The battle became so furious that Arthur's

  warrior heat caused his shield and sword to glow red.  With

  a mighty blow he cut Frollo's head in half.  Frollo fell on

  his back, drummed a tattoo on the ground with his heels

  then died.

       After nine years of warring in Gaul, Arthur returned

  home and celebrated a feast at his camp Caerleon-on-Usk

  (Kaerusk, the City of the Legions) on the river Usk in

  Gwent, Wales.  Rome sent Arthur a message demanding that he

  come to Rome for the trouble he had caused them in the

  Islands and Gaul.  Officially, Britain was still under the

  rule of Rome until AD 537.  The common consensus among his

  chieftains was to outfit an army and head to Rome.  Arthur

  left his nephew Medrawt and his own wife in charge of

  Britain while he set sail for Gaul with an army of 183,000

  warriors.

       When they landed, they heard news that a giant had

  seized Hoel's daughter and was holding her at present-day

  Mont-Saint-Michel.  Arthur, Cei and Bedwyr went off in

  pursuit but were too late to save Helena.  Arthur then

  fought the club-wielding giant in single combat and brought

  the giant's head back to camp.  He thought that this had

  been his toughest battle since he had fought the giant

  Rhitta Gawr.

       Arthur then sent his nephew Gwalchmai to negotiate

  with the Romans.  The negotiations ended in a skirmish,

  followed by a number of battles which Arthur won.  As

  Arthur was preparing to winter in Gaul he received word

  that his nephew Medrawt had taken control of Britain and

  his wife had sided with him.

       Arthur left Hoel in charge of the campaign in Gaul and

  left for Britain with some of his troops.  Numerous battles

  followed until finally in single combat Medrawt was killed

  and Arthur was mortally wounded.  Arthur was taken to the

  island of Avalon to die.

 

 

NAME         Artio

EPITHET      The Hunter

ALTERNATIVE  Artemis

GENDER       F

SYMBOL       bear / silver fir

FESTIVAL     winter solstice

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         moon goddess / goddess of animal fertility

CULTURE      Belgae - Treveri tribe / Urnfield-Hallstatt

COUNTRY      German / Switzerland / Belgium / Luxembourg

REGION       Rhineland

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

LANDMARKS    Rhine

SITES        Bollendorf near Trier / Muri near Berne

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 13th c / BC 9th c

ACCESSORIES  bowl of berries / bow and arrows

RELATIVES    Zeus (father); Leto (mother); Apollo (brother)

             Aeacus, Ares, Aeacus, Hercules, Hermes and

             Hephaistos (half-brothers); Aphrodite, Athena

             and Hebe (half-sisters)

SEE ALSO     Aphrodite / Apollo / Ares / Athena / Hephaistos

             / Hermes / Zeus

REMARKS      Artio was a goddess of fertility and the hunt.

  Under the name Artemis she was known in Bronze Age Europe

  in BC 13th century.  She often assumed the shape of a bear

  in the woods and was associated with the moon, silver fir

  and winter solstice.  Sacrifices were always made to her

  before a hunt.  She was venerated near Trier by the Treveri

  tribe who had settled the area by BC 9th century.

       A Romanized sculpture from Muri near Berne,

  Switzerland depicts a goddess with a cauldron of berries

  facing a bear who is guarding a tree (honey?).  Female

  devotees offered their robes to cover her statues.

 

 

NAME         Atepomaros

EPITHET      The Great Horseman

ALTERNATIVE  Atepomarus

GENDER       M

SYMBOL       horse

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         sun and healer god

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul

SITES        curative spring at Mauvières

REMARKS      Atepomaros was a sun god who was venerated at a

  curative spring in Mauvières, France.

 

 

NAME         Athairne

EPITHET      The Persistent / Ollamh

ALTERNATIVE  Athirne

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     Ollamh

TYPE         Master poet and satirist to Conchobar (Ri

             Ruirech)

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Ulster

SITES        Mound of Slane in Mide

CENTERS      Ben Edar (Howth)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-1st c

BATTLES      Cualnge Cattle Raid / Gairech & Irgairech

ACCESSORIES  silver tongue

RELATIVES    Amorgen (foster-son)

ENEMIES      Host of Connacht

SEE ALSO     Ailill Miltenga / Amorgen Iarngiunnach / Buan /

             Conall Cernacht / Conchobar mac Nessa / Fer

             Chertnae / Mac Da Tho / Neide

REMARKS      Athairne became the master poet and satirist in

  the province of Ulster and lived at Ben Edar.  Athairne,

  Neide, Fer Chertnae and Forchern compiled the "Breithe

  Neimhidh" laws which were accepted as part of the "Brehon

  Laws".

       Once when Athairne made a trip throughout Ireland he

  demanding of his hosts their wives and gifts from the

  household.  When visiting Luain, a one-eyed chieftain of

  Connacht, he demanded his only eye.  While he was at the

  hostel of Mac Da Tho, he demanded the use of Buan, his

  wife, and was refused.

       Athairne insisted that Conchobar intervene because Mac

  da Tho had broken the rules of hospitality.  Conchobar sent

  Conall to deal with the insult and he killed Mac Da Tho.

       During the Cualnge Cattle Raid, MacRoth observed

  Athairne in a group of poets of Ulster led by Fercerdne as

  they approached the Mound of Slane in Mide.  Athairne and

  Ailill Miltenga flanked Fercerdne who was at the time the

  Ollamh of Ulster.  Athairne was described as a bright-faced

  youth wearing a reddish-gray mantle held with a silver

  fibula, and purple boots on his feet.  He wore a bright-

  hilted sword at his waist.

 

 

NAME         Athena

EPITHET      Of the Blue-Green Eyes / Of the Flashing Eyes

ALTERNATIVE  Pallas Athena / Minerva (Latin)

GENDER       F

SYMBOL       eagle

CATEGORY     deity / warrior

TYPE         goddess of wisdom, war strategy and useful arts

CULTURE      Achaean

COUNTRY      England / Greece

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

LANDMARKS    Rhine

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 13th c / BC 1240 (defeat of Troy)

BATTLES      Trojan War

RELATIVES    Metis (mother); Zeus (father); Hephaistos

             (consort/half-brother); Erechtheus (son); Artio,

             Aphrodite and Hebe (half-sisters); Aeacus,

             Apollo, Ares, Belenos, Tantalus and Hermes

             (half-brothers)

ENEMIES      Achilles / Odysseus

SEE ALSO     Achilles / Apollo / Aphrodite / Ares / Artio /

             Belenos / Hebe / Hephaistos / Hermes / Odysseus

             / Zeus

REMARKS      Athena father was Zeus and when he became the

  chieftain of the Olympians he swallowed the Titan Metis who

  was the goddess of wisdom.  Metis bore a child winthin Zeus

  and it gave him such a bad headache that he had his head

  opened and out jumped Athena in full armour.  She was a

  tactical warrior and was venerated as the goddess of wisdom

  and the arts of war and peace.  She was always portrayed as

  a well-armed warrior.  She had the head of Medusa mounted

  on the fron of her shield, a present for having helped

  Perseus.

       During the war between the Trojans and the Achaeans,

  Athena supported the Achaeans, especially Achilles and

  Odysseus.  Statues of Athena were clothed in a robes that

  were woven every 4th year.

 

 

NAME         Atis

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / chieftain

CULTURE      Boii tribe

COUNTRY      Italy

TERRITORY    Cisalpine Gaul

LANDMARKS    Alps

SITES        Po Valley

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 3rd c / BC 299

SEE ALSO     Galatos

REMARKS      Atis and Galatos led warriors from their tribe

  across the Alps and into Italy.  They were not well

  received by their own people and both chieftains were

  killed in a battle in the Po Valley.

 

 

NAME         Aurelius Ambroisius

EPITHET      The Immortal (Ambrosius)

ALTERNATIVE  Aurelianus Ambrosius / Emrys

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / Rix / Gwledig

TYPE         high chieftain / war leader

CULTURE      Cymry (tribes that fight side by side)

COUNTRY      England / Wales / France

REGION       Devon / Brittany

AGE          Post-Roman

DATES        AD 5th c

RELATIVES    Kustennin Vychan "Constantine the Small"

             (father); Uther and Constans (brothers);

             Anne (sister)

ENEMIES      Vortigern / Hengist / Paschent

SEE ALSO     Myrddin Wyllt / Uther / Vortigern

REMARKS      When Aurelius's father died, he and his brother

  Uther were too young to rule and their older brother was a

  monk.  The chieftain Vortigern became the most powerful of

  the chieftains and he ruled England and Wales.   Vortigern

  considered Constans a threat and had him murdered.

  Aurelius, Uther and Anne fled to Armorica where they were

  raised to become powerful warriors and chieftains.

       When Aurelius was ready, he landed in the area of

  present-day Devon and assembled his forces at Totnes.  He

  then marched on Vortigern's fortress in Wales.  They tried

  siege machines but in the end it was fire that destroyed

  the fort and Vortigern.  With Vortigern out of the way,

  Aurelius turned his forces on the tribes of Germani and

  pushed them into the northern part of England where he gave

  them leave to settle as long as they did not cause trouble.

       Aurelius then sent his brother Uther on a mission to

  Ireland to retrieve the giant stones so he could built a

  monument for the Celtic warriors that had been murdered by

  Hengist and his Saxons.  While he was away, Paschent, a son

  of Vortigern, landed in northern Briton with an army of

  Germani but was beaten back to sea.  Paschent then sailed

  to Ireland and formed an alliance with the high chieftain

  of Ireland.  They put together a fleet of ships and sailed

  to Britain once again and landed in Wales.

       Aurelius became sick and when the Germani heard this

  they sent a warrior disguised as a servant and he poisoned

  Aurelius.  Aurelius was buried within the Giant's Ring

  which he had taken from Ireland and had reconstructed in

  England by Myrddin.

 

 

NAME         Avaros

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / head chieftain

CULTURE      Celtiberian - Arevaci tribe

COUNTRY      Spain

REGION       Soria

LANDMARKS    Duero river

CENTERS      Numancia (Numantia)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd c / BC 134-133

BATTLES      Siege of Numantia

ENEMIES      Rome

SEE ALSO     Rhetogenes

REMARKS      Avaros was the head chieftain at the fortress of

  Numantia (Numancia) on the Duero river near present-day

  Soria.  The fortress had been under Roman siege for 15

  months and he tried to secure the assistance of other

  tribes by sending a chieftain named Rhetogenes out of the

  fortress in secret.

       The tribes failed to rise up against the Romans so

  Avaros began preparation for an unconditional surrender.

  The Romans refused to negotiate.  Numantia had required

  60,000 Roman soldiers to contain the siege and had held up

  their conquest of the Iberian peninsula by 20 years.

       The people of Numantia knew that their condition was

  hopeless so 20,000 men, women and children committed mass

  suicide as a preference to submitting to Rome.

 

 

NAME         Avarwy Mandubrad

EPITHET      The Black Traitor

ALTERNATIVE  Mandubracius (Latin)

GENDER       M

CATEGORY     warrior / Brenin

TYPE         chariot warrior / head chieftain

CULTURE      Briton - Trinovantes tribe

COUNTRY      England

REGION       Essex / Suffolk

TERRITORY    Lloegr

CENTERS      Braughing

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 1st c / BC 54

RELATIVES    Imanuentios (father); Dumnuvelaunus (son)

ENEMIES      Cassubellaunos / Casseto

SEE ALSO     Casseto / Cassubellaunos / Dumnuvelaunus /

             Imanuentios

REMARKS      Avarwy's father was killed by the Catuvellauni

  chieftain Cassubellaunos, and Avarwy fled to Gaul and asked

  Caesar for protection.

       This was the excuse Caesar need to invade Britain and

  in the summer of BC 54 he arrived with 800 ships carrying

  five legions of Roman foot-soldiers and 2000 Gaulish horse

  warriors.

       Caesar killed Casseto, who was the Trinovantes anti-

  Roman chieftain, and put Avarwy in his place, making him a

  client king and the tribe a protectorate of Rome.

 

 

NAME         Aveta

GENDER       F

CATEGORY     deity

TYPE         river goddess

CULTURE      Belgae - Treveri tribe

COUNTRY      Germany / Belgium / Luxembourg

REGION       Rhineland

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

LANDMARKS    Ardenne Highlands / Moselle river

SITES        Trier

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 9th c / BC 1st

ACCESSORIES  dog / berries / babies

REMARKS      Aveta was a goddess of the Moselle rivers around

  Trier which was a religious site in the territory of the

  Treveri tribe.  They had settled the area in BC 9th century

  and were still there when Rome conquered Gaul in BC 1st

  century.  A sculpture from Roman times shows her with a

  lap-dog, infants and baskets of berries.