Chapter 3

 

 

TRIBES

 

 

 

 

NAME         Abrincatui

CULTURE      Late Hallstatt / Aremorican

AFFILIATION  client of the Venelli

COUNTRY      Germany / France

REGION       Normandy

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aremorica

LANDMARKS    Vinxtbach (Abrinca) / See

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th-5th c / BC 49

SEE ALSO     Venelli

MAP REF      1 - C

REMARKS      Sometime between BC 6th and 5th century, the

  Abrincatui tribe left their homeland southeast of present-

  day Cologne on the Abrinca (Vinxtbach) river.  They settled

  in Aremorica on the See river around present-day Avranches.

  The Abrincatui became a client tribe of the Venelli until

  the Roman occupation in BC 49, when they were separated.

 

 

NAME         Aduatuci

ALTERNATIVE  Tungri

CULTURE      Germani / La Tène II / Germano-Celtic / Belgae

COUNTRY      Denmark / Germany / Netherlands / Belgium

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

LANDMARKS    Maas / Ardennes

CENTERS      Aduatuca

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 105 / BC 57 / BC 54 / BC 53

LEADERS      Galba (war leader) / Ambiorix (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Ambrones / Cimbri / Eburones / Menapii / Nervii

             Suessiones / Teutoni

MAP REF      2 - C

REMARKS      In BC 105 the Cimbri returned from Spain to Gaul

  where they rejoined the Teutoni and the Ambrones.  The

  tribes decided to make a reconnaissance of Italy, so they

  left 6000 of their warriors on the south side of the Rhine

  with their baggage and cattle while they went in search of

  good land to settle.  The warriors never returned from

  Italy.

       Those left behind struggled for years against their

  neighbors but were strong enough to claim their own

  territory in the Ardennes Forest on the left bank of the

  Maas river.  By the time that Caesar invaded Gaul, the

  Aduatuci were an accepted tribe.

       In BC 57, the Aduatuci contributed 19,000 warriors to

  help fight against Caesar when he invaded Belgica.  They

  had chosen Galba, head chieftain of the Suessiones, as

  their war leader.  The tribe also contributed warriors to

  help the Nervii in their struggle against the Roman

  invaders.  When they heard that the Nervii had been beaten,

  they gathered their clans into one of their fortresses

  which had good natural protection.

       Caesar's troops built an earthwork 12 ft (3.5 m) high

  with a 5 mile (8 km) circuit around their fortress.  They

  then built siege towers which the Aduatuci had never seen

  before.  When Caesar moved the towers in close to the

  oppidum, the Romans were able to shoot their arrows, stones

  and spears down into the Aduatuci warriors and they had no

  choice but to surrender.  Caesar killed 4,000 of them and

  sold 53,000 into slavery by auction.

       Caesar told the Eburones, who were a client tribe of

  the Aduatuci, to withhold their tribute but in BC 54 when

  the Eburones and the Nervii were again were trying to throw

  off the Roman yoke the Aduatuci threw in their lot with

  them under Ambiorix, chieftain of the Eburones.

       They fought Caesar again in BC 53 alongside the Nervii

  and the Menapii.  Caesar laid waste to their territory

  while they were away.

 

 

NAME         Ædui

EPITHET      Burning

ALTERNATIVE  Aedui / Ardyes / Hædui / Haedui

CULTURE      Goidel (Trojan) / La Tène I / Gallic

AFFILIATION  Insubres (clan) / Ambivareti, Bellovaci,

             Brannovices and Segusiavi (clients)

COUNTRY      Germany / France / Italy

REGION       Saône-et-Loire

TERRITORY    Gaul / Cisalpine Gaul

LANDMARKS    Saône / Doubs / Auvergne / Yonne / Loire

SITES        Alise Ste Reine (Alesia) / Gergovia

CENTERS      Autun / Bibracte / Châlons-sur-Seine

             (Cabillonum) / Decize (Decetia) / Nevers

             (Noviodunum) / Macon (Matisco)

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 9th c / BC 4th c / BC 391 / BC 218 / BC 1st c

             / BC 58 / BC 57 / BC 54 / BC 52 / BC 50

DEITIES      Borvo / Ianuaria

LEADERS      Ambicatus (Rix) / Bellovesus / Segovesus /

             Eporedorix / Divitiacus / Dumnorix / Cotos /

             Convictolitavis / Litaviccus /  Viridomar / Comm

             (war leader) / Surus / Vercingetorix (war

             leader)

SEE ALSO     Ambarri / Ambivareti / Andes / Arverni / Aulerci

             / Bellovaci / Bituriges / Brannovices / Carnuti

             / Cenomani / Helvetii / Insubres / Lingones /

             Santoni / Segusiavi / Senones / Sequani /

             Treveri / Turoni

MAP REF      3 - A/C

REMARKS      The Ædui tribe migrated to France from Germany

  around BC 9th century.  They thought of themselves as

  Trojan (Goidel) stock and Wilkens' research (Where Troy

  Once Stood) suggests that this was a plausible assertion.

  The Ædui, Ambarri, Aulerci, Carnuti, Lingones, Senones,

  Sequani and Turoni were all related by blood.  The Insubres

  were a clan and the Ambivareti, Bellovaci, Brannovices and

  Segusiavi had all been clients of the Ædui.

       In BC 4th century the Ædui belonged to a

  confederation of related tribes led at the time by

  Ambicatus of the Bituriges.  The confederation included the

  Ædui, Ambarri, Andes, Arverni, Aulerci, Bituriges,

  Carnuti, Cenomani, Insubres, Lingones, and Senones tribes.

       In BC 391, two swarms of young male and female

  warriors from the confederation were led to new lands.

  Bellovesus led his warriors over the Alps to northern Italy

  and Segovesus took his people through the Hercynian Forest

  of Germany, Austria, Hungary and former Yugoslavia.

       By BC 218 the Ædui tribe was living on the both sides

  of the Saône and by BC 1st century they were settled in the

  Auvergne Mountains with the headwaters of the Yonne to the

  north, the Saône flowing through their territory and the

  Loire on the west.

       The Ædui industrial village of Bibracte was at the

  headwaters of the Yonne, Decetia (Decize) and Noviodunum

  (Nevers) were on the Loire, Autun was on the Arroux,

  Matisco (Macon) was a town north of present-day Lyons on

  the Saône and Cabillomun (Châlon-sur-Saône) was at the

  confluence of the Doubs and the Saône.  The curative spring

  of Beire-le-Chatel was on the edge of their territory.

       In BC 1st century the Ædui chieftain named Eporedorix

  led a campaign against the Sequani tribe over the disputed

  borderline of the Saône river.  In BC 58 the Helvetii

  treated with the Ædui to pass through their territory on

  their mass migration to the land of the Santoni.  Caesar

  massacred the migrating tribes.

       In BC 57 under the leadership of Divitiacus, the Ædui

  invaded the territory of the Bellovaci tribe who were a

  client tribe.  They were attempting to keep them from

  fighting against Caesar during his Belgae invasion.

       In BC 54 Caesar had the Ædui chieftain Dumnorix

  killed because he refused to accompany him to Britain.  In

  BC 52, Caesar intervened in a civil dispute between two

  Ædui chieftains, Cotos and Convictolitavis, and backed

  Convictolitavis.  Cotos and Litaviccus, another Ædui

  chieftain, then led troops for Vercingetorix against Caesar

  at the Arverni oppidum of Gergovia.

       The Ædui Viridomar and Eporedorix and the Arverni

  Vercassivellaunus were sub-chieftains under the war leader

  Comm of the Atrebates.  They led 240,000 battle-line

  soldiers and 8,000 mounted warriors against the rear of the

  Roman force sieging Alesia.  The relief army during the

  siege of Alesia had its tribes joined in blood groups; the

  Segusiavi, Ambivareti and Brannovices fought under the

  Ædui.

       In BC 50 an Ædui chieftain named Surus was captured

  while fighting with the Treveri against Rome.  He was the

  last Ædui freedom fighter.

 

 

NAME         Ægosages

ALTERNATIVE  Aegosages

CULTURE      La Tène I

COUNTRY      Bulgaria / Turkey

TERRITORY    Gaul / Thrace

LANDMARKS    Hellespont

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 218 / BC 217

MAP REF      4 - A

REMARKS      The Ægosages were descendants of warriors from

  Gaul who had settled on the Balkan Peninsula in Thrace.

       In BC 218 Attalos of Pergamon invited them to go to

  present-day Turkey as his mercenaries.  When he no longer

  needed their services, he tried to send them back to Thrace

  but they rebelled.  They then settled on the Hellespont

  where they were defeated by Prusias I of Bithynia in BC

  217.  The Ægosages never tried to unite with the Galatian

  tribes and remained a separate entity.

 

 

NAME         Alauni

ALTERNATIVE  Alani

CULTURE      Early Hallstatt / Scythian / Celto-Scythian /

             Aremorican / La Tène III

COUNTRY      Austria / France

REGION       Brittany

TERRITORY    Noricum / Gaul / Aremorica

LANDMARKS    Aulne

CENTERS      Alauna / Alaunium

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 1st c

DEITIES      Alounae

MAP REF      5 - A/C

REMARKS      The Alauni tribe was made up of Hallstatt Celts

  from Noricum, Austria who intermingled with the Scythian

  invaders of BC 6th century.  The Alauni tribe venerated the

  eponymous goddess Alounae.

       By BC 1st century warriors of the Celto-Scythian tribe

  were settled on the west coast of Brittany with a center at

  Alauna on the Alaunus (Aulne) river.  They also settled

  another territory in southeastern Gaul at Alaunium.

 

 

NAME         Allobroges

CULTURE      Gallic

COUNTRY      France / Switzerland

REGION       Aude

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Rhône / Isère / Alps

CENTERS      Geneva

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 218 / BC 125 / BC 120 / BC 58 / BC 44

SEE ALSO     Arverni / Helvetii / Medulli

MAP REF      6 - C

REMARKS      The Allobroges had a center at Geneva where the

  old town is located.  They lived in the Isère river valley

  up as far as Maurienne which was the territory of the

  Medulli.  Hannibal passed through their territory in BC 218

  on his way into Italy.

       In BC 125 Bituitus, chieftain of the Arverni tribe,

  sought shelter with them while he was fleeing the Romans.

  The Allobroges tribe were defeated by the Romans in BC 120.

       The Helvetii asked for passage through their territory

  in BC 58 because they had a bridge over the Rhône.  Caesar,

  wanting an excuse for a fight, ordered the Allobroges to

  refuse passage.  The Allobroges suffered shame and hardship

  because of Caesar's hate for the Helvetii.  In BC 44 the

  tribe revolted against Rome in a last attempt to throw off

  the yoke of oppression.

 

 

NAME         Ambarri

CULTURE      Goidel / La Tène A / Gallic / La Tène I

COUNTRY      Germany / France

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Saône / Rhône

CENTERS      Lyons (Lugdunum)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 4th c / BC 391 / BC 57

LEADERS      Ambicatus (Rix) / Bellovesus / Segovesus

SEE ALSO     Ædui / Andes / Arverni / Aulerci / Bituriges /

             Carnuti / Cenomani / Insubres / Lingones /

             Segusiavi / Senones / Sequani / Turoni

MAP REF      7 - C

REMARKS      The Ambarri were a La Tène A tribe who left

  Germany around BC 6th century and settled between the Rhône

  and the Araris (Saône) rivers on the northeast corner with

  a center at the confluence called Lugdunum (present-day

  Lyons).  The Ædui, Ambarri, Aulerci, Carnuti, Lingones,

  Senones, Sequani and Turoni were all related by blood.

       In BC 4th century, the Ambarri tribe belonged to a

  confederation of related tribes led at the time by

  Ambicatus of the Bituriges.  The confederation included the

  Ædui, Ambarri, Andes, Arverni, Aulerci, Bituriges,

  Carnuti, Cenomani, Insubres, Lingones and Senones tribes.

       In BC 391, two swarms of young male and female

  warriors from the confederation were led to new lands.

  Bellovesus led his warriors over the Alps to northern Italy

  and Segovesus took his people through the Hercynian Forest

  of Germany, Austria, Hungary and former Yugoslavia.

       At some time the Segusiavi, a client tribe of the

  Ædui, settled in the Gaulish territory of the Ambarri and

  took over Lugdunum as their capital.  In BC 57 the

  remainder of the Ambarri tribe made an unconditional

  surrender to the Romans.

       The Ambarri minted their own gold coins.  The Coligny

  Calendar was found in the border zone between them and the

  Sequani.

 

 

NAME         Ambiani

CULTURE      Goidel / La Tène I / La Tène III / Belgae

COUNTRY      Netherlands / Germany / France

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

LANDMARKS    Rhine / Somme / Channel

CENTERS      Amiens (Samarobriva)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 4th c / BC 3rd c / BC 57 / BC 52 / BC 51-50

LEADERS      Galba (war leader) / Correus (war leader) /

             Vercingetorix (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Ædui / Atrebates / Bellovaci / Morini /

             Suessiones

MAP REF      8 - A/C

REMARKS      In BC 4th century the Ambiani were a La Tène I

  tribe from the right bank of the Rhine, spreading over to

  the western side.  They were related by blood to the Ædui

  who claimed to be Trojan (Goidel).

       In BC 3rd century the Ambiani tribe were pushed south

  from the Rhine and settled around the mouth of the Somme.

  They formed a small confederation with the Morini and

  Atrebates.  The Ambiani minted their own coins.

       In BC 57 the Ambiani, now a La Tène III Belgae tribe,

  supplied 10,000 warriors to fight the invading Romans under

  Caesar.  They had chosen a Suessiones head chieftain Galba

  as their war leader.  In BC 52 the tribe supplied 5000

  warriors to attack the Roman rear guard that was sieging

  Vercingetorix at Alesia.  In BC 51-50 the Ambiani

  contributed warriors to fight under the Bellovaci chieftain

  Correus in his attempt to rid their territory of the Roman

  occupiers.  The small body of Celtic troops fought against

  4 highly-trained legions of Roman troops.  They were a

  small tribe but had a fighting spirit for independence.

 

 

NAME         Ambidravi

CULTURE      Gallic / La Tène I

AFFILIATION  client of the Taurisci

COUNTRY      France / Austria

TERRITORY    Gaul / Noricum

LANDMARKS    Drave

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 4th c / BC 3rd c

LEADERS      Segovesus

SEE ALSO     Taurisci

MAP REF      9 - A

REMARKS      The Ambidravi tribe was formed from the Gallic

  warriors who followed Segovesus to eastern Europe in BC 4th

  century.  In Austria they settled the territory of Noricum

  on the Drave river.  Their name implies "both sides of the

  Drave."  In BC 3rd century they were a client tribe of the

  Taurisci.

 

 

NAME         Ambiliati

CULTURE      Aremorican

COUNTRY      France

REGION       Brittany

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aremorica

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 56

SEE ALSO     Veneti

MAP REF      10 - C

REMARKS      The Ambiliati were allies of the Veneti and in

  BC 56 fought against the Roman invasion into Aremorica.

 

 

NAME         Ambisontes

CULTURE      Gallic / La Tène I

AFFILIATION  client of the Taurisci

COUNTRY      France / Austria / Yugoslavia

TERRITORY    Gaul / Noricum

LANDMARKS    Isonzo / Salzach

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 4th c

LEADERS      Segovesus

SEE ALSO     Taurisci

MAP REF      11 - A

REMARKS      The Ambisontes tribe evolved from Gallic

  warriors who followed Segovesus into eastern Europe during

  BC 4th century.  They settled along the Isonzo river in

  former Yugoslavia and along both sides of the Salzach river

  in Austria.  In BC 3rd century they were a client tribe of

  the Taurisci.

 

 

NAME         Ambituti

CULTURE      Gallic-Illyrian / La Tène I / Galatian

AFFILIATION  clan of the Tolistoboii

COUNTRY      Turkey

TERRITORY    Galatia

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 3rd c

SEE ALSO     Tolistoboii

MAP REF      12 - A

REMARKS      In BC 3rd century, the Gallic-Illyrian warriors

  who went to Turkey as mercenaries formed into 3 tribes with

  four clans in each.  The Ambituti were a clan of the

  Tolistoboii tribe who settled in the south of Galatia.

 

 

NAME         Ambivareti

ALTERNATIVE  Ambivariti

CULTURE      Goidel / Gallic

AFFILIATION  client of the Aedui

COUNTRY      Belgium / Netherlands

REGION       Brabant

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

LANDMARKS    Maas

SITES        Alise Ste Reine (Alesia)

CENTERS      near Breda

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 52

SEE ALSO     Ædui / Brannovices / Segusiavi

MAP REF      13 - C

REMARKS      The Ambivareti were a client tribe of the Ædui

  and their territory was on the Maas river in Belgium and

  the Netherlands.  The Ambivareti developed a center near

  Breda.

       During the seige of Alesia they supplied warriors for

  the relief army.  The tribes were joined in blood groups so

  the Ambivareti, Segusiavi and Brannovices fought under the

  Ædui.

 

 

NAME         Ambrones

CULTURE      Germani / La Tene II / Ligurian

COUNTRY      Germany / France / Italy

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Emmer (Ambra) / Wesser / Main / Mediterranean

SITES        Aix

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 113 / BC 109 / BC 105 / BC 103 / BC 74

SEE ALSO     Aduatuci / Cimbri / Gaesatae / Helvetii /

             Luaighni / Teutoni

MAP REF      14 - A/C

REMARKS      The name Ambrone may have been originally

  associated with the Ambra (Emmer), a tributary of the

  Wesser river.  The name became associated with battle-line

  foot-soldiers of the Germani similar to the Gaesatae or the

  Luaighni.

       In BC 113, warriors of the Ambrones were an elite unit

  with the Teutoni when they united with the Cimbri somewhere

  around the Main river in Germany.  In BC 109 the Germani

  were joined by the Celtic Tigurini and Helvetii tribes and

  their clans and swarmed across the Rhine into Gaul

  searching for suitable land to settle.  Before BC 105 the

  Ambrones were instrumental in defeating three Roman armies

  before the allies split up and the Ambrones and the Teutoni

  headed for northern Gaul.

       In BC 103, the Cimbri returned to Gaul after two years

  of looking for suitable land in Spain and joined up with

  the Teutoni and Ambrones in Belgica.  Here they left behind

  warriors to guard their cattle and belongings while the

  rest journeyed into Italy.  The warriors left behind in

  Belgica were to become the Aduatuci tribe.

       The three tribes split into two armies with the

  intention of invading Italy from two different directions.

  The Teutoni and the Ambrones travelled to southern France

  where they passed through the Piedmont Alps to Italy via

  the Durance river.  They were defeated by a Roman army in a

  battle at Aix.  Those who were not killed were taken

  prisoners to serve as slaves or to amuse the Roman

  citizenry by fighting each other as gladiators.

       Some of the Ambrones settled in the territory of the

  Ligurians along the Mediterranean in southern France and

  Italy.  The Ambrones were such fierce warriors and the

  Roman soldiers were so terrified of them that the name

  Ambrone became a Roman word of abuse for centuries to come.

       In BC 74 the gladiators and slaves revolted under the

  command of the Thracian Spartacus and began to wreak havoc

  throughout Italy.

 

 

NAME         Ananes

ALTERNATIVE  Anare / Anamari

CULTURE      Gallic / La Tene I

COUNTRY      France / Italy

TERRITORY    Gaul / Cisalpine Gaul

LANDMARKS    Po river

CENTERS      Broni (Comillomagus)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 4th c / BC 223

SEE ALSO     Boii / Insubres / Salluvii

MAP REF      15 - C

REMARKS      The Ananes tribe was formed from the Gallic

  warriors who followed Bellovesus into northern Italy during

  BC 4th century.  They settled south of the Po river between

  the Salluvii and the Boii tribes.  They called their center

  Comillomagus (Broni).  In BC 223 they sided with the Romans

  against the Insubres but were defeated after crossing the

  Po river.

 

 

NAME         Anartes

CULTURE      Dacian

COUNTRY      Hungary

LANDMARKS    Hercynian Forest / Danube

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 53

MAP REF      16 - A

REMARKS      Caesar claimed that the territory of the Anartes

  was on the eastern border of the Hercynian Forest.

 

 

NAME         Ancalites

COUNTRY      England

TERRITORY    Lloegr

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 54

MAP REF      17 - (B) unknown location

REMARKS      The Ancalites lived in southeastern Britain and

  treated with Caesar in BC 54.

 

 

NAME         Andes

ALTERNATIVE  Andecavi

CULTURE      Goidel / La Tène A / Aremorican

AFFILIATION  clan of the Aulerci

COUNTRY      France / Italy

REGION       Anjou / Lombardy

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aremorica / Cisalpine Gaul

LANDMARKS    Loire / Maine / Loir / Sarthe / Mayenne

SITES        Poitiers (Lemonum)

CENTERS      Andes / Angers (Andegavum)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th-5th c / BC 4th c / BC 391 / BC 57-56 /

             BC 52 / BC 50

LEADERS      Ambicatus (Rix) / Elitovios / Vercingetorix (war

             leader) / Dumnacos

SEE ALSO     Ædui / Ambarri / Arverni / Aulerci / Bituriges

             / Carnuti / Cenomani / Insubres / Lingones /

             Senones / Pictones

MAP REF      18 - C

REMARKS      Sometime between BC 6th and 5th centuries the

  Andes, a clan of the Aulerci, settled between the Loir and

  the Loire rivers in Aremorica.  They produced coins which

  have been found in hoards at Glastonbury in England.

       In BC 4th century, the Andes belonged to a

  confederation of related tribes led at the time by

  Ambicatus of the Bituriges.  The confederation included the

  Ædui, Ambarri, Andes, Arverni, Aulerci, Bituriges,

  Carnuti, Cenomani, Insubres, Lingones and Senones tribes.

       In BC 391, two swarms of young male and female

  warriors from the confederation were led to new lands.  One

  of the leaders, Bellovesus, took his followers over the

  Alps to northern Italy and soon after Elitovios, a Cenomani

  chieftain, followed with warriors from the Andes and

  Cenomani tribes.  They established a village called Andes

  near Mantua.

       In the winter of BC 57-56 the Andes of Aremorica were

  forced to feed the Roman invaders who were wintering in

  their territory.  The hardship caused by the food loss

  combined with the forced billeting of troops impelled the

  Andes and other tribes to attack the Romans.

       In BC 52 the Andes contributed warriors to fight for

  Vercingetorix and in BC 50 they followed their chieftain

  Dumnacos against the Pictones at their oppidum of Lemonum.

 

 

NAME         Angles

ALTERNATIVE  Anglii

CULTURE      Germani / Germano-Celtic

AFFILIATION  clan of the Suebi

COUNTRY      Germany / England

REGION       Schleswig-Holstein / Altmark

TERRITORY    Lloegr

LANDMARKS    Cimbrian Peninsula / Elbe

AGE          Iron (late)

DATES        AD 5th c / AD 7th century

SEE ALSO     Jutes / Saxons / Suebi

MAP REF      19 - A/B

REMARKS      The Angles were a tribe of Germani farmers

  living on the Cimbrian Peninsula in the Schleswig-Holstein

  area and around the Elbe river in the Altmark area.  They

  were a clan of the Suebi tribe and were one of the many

  Germano-Celtic people invading the territories of the Roman

  Empire.

       After the Roman occupational force had retreated from

  England, the country was left defenceless and in chaos as

  tribes of Pictish and Goidel Celts attacked its borders.

  England was a country that had grown domesticated in its

  400 years of Imperial rule.  A Celtic chieftain named

  Vortigern invited warriors of the Germani to settle and

  help him defend his borders.  During AD 5th century,

  Angles, Saxons and Jutes settled throughout England

  searching for good farming land.

       The Angles intermingled with the local Celtic

  population of the countryside as they settled along the

  eastern coast and began to spread inland.  Unlike the

  Celts, who had spent 400 years under Roman rule and had

  lost their tribal identity, the Angles had the drive of a

  conquering people.  The Angles became the prevalent

  military force from East Anglia to Wales and north to

  Scotland.

       Not all of the Celtic population looked favourably on

  the new settlers and joined together to fight them.  After

  years of fighting, the Germani settled in and began to

  farm, mixing with the larger Celtic population and in time

  they also came under the sway of the powerful new Roman

  religion.  The Latin-speaking Celts regained control

  through the church and through administration of the

  country.

       Eventually the two groups mixed together and by AD 7th

  century the Germano-Celtic population was the dominant

  force in England except for Celtic Cornwall, Wales and

  isolated areas of northwestern England.  Out of the fusion

  of peoples, the English language was born and around this

  time the Germano-Celtic epic Beowulf was written in

  Northumbria.  The invading Germans gave the English a high

  ratio of blood type A while the Celtic population gave a

  high ratio of blood types B, AB and O.

 

 

NAME         Antariatae

EPITHET      The People of Tara

ALTERNATIVE  Autariatae

CULTURE      Illyrian

COUNTRY      Yugoslavia / Bulgaria

REGION       Dalmatia / Hercegovina

TERRITORY    Illyricum

LANDMARKS    Balkan Peninsula / Tara / Drina / Narenta /

             Morava

CENTERS      Tariona

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 4th c / BC 393 / BC 310 / BC 3rd c

LEADERS      Antaricos / Illyrios / Pannonios

MAP REF      20 - A

REMARKS      The Illyrian tribe the Antariatae were settled

  around the river Tara, a tributary of the Drina, and their

  capital was called Tariona.  The eponymous chieftain of the

  tribe was Antaricos, son of Illyrios and the father of

  Pannonios.

       During BC 4th century, the Antariatae were the most

  powerful tribe of Illyrians and their territory reached

  along the Dalmatian coast of former Yugoslavia to the mouth

  of the Narenta and inland into present-day Bulgaria.  In BC

  393, Antariatae warriors deposed the Macedonian chieftain

  Amyntas II and forced a tribute from his people.  They

  captured the salt deposits from their neighbors the Vardaei

  on the Narenta river and drove out the Triballi tribe from

  the upper Morava river valley.

       In BC 310, disaster struck the Antariatae in the form

  of a Celtic swarm.  Molistomos, a Celtic war leader,

  invaded and drove them into the arms of the Macedonians.

  The Macedonians beat them but allowed the survivors to

  settle in the area.

       The Antariatae were superb horse warriors and rode

  with the Celts during their BC 3rd century campaign into

  Greece and Turkey, where they helped form the Galatian

  people.

 

 

NAME         Aquitani

CULTURE      Tartessian ? / Goidel ? / Pictish ?

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aquitanica

LANDMARKS    Adour / Gabas / Gave d'Oloron / Bay of Biscay

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 12th c ?

MAP REF      21 - C

REMARKS      The Aquitani tribe was settled across the Gave

  d'Oloron, Gabas and Adour rivers.  The suffix "-itani"

  suggests that the ancient tribe may have been of the

  Tartessian culture and could date as far back as BC 12th

  century.

       At this time the Goidel culture was already

  established along the Atlantic coast and the Pictish

  culture had settled into Gual.  The Aquitani mined for

  copper and other precious metals.

 

 

NAME         Arauisci

ALTERNATIVE  Aravisci / Eravisci

CULTURE      Gallic

COUNTRY      Hungary

TERRITORY    Pannonia

LANDMARKS    Danube

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd c

SEE ALSO     Osi / Scordisci

MAP REF      22 - A

REMARKS      The Arauisci were Gallic Celts who had settled

  on the west bank of the Danube near present-day Budapest.

  They were situated south of the Scordisci territory and

  across the river from the Osi tribe.

       The Arauisci were lowland farmers and produced their

  own coinage which has been found in quantity in Mortara,

  Italy, south of Milan.

 

 

NAME         Arevaci

CULTURE      Early Hallstatt / Iberian / La Tène II / Belgae

             / Celtiberian

AFFILIATION  Vaccaei (clan)

COUNTRY      Spain

REGION       Castilla-y-Leon

LANDMARKS    Duero

SITES        Burgos / Segovia / Soria

CENTERS      Numancia (Numantia) / Segovia / Clunia

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 4th-3rd c / BC 3rd c / BC 137 /

             BC 134-133 / BC 90

LEADERS      Avaros / Rheotogenes

SEE ALSO     Vaccaei / Vettones

MAP REF      23 - D

REMARKS      The Arevaci were highland cattle herders who

  settled by the headwaters of the Duero river with centers

  at Numantia (Numancia), Segovia and Clunia.  The fierce

  warriors of the Arevaci tribe were a fusion of Early

  Hallstatt Celts (BC 6th century), Iberians (BC 4th-3rd

  century) and La Tène II Belgae (BC 3rd century).  To their

  west, the Arevaci had a clan called the Vaccaei.  The

  Arevaci, the Vaccaei and/or the Vettones were responsible

  for the numerous large stone sculptures of bulls, boars and

  bears that have been found in the territory such as those

  in Burgos, Segovia and Soria.  The tribal name probably

  refers to their association with cattle.

       The Arevaci tribe, under Avaros, was a major player in

  the resistance to the Roman invasion of the Iberian

  peninsula.  Not only were they fierce warriors but they

  also used the falcata style of sword with which they

  wreaked such destruction that the Romans had to beg for

  permission to reinforce their shields and modify their

  uniforms.

       After a 20-year resistance, including the defeat of an

  entire Roman army in BC 137, warriors of the Arevaci made

  the mistake of holding up in their castro at Numantia.

  After a 15-month siege (BC 134-133) 20,000 men, women and

  children finally committed mass suicide rather than submit

  to Roman imperialism.

       The fall of Numantia was a devastating blow to the

  Celtic resistance and enabled Rome to increase its

  domination of the Iberian peninsula.  In BC 90 the Arevaci

  once again rebelled, but without sufficient force to throw

  off the Roman yoke.

 

 

NAME         Armorici

CULTURE      Goidel / Aremorican / La Tène III

COUNTRY      France

REGION       Brittany

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aremorica

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 1st c

SEE ALSO     Menapii / Morini

MAP REF      24 - C

REMARKS      The Armorici were early settlers to the

  territory and either took their name from or gave their

  name to the territory which meant "country by the sea".

       Iman Wilkens suggests Brittany was also referred to as

  Thrace during the Bronze Age.  The early Goidel had contact

  with the Thracians of the Mediterranean.

       By the time of the Roman invasion of Gaul in BC 1st

  century the Armorici controlled a large portion of

  Aremorica.  Throughout the invasion the Armorici, Menapii

  and Morini tribes always supported each other.

 

 

NAME         Artabri

ALTERNATIVE  Artabros / Arotrebae

CULTURE      Goidel

AFFILATION   Lusitani confederation

COUNTRY      Spain / Ireland

REGION       Galicia

LANDMARKS    Artabro Gulf / Artabrorum Portus / Cabo

             Finisterra / Miño

SITES        Artabro

CENTERS      A Corunna (Brigantium) / Acobriga / Ardobriga

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 16th c / BC 15 c / BC 2nd c

LEADERS      Bile / Golamh / Donn / Viriato (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Lusitani

MAP REF      25 - A/D

REMARKS      The Artabri were Goidel Celts who were settled

  north of the Miño river in present-day Galicia with

  Acobriga, Ardobriga and Brigantium (A Corunna) as centers,

  and a sacred site at Artabro (Cabo Finisterra).  The group

  of estuaries guarded by A Corunna is still called the

  Artabro Gulf.  During BC 16th century, Bile was a head

  chieftain of the tribe. In ancient times the land of the

  Artabri was known as a good source of tin.

       The Artabri were a sea-roving people and supplied

  mercenaries to fight in Thrace and Egypt under a chieftain

  named Golamh.  Iman Wilkens suggests that Egypt was the

  Bronze Age name for Normandy in France and that there were

  four places with the name of Thrace: East Anglia, Brittany,

  northern Netherlands and the French Alps by the river Drac.

  At that time there was also a fair amount of involvement in

  the area of present-day Egypt by Celtic mercenaries.

       The Artabri, led by their chieftain Donn, invaded

  Ireland during BC 15th century.  They fought and defeated

  warriors of the Danann, becoming the ruling people despite

  their small population.

       In BC 2nd century during the Roman invasion of Spain

  and Portugal, the Artabri were members of the Lusitani

  confederation, fighting under the war leader Viriato.

 

 

NAME         Arverni

CULTURE      Goidel (Trojan) / La Tène I / Gallic

AFFILIATION  Cadurci (clan) / Gabali and Vellavi (clients)

COUNTRY      Germany / France

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Cher / Creuse / Vienne / Dordogne / Indre

SITES        Alise Ste Reine (Alesia)

CENTERS      Gergovia (oppidum)

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 12th-8th c / BC 4th c / BC 391 / BC 120 /

             BC 103 / BC 58 / BC 52 / BC 51

DEITIES      Mabon

LEADERS      Ambicatus (Rix) / Vercingetorix / Comm (war

             leader) / Vercassivellaunus / Critognatos /

             Bituitus

SEE ALSO     Ædui / Ambarri / Andes / Arverni / Atrebates /

             Aulerci / Bituriges / Cadurci / Carnuti /

             Cenomani / Cimbri / Gabali / Helvii / Insubres /

             Lingones / Salyes / Senones / Sequani / Teutoni

             / Vellavi

MAP REF      26 - A/C

REMARKS      Sometime between BC 12th and 8th centuries, the

  Arverni left Germany and settled a territory in the

  heartland of Gaul.  Their land included the headwaters of

  numerous rivers including the Cher, Creuse, Vienne,

  Dordogne and Indre.  The Arverni tribe, who claimed descent

  from the Trojans, had a large number of horse warriors and

  buried their dead in tumuli.  In later years they minted

  coins.

       By BC 4th century the Arverni belonged to a

  confederation of related tribes led at the time by

  Ambicatus of the Bituriges.  The confederation included the

  Ædui, Ambarri, Andes, Arverni, Aulerci, Bituriges,

  Carnuti, Cenomani, Insubres, Lingones and Senones tribes.

       In BC 391, two swarms of young male and female

  warriors from the confederation were led to new lands.

  Bellovesus led his warriors over the Alps to northern Italy

  and Segovesus took his people through the Hercynian Forest

  of Germany, Austria, Hungary and former Yugoslavia.

       In BC 120, Bituitus took 20,000 warriors and avenged

  the Salyes who had been attacked by the Romans.  In BC 103,

  the Cimbri and Teutoni laid them under siege when they

  passed through their territory.  In BC 58, the Arverni and

  the Sequani invited Germani tribes to help them in the war

  against the Ædui for supremacy of Gaul.  All three tribes

  claimed to descend from the Trojan (Goidel).

       In BC 52 the Carnuti captured the Roman town of

  Cenabum which inspired their great Celtic hero

  Vercingetorix to raise an army to drive out the Roman

  invaders.  The Arverni defeated the Romans in a pitched

  battle at Gergovia, their oppidum.

       The Arverni, Cadurci, Gabali and Vellavi tribes

  supplied 35,000 warriors for the relief army of Alesia

  under the command of Comm of the Atrebates.  Another

  Arverni chieftain, Vercassivellaunus, became a hero during

  the battle of Alesia.  During that battle, warriors from

  the Arverni and Gabali tribes were sent into the territory

  of the Helvii to burn their crops and deprive the Romans of

  possible food.

       The Arverni were a tribe who suffered greatly in their

  attempt to stay free.  Their warriors were fighting against

  a well-disciplined army of professional soldiers who were

  better armed and organized.  The Arverni were wise enough

  to adopt a hit-and-hide technique of warfare.

 

 

NAME         Astures

ALTERNATIVE  Asturs

CULTURE      Early Hallstatt

COUNTRY      Czech / Germany / Spain

REGION       Bavaria / Bohemia / Asturias

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Bay of Biscay

CENTERS      Coaña / Mohias

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 29

DEITIES      Busgosu?

SEE ALSO     Cantabri / Lusitani

MAP REF      27 - A/D

REMARKS      The Astures were a part of the Early Hallstatt

  expansion that left the Bavarian-Bohemian homeland and

  migrated into Gaul, some continuing over the mountains or

  by water into Spain and Portugal.  By BC 6th century the

  tribe occupied castros (forts) such as Coaña and Mohias

  near Navia on the coast of the Bay of Biscay.

       The Astures were a horse-riding highland cattle people

  who lived in circular huts of stone drywall construction.

  Their warrior class consisted of males and females and both

  sexes were considered by all standards to be very fierce

  fighters.

       The Roman invasion of northern Spain around BC 29

  against the Astures and Cantabri tribes proved to be so

  difficult that the emperor himself was needed to bolster

  the failing courage of the 7 legions and a naval squadron.

       The Astures were subdued by the Romans but were never

  conquered, and their tribal way of life was changed very

  little.  They may have venerated the deity Busgosu.

 

 

NAME         Atesuii

CULTURE      Aremorican

COUNTRY      France

REGION       Normandy

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aremorica

LANDMARKS    Orne

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 57-56

DEITIES      Esus

SEE ALSO     Esubii

MAP REF      28 - C

REMARKS      The tribal territory of the Atesuii was around

  the headwaters of the Orne river in Normandy, France.  The

  Atesuii and the Esubii both venerated the god Esus and

  claimed to have descended from him.

 

 

NAME         Atrebates

EPITHET      The Settlers

ALTERNATIVE  Atrevates

CULTURE      La Tène II / Belgae / La Tène III

AFFILIATION  Morini (client)

COUNTRY      Netherlands / Germany / Belgium / France /

             England

REGION       Berkshire / Hampshire

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica / Lloegr

LANDMARKS    Scheldt / Leie / Channel / Thames

SITES        Alise Ste Reine (Alesia)

CENTERS      Nemetocenna / Silchester (Calleva Atrebatum)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 3rd c / BC 3rd-2nd c / BC 57 / BC 52 /

             BC 51-50 / AD 20-41 / AD 43

LEADERS      Galba (war leader) / Comm / Verica

SEE ALSO     Ambiani / Bellovaci / Cantii / Catuvellauni /

             Iceni / Morini / Nervi / Regni / Suessiones

             / Trinovantes

MAP REF      29 - C/B

REMARKS      The Atrebates moved across the Rhine into Gaul

  in BC 3rd century.  They travelled with the Ambiani and

  Morini tribes, settled a territory across the Leie and the

  Scheldt rivers and formed a confederation of tribes of the

  La Tène II culture.  The tribe made a center at

  Nemetocenna.

       Other warriors of the tribe sailed across the Channel

  with warriors of the Catuvellauni and Cantii tribes and

  settled in southeastern England sometime between BC 3rd and

  2nd centuries.  They had a center at Calleva Atrebatum

  (present-day Silchester).

       When Caesar invaded Belgica in BC 57, the Atrebates

  supplied 15,000 warriors to fight under Galba, the head

  chieftain of the Suessiones.  They also contributed 10,000

  warriors to help the Nervi fight against Rome.  They

  contributed 4,000 warriors for the battle of Alesia under

  the command of their chieftain Comm in BC 52.

       Some of the Atrebates fought for the Bellovaci in BC

  51-50 against Rome, again under Comm.  The tribe as a whole

  stayed out of the fight but a large group of horse warriors

  fought a guerrilla war, ambushing the Romans and seizing

  baggage and food supplies.

       In BC 50, Comm rebelled against Caesar and took his

  followers to England, mixing with the Atrebates who were

  settled south of the Thames.  The tribe minted coins, some

  of which portrayed the head of Comm.  From AD 20-41, Verica

  was a chieftain.

       In AD 41 Caratacus became the head chieftain of the

  nearby Catuvellauni tribe and conquered the Atrebates,

  making them a client tribe.  The political situation lured

  Caesar to England and he invaded the south in AD 43.  After

  the conquest of England by the Romans, the Atrebates,

  Cantii, Iceni, Regni and Trinovantes tribes were grouped

  together in one province.

 

 

NAME         Aulerci

CULTURE      La Tène A / Aremorican

AFFILIATION  Andes, Brannovices, Diablintes and

             Eburovices (clans) / Cenomani (client)

COUNTRY      Germany / France / Italy / Hungary / Yugoslavia

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aremorica / Cisalpine Gaul / Pannonia

LANDMARKS    Sarthe / Huisne

SITES        Paris

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th / BC 4th c / BC 391 / BC 57 / BC 56 /

             BC 52 / BC 51-50

LEADERS      Ambicatus (Rix) / Viridovix (war leader) /

             Camulogenos / Vercingetorix (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Ædui / Ambarri / Andes / Arverni / Aulerci /

             Bellovaci / Bituriges / Brannovices / Carnuti /

             Cenomani / Diablintes / Eburovices / Insubres /

             Lingones / Senones / Sequani / Turoni / Venelli

MAP REF      30 - C

REMARKS      During BC 6th century, warriors of the Aulerci

  tribe and their clans left Germany and settled in western

  France at the headwaters of the Sarthe and Huisne.  The

  tribe minted coins which have been found at sites in the

  Channel Islands.  The Ædui, Ambarri, Aulerci, Carnuti,

  Lingones, Senones, Sequani and Turoni were all related by

  blood.

       By BC 4th century, the Aulerci belonged to a

  confederation of related tribes led at the time by

  Ambicatus of the Bituriges.  The confederation included the

  Ædui, Ambarri, Andes, Arverni, Aulerci, Bituriges,

  Carnuti, Cenomani, Insubres, Lingones, and Senones tribes.

       In BC 391, two swarms of young male and female

  warriors from the confederation were led to new lands.

  Bellovesus led his warriors over the Alps to northern Italy

  and Segovesus took his people through the Hercynian Forest

  of Germany, Austria, Hungary and former Yugoslavia.

       In BC 57 Aremorica was invaded by the Romans and in BC

  56 the Aulerci fought them under the Venelli chieftain

  Viridovix.  In BC 52 the Aulerci chieftain Camulogenos led

  a number of tribes against the Romans at Paris.  The

  Aulerci were one of the first tribes to support

  Vercingetorix in his fight to rid Gaul of the Roman

  invaders.  In BC 51-50 they also supported the Bellovaci in

  their fight against the Romans.

 

 

NAME         Ausci

CULTURE      Aquitani

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aquitanica

LANDMARKS    Adour

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 56

SEE ALSO     Sontiati

MAP REF      31 - C

REMARKS      The territory of the Ausci was in the area of

  the Adour river.  The tribe contributed warriors to fight

  the invading Romans during the summer of BC 56 after the

  Sontiati had been defeated.

 

 

NAME         Ausetani

CULTURE      Belgae / La Tène II / Tartessian ?

COUNTRY      Spain

REGION       Catalonia

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

LANDMARKS    Ter / Onar

CENTERS      near Gerona (Sebeldunum)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 3rd c

MAP REF      32 - D

REMARKS      The Ausetani were a tribe of the La Tène II

  Belgae who forced their way through southern Gaul and into

  Spain during BC 3rd century.  They settled in Catalonia and

  built a fortified town called Sebeldunum near modern-day

  Gerona at the confluence of the Onar and Ter rivers.

       The suffix "-etani" implies a link with the Tartessian

  culture who would have been after the rich deposits of

  copper, lead and iron in the area.

 

 

NAME         Autrigones

CULTURE      Early Hallstatt

COUNTRY      Czech / Germany / Spain

REGION       Bohemia / Bavaria

LANDMARKS    Ebro river

CENTERS      Deobriga / Uxama Barca

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c

SEE ALSO     Berones

MAP REF      33 - A/D

REMARKS      The Autrigones tribe was a part of the Early

  Hallstatt expansion that migrated from Bavaria-Bohemia to

  Spain.  They settled near the Berones tribe on the Ebro

  river in Spain.  Deobriga and Uxama Barca were two of their

  centers.

 

 

NAME         Baiocasses

CULTURE      Pictish / La Tène A / Aremorican

COUNTRY      Germany / France

REGION       Normandy

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aremorica

LANDMARKS    Orne river

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c

SEE ALSO     Cassi / Dii Casses / Tricasses / Veliocasses /

             Viducasses

MAP REF      34 - C

REMARKS      The Brythonic-speaking Baiocasses were related

  to the Cassi, Dii Casses, Tricasses, Veliocasses, and

  Viducasses tribes.  They left their German homeland in BC

  6th century in search of new land to settle, spreading the

  La Tène A culture.  The tribe settled around the mouth of

  the Orne river in Normandy, downriver from the Viducasses.

  They minted their own coins which have been discovered at

  sites on the Channel Islands.

 

 

NAME         Bastetani

ALTERNATIVE  Mastieni

CULTURE      Thracian / Tartessian

COUNTRY      Spain

REGION       Almeria / Murcia

LANDMARKS    Mediterranean

CENTERS      Adra / Cartagena (Mastia)

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 12th c / BC 6th c / BC 242

SEE ALSO     Bistones

MAP REF      35 - D

REMARKS      The territory of the Bastetani was first settled

  in BC 12th century by Bithynian Thracians of the Bistones

  tribe from Turkey.  They made their center at Adra in

  Almeria.  The Bastetani tribe became a part of the

  Tartessian culture of Spain and Portugal.

       In BC 6th century, the Bastetani had a settlement at

  Mastia in Murcia.  Their territory was along the coast of

  the Mediterranean and was roughly from Alicante to Malaga.

       In BC 242 Hasdrubal, a chieftain of the Carthaginians,

  conquered land in Spain from the Bastetani tribe and

  changed the name of their city Mastia to Nova Carthago

  (Cartagena).

 

 

NAME         Batavi

ALTERNATIVE  Batavians

CULTURE      Belgae / La Tène III

COUNTRY      Netherlands

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica / Batavia

LANDMARKS    Waal / Rhine

CENTERS      Lugdunum Batavorum (near Leyden)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 55

DEITIES      Lugh

SEE ALSO     Batavi / Nemetes / Triboci / Vangiones

MAP REF      36 - C

REMARKS      The Batavians lived on an island formed by the

  Waal and Rhine rivers.  During the Roman occupation, the

  Batavi, Nemetes, Triboci and the Vangiones settlements were

  made into civitates.

 

 

NAME         Bebryces

ALTERNATIVE  Berybraces / Beribraces

CULTURE      Early Hallstatt

COUNTRY      Czech / Germany / Spain

REGION       Bavaria / Bohemia / Aragon / Castilla-La Mancha

             / Valencia

LANDMARKS    Douro / Tagus / Guadiana / Turia

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c

LEADERS      Bebryx

MAP REF      37 - A/D

REMARKS      The Bebryces tribe were a part of the Early

  Hallstatt expansion of BC 6th century that left their

  homeland in Czech-Germany and descended south through the

  Pyrenees mountains and into Spain.

       They settled around the headwaters of the Duero,

  Tagus, Guadiana and Turia rivers.  They were cattle herders

  and lived mainly on milk, fatty cheese and meat.  Their

  name implies that they were also associated with the beaver

  (bebros).

 

 

NAME         Bellovaci

CULTURE      La Tène I / La Tène II / Belgae / La Tène III

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

LANDMARKS    Oise / Somme

SITES        Saint-Maur / Gournay-sur-Aronde / Paris / Alise

             Ste Reine (Alesia)

CENTERS      Bratuspante (Bratuspantium) / Beauvais

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 4th c / BC 57 / BC 52 / BC 51-50 / BC 46

LEADERS      Correus / Galba (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Ædui / Remi / Suessiones

MAP REF      38 - B

REMARKS      The Brythonic-speaking Bellovaci did not move

  across the Rhine until BC 4th century, when they settled by

  the Oise and the Somme rivers.  The tribe had sacred sites

  at Saint-Maur and Gournay-sur-Aronde.  They later minted

  their own gold coins.

       When Caesar invaded Belgica in BC 57, the Bellovaci

  were the strongest of the Belgae tribes and contributed

  100,000 troops to fight under Galba, the head chieftain of

  the Suessiones.  60,000 of these warriors were hand-picked.

  During the battle, Caesar had the Remi tribe raid the

  Bellovaci homeland and when the warriors were informed,

  they stopped fighting and left to defend their homes.

  Caesar attacked them from behind, killing many of them.

       When Caesar had won his battle against the Belgae, the

  Bellovaci gathered at Bratuspantium, their oppidum near

  present-day Breteuil, and negotiated peace with Caesar.

  Divitiacus, an Æduan chieftain, spoke well for the

  Bellovaci to Caesar.  He assured Caesar that the chieftains

  who had involved the Bellovaci warriors in the conflict had

  fled to England.

       In BC 52 the Bellovaci tribe contributed warriors to

  fight the Romans during the battle at Paris, and during the

  siege of Alesia they provided 10,000 warriors.

       During Caesar's Bellovacan campaign in BC 51-50, the

  Bellovaci chieftain Correus proved to be a hero and great

  leader.  In BC 46 the Bellovaci revolted against Roman

  oppression.

 

 

NAME         Berones

CULTURE      Early Hallstatt

COUNTRY      Czech / Germany / France / Spain

REGION       Bohemia / Bavaria / Aragon

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Ebro

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c

SEE ALSO     Autrigones

MAP REF      39 - A/D

REMARKS      The Berones were a part of the Early Hallstatt

  expansion who left their homeland in present-day Czech-

  Germany and settled in Gaul.  Some of the tribe moved over

  the Pyrenees mountains into Spain, where they settled along

  the Ebro river near the Autrigones tribe.

 

 

NAME         Bibroci

COUNTRY      England

TERRITORY    Lloegr

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 54

MAP REF      40 - (B) unknown location

REMARKS      The Bibroci of southeastern England agreed not

  to fight Caesar in BC 54 when he was in Britain.

 

 

NAME         Bigerriones

CULTURE      Aquitani

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aquitanica

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 56

DEITIES      Beissirissa

SEE ALSO     Sontiati

MAP REF      41 - (C) unknown location

REMARKS      The Bigerriones venerated a goddess called

  Beissirissa.  In the summer of BC 56, after the defeat of

  the Sontiati, the Bigerriones contributed warriors to fight

  the invading Romans.

 

 

NAME         Bistones

CULTURE      Thracian

COUNTRY      Turkey / Spain

TERRITORY    Bithynia

LANDMARKS    Strait of Bosporus

CENTERS      Polystilo or Asperosa (Abdera) / Adra (Abdera)

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 12th c

SEE ALSO     Bastetani

MAP REF      42 - A/D

REMARKS      The Bistones were Thracians who had settled on

  the Asia Minor side of the Strait of Bosporus.  They are

  linked to the Bastetani, one of the founding cultures of

  the Tartessian culture in Spain around BC 12th century.

       In the territory of the Tartessians is the present-day

  town of Adra (Abdera) which bore the same ancient name as a

  town in Bithynia.  The Bithynian center was at the site of

  either present-day Polystilo or Asporus in Turkey.

 

 

NAME         Bituriges

EPITHET      Leaders of the World

CULTURE      Goidel / La Tène I / Gallic / La Tène III

AFFILIATION  Cubi and Vivisci (clans)

COUNTRY      Germany / Austria / Yugoslavia / Hungary /

             France / Italy

REGION       Auvergne

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Loire / Indre / Creuse / Vienne

SITES        Seckau / Alise Ste Reine (Alesia)

CENTERS      Bourges (Avaricum) / Nouan (Noviodunum)

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 12th-9th c / BC 4th c / BC 391 / BC 52

DEITIES      Teutates

LEADERS      Ambicatus (Rix) / Bellovesus / Segovesus

SEE ALSO     Ædui / Ambarri / Andes / Arverni / Aulerci /

             Carnuti / Cenomani / Cubi / Insubres / Lingones

             / Senones / Vivisci

MAP REF      43 - A/C

REMARKS      Warriors of the Bituriges tribe left the Goidel

  Homeland in Germany and settled in southern France between

  the Indre and Creuse rivers sometime between BC 12th and

  9th centuries.  They buried their dead in tumuli and most

  likely still spoke Q-Celt.  They had two clans called the

  Bituriges Cubi and the Bituriges Vivisci which later became

  independent tribes.

       By BC 4th century the Bituriges were part of a

  confederation of related tribes, led at the time by

  Ambicatus of their own tribe.  The confederation also

  included the Ædui, Ambarri, Andes, Arverni, Aulerci,

  Carnuti, Cenomani, Insubres, Lingones and Senones tribes.

       Because Gaul was overcrowded at the time, Ambicatus

  decided that his sister's sons should pick the best young

  male and female warriors from the confederation to

  accompany them on a march for new lands.  The direction

  they should take would be chosen by the gods.

       In BC 391, Bellovesus led his warriors over the Alps

  to northern Italy and Segovesus took his people through the

  Hercynian Forest of Germany, Austria, Hungary and former

  Yugoslavia.  They carried the veneration of Teutates with

  them, as evidenced by the site at Seckau.

       In BC 1st century, the Roman army invaded the

  Bituriges of Gaul with the intentions of conquering and

  subjecting its people to an absentee government.  This was

  a concept the Celtic people could not totally grasp but

  they fought bravely as warriors against an army.

       During Vercingetorix's fight for freedom in BC 52, he

  was advocating the "scorched earth" policy, burning crops

  and oppida.  The Bituriges begged the other Gauls not to

  set fire to Avaricum (Bourges) because it was the most

  beautiful center in all of Gaul, and they decided to defend

  it against Caesar.

       The Romans wanted the lush territory of the Bituriges

  in order to exploit its fertile soil, and besieged the

  tribe at Avaricum.  During the siege, the Bituriges dug

  tunnels to undermine the Roman siege equipment and Roman

  tunnels.  They used fire-hardened sharpened stakes, boiling

  pitch and large rock boulders to block the Roman tunnels.

       On the walls of the oppidum, the Bituriges built hide-

  covered towers to keep their warriors higher than the siege

  towers.  Warriors would stand in the open and throw tallows

  of pitch into the fires around the Roman towers to make

  them burn better.  As fast as the Roman archers shot a

  warrior, another would take his or her place until they

  were shot.  This would continue until the Romans finally

  extinguished the fire.

       During a fierce rainstorm, the Romans attacked the

  oppidum and forced their way inside the fortress wall.  The

  Romans slaughtered men, women, and children and out of the

  40,000 people only 800 escaped.

       During the siege of Alesia, the Bituriges sent 12,000

  warriors against the Romans.  After the fall of Alesia,

  Caesar led a winter attack against the Bituriges.  He

  caught them by surprise and they were finally forced to

  submit to Rome.

 

 

NAME         Blannovii

CULTURE      Gallic

AFFILIATION  client of the Ædui

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul

SITES        Alise Ste Reine (Alesia)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 52

SEE ALSO     Ædui

MAP REF      44 - (C) unknown location

REMARKS      The Blannovii supplied warriors to attack the

  rear of Caesar's forces during the battle of Alesia in BC

  52.

 

 

NAME         Boii

ALTERNATIVE  Boians / Boji

CULTURE      Goidel / Early Hallstatt / Aquitani / Gallic /

             La Tene III

COUNTRY      Germany / Czech / Slovakia / France / Poland

             Switzerland / Italy / Turkey

TERRITORY    Bohemia / Moravia / Gaul / Aquitanica / Silesia

LANDMARKS    Rhine / Upper Danube / Theiss / Bassin

             d'Arcachon / Allier / Loire / Jura / Po Valley /

             Adda / Ticino / Apennines

SITES        Alise Ste Reine (Alesia)

CENTERS      Gorgobina / Lodi (Laus Pompeia) / Wolkersdorf

             (Meliodunum) / Brunn (Eburodunum) / Milan

             (Mediolanum) / Breig (Budorigum) / Liegnitz /

             Bologna (Bononia) / Mutina / Parma

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 7th c / BC 6th c / BC 4th c / BC 299 / BC 225

             / BC 219-218 / BC 191 / BC 113 / BC 1st c / BC

             58 / BC 52 / AD 68

LEADERS      Atis / Galatos / Critasirus

SEE ALSO     Ædui / Cimbri / Cotini / Helvetii / Insubres /

             Lingones / Senones / Tulingi / Volcae

MAP REF      45 - A/C

REMARKS      The homeland of the Boii was in the upper

  "Celtic Cradle" on the right bank of the Rhine in central

  western Germany near a settlement of the Lingones.  Their

  tribal name suggests an association with bulls or oxen and

  their choice of friends and territories suggest they were

  Goidel.  Some tribes were a mixture of both Goidel and the

  Brythonic.

       Early in BC 7th century, clans of the Boii swarmed

  eastward into Bohemia and Moravia in Czech, giving their

  name to Bohemia.  Their new territory had the Volcae tribe

  to the west and the Cotini nearby in Silesia.

       During BC 6th century, warriors of the Boii left their

  homeland in Germany and travelled across Gaul to the Bay of

  Biscay in Aquitanica where they settled on the Bassin

  d'Arcachon.

       In BC 398, warriors of the Boii and Lingones tribes

  left their territory and crossed the Pennine Alps by way of

  the St Gotthard or Simplon Pass with their herds, flocks,

  pack animals, chariots and wagons carrying mothers,

  children and goods.

       With the help of the Insubres and the Senones, the

  Boii drove the Etruscans and the Umbrians out of an area of

  northern Italy.  They settled north of the Po between the

  Adda and Ticino rivers in the present-day Lodi region,

  founding a capital called Laus Pompeia (Lodi).  Warriors

  from the Boii and Lingones tribes also crossed the Po.  The

  Boii settled the plain between Parma and Bologna under the

  Apennines, while the Lingones settled the area of Lower

  Emilia.  The Boii settlements in Italy grew to include 112

  clans.

       During the first half of BC 4th century, the Celtic

  tribes of northern Italy raided and captured Rome itself a

  number of times.  Later, when the Celts of the Cisalpine

  region were under threat from the expanding Roman

  influence, the Boii called upon their people across the

  Alps to come to their aid.  In BC 299 two chieftains named

  Atis and Galatos led some Boii warriors across the Alps and

  ended up in a scrap with the Celts of the Po Valley in

  which both chiefs were killed.

       In BC 225, another army led by the Celtic chieftains

  Aneroestus, Concolitanos and Britomartus crossed the Alps

  and invaded northwestern Italy with a force of 50,000 foot

  and 20,000 horse and chariot warriors.  They were defeated,

  and the next year the Boii were beaten by the Romans and

  submitted.

       In BC 219-218 the Boii of Italy invited Hannibal to

  invade Italy, then for some reason refused to help him and

  he lost.  In BC 191, the Boii were beaten by the Romans

  again and over the next few years they lost the three

  cities of Bononia (Bologna), Mutina, and Parma.  Among the

  booty stolen by the Romans were 1,471 gold torcs and 2,340

  pounds of silver goods.  Exasperated with Roman oppression,

  the majority of the Boii crossed over the Alps towards

  their old homeland looking for new territory where they

  could be free.

       In BC 113 the Boii of Bohemia were attacked by the

  Cimbri, who were on their southern advancement, but they

  drove them out of their territory, steering them toward the

  Volcae.

       The Boii had many centers such as Meliodunum

  (Wolkersdorf) north of Vienna, Eburodunum (Brunn / Brno) in

  Moravia, Mediolanum (Milan), Budorigum (Breig) and Liegnitz

  (Legnica) in Silesia and by BC 1st century they influenced

  all of Czech and Slovakia from Bohemia to the Theiss.  They

  also minted their own coins.

       The Boii chieftain Critasirus went to war with the

  Dacians over a dispute of the Theiss border and lost.  The

  Boii were then pushed out of their territory and retreated

  to the south of the Danube.  Their disappearance from

  Bohemia around BC 58 created the "Desert of the Boii".

  These were probably the Boii who in BC 58 were settled

  around Belfort by the Rhine and Jura Mountains in

  Switzerland.  The tribe consisted of 32,000 and they became

  involved in a migration planned by the Helvetii.  The Boii

  and the Tulingi tribes supplied a rear guard of 15,000

  warriors.  The migration turned into a slaughter when

  Caesar attacked the Celts.  The surviving Boii were allowed

  to settle in the territory of the Ædui who gave them full

  rights and privileges, suggesting an old connection.  Their

  territory in central France was between the Loire and the

  Allier with their center at the oppidum of Gorgobina near

  the confluence of the two rivers.

       Caesar ordered the Boii to supply grain to the Roman

  army during their campaign of Gaul.  The Boii protested

  that they were a small weak tribe with limited resources,

  and therefore could not supply the grain.  However, during

  the battle of Alesia in BC 52, the Boii did manage to

  contribute 2,000 warriors to fight the Romans.

 

 

NAME         Boresti

CULTURE      Pictish

COUNTRY      Scotland

REGION       Grampian

AGE          Iron (late)

DATES        AD 80

MAP REF      46 - B

REMARKS      By AD 80 the Boresti tribe was known to be

  settled in Grampian, Scotland.

 

 

NAME         Bracari

ALTERNATIVE  Braca / Bracarenses / Bracaros

CULTURE      Early Hallstatt

AFFILIATION  Grovii (clan) / Lusitani confederation

COUNTRY      Portugal

REGION       Galicia / Entre-Douro-e-Minho

TERRITORY    Lusitania

LANDMARKS    Atlantic / Minho / Douro

CENTERS      Braga / Caladunum

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 7th c / BC 2nd c

LEADERS      Viriato (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Grovii / Lusitani

MAP REF      47 - D

REMARKS      In BC 7th century the Bracari had settlements

  around the Minho and south of the Douro rivers with centers

  at Braga and Caladunum.  They were cattle herders and the

  etymology of their name suggest they wore pants or trousers

  as would horse warriors.  Female warriors of the tribe were

  noted for their bravery.

       During BC 2nd century, the Bracari were one of the

  tribes included in the confederation under the Lusitani,

  fighting against the Roman invaders under the leadership of

  Viriato.

 

 

NAME         Brannovices

ALTERNATIVE  Aulerci Brannovices

CULTURE      Goidel / Gallic / La Tène III

AFFILIATION  clan of the Aulerci / client of the Ædui

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul

SITES        Alise Ste Reine (Alesia)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 52

SEE ALSO     Ædui / Ambivareti / Aulerci / Segusiavi

MAP REF      48 - (C) unknown location

REMARKS      The Brannovices were a clan of the Aulerci and

  became a client tribe of the Ædui who were of the same

  blood line.

       During the seige of Alesia they supplied warriors for

  the relief army.  The tribes were joined in blood groups so

  the Brannovices, Ambivareti and Segusiavi fought under the

  Ædui.

 

 

NAME         Brigantes

ALTERNATIVE  Burgondiones

CULTURE      Pictish / La Tène A / Briton

AFFILIATION  Achaeans

COUNTRY      Germany / Switzerland / England / Ireland

REGION       Yorkshire / Nottinghamshire / Bavaria

TERRITORY    Gaul / Lloegr

LANDMARKS    Alps / Bodensee (Lacus Brigantinus) / Tyne /

             Tees / Greta

CENTERS      Bregenz (Brigantium) / Kempten (Cambodunum) /

             York (Eboracum) / Barwick / Stanwick / Waterford

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 15th-13th c / BC 6th c / AD 1st c / AD 71

DEITIES      Aericura / Aericuros / Brighid / Belisama /

             Cocidos / Vernostonos

LEADERS      Hu Gardarn / Cartimandua / Venutios

SEE ALSO     Cauci / Menapii

MAP REF      49 - A/B

REMARKS      The Brigantes were one of the tribes led across

  the continent from Turkey by Hu Gardarn sometime between BC

  15th-13th century.  Part of the tribe settled in Upper

  Bavaria and Switzerland with centers at Brigantium

  (Bregenz) near the lake known as Lacus Brigantinus

  (Bodensee) and at Cambodunum (Kempten).  Wilkens identifies

  Bodensee as Homer's Rhodes, suggesting that the Brigantes

  who migrated from that area to northern Britain were most

  likely part of the Achaean force that besieged Troy

  (Gogmagog Hills).

       After the Trojan War, warriors of the Brigantes in

  England settled in the regions of Nottinghamshire and

  Yorkshire with a center at Cambodunum between Chester and

  York.  They also had a center at Eboracum (York) and

  eventually built hillforts at Barwick and Stanwick.  The

  old Goidel island now came under control of the invaders

  and became known as the Pretani Island (Ynys Prydain) or

  the Island of the Picts.

       The Brigantes were Brythonic-speaking P-Celts.  The

  Danann goddess Brighid (Brigantia) may have been their

  tribal goddess, and they also venerated the deities

  Aericura, Aericuros, Belisama, Cocidos and Vernostonos.

       In BC 6th century, warriors of the Brigantes tribe

  settled in Ireland with Waterford as their center.  Two

  centuries later, warriors of the Menapii tribe settled at

  Wexford and the Cauci tribe settled to their north in

  Wicklow.

       During AD 1st century, the Brigantes fought a civil

  war with the pro-Roman faction under the chieftain

  Cartimandua and the other faction under her husband, the

  chieftain Venutios.  He succeeded in winning over most of

  the tribe but was finally defeated in AD 71 by the Romans,

  with the help of horse warriors from Germani tribes, at a

  hillfort near modern-day Stanwick.  The descendants of the

  Brigantes are still the prevalent people of modern

  Yorkshire, giving the region's inhabitants their distinct

  character.

 

 

NAME         Britolagae

CULTURE      Gallic / La Tène I

COUNTRY      Romania

LANDMARKS    Balkan Peninsula / Black Sea / Danube / Sereth

CENTERS      Galati

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 3rd c

MAP REF      50 - A

REMARKS      In BC 3rd century, when Gallic warriors from the

  Balkan Peninsula could not find anywhere to settle because

  of overcrowding, they travelled north along the Black Sea

  where they found empty land.  The Britolagae tribe was

  formed by some of these warriors who settled in Romania

  between the Danube and Sereth rivers at their confluence

  near present-day Galati.

 

 

NAME         Cabari

CULTURE      Gallic / La Tène I

COUNTRY      Ukraine

LANDMARKS    Balkan Peninsula / Black Sea / Azov Sea

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 3rd c

MAP REF      51 - A

REMARKS      The Cabari tribe settled on the Azov Sea in the

  present-day Ukraine.  The tribe was formed when Gallic

  invaders of the Balkan Peninsula could not find anywhere to

  settle in overcrowded Greece so they travelled north along

  the Black Sea until they found empty lands.

 

 

NAME         Cadurci

CULTURE      Goidel / La Tène III / Gallic

AFFILIATION  clan of the Arverni

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Dordogne / Cère

SITES        Alise Ste Reine (Alesia)

CENTERS      Uxellodunum / L'Impernal

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 9th c / BC 52 / BC 51

LEADERS      Lucterius / Vercingetorix (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Arverni / Ruteni / Senones / Volcae Arcomici

MAP REF      52 - A/C

REMARKS      By BC 9th century the Cadurci, a clan of the

  Arverni, were settled around the confluence of the Dordogne

  and Cère rivers with an oppidum at L'Impernal, near Cahors,

  and another at Uxellodunum.  Excavations at the oppidum of

  L'Impernal have revealed niches in the walls for the

  display of skulls.  The Cadurci buried their dead in tumuli

  and were noted for their production of high-quality linen.

       In BC 52, the Cadurci supported Vercingetorix from the

  very beginning of his effort to throw off the Roman yoke.

  The Cadurci and the Ruteni sent horse warriors into the

  territory of the Volcae Arcomici to destroy their crops in

  an attempt to cut off the Roman food supply.  They also

  fought beside the Arverni during the siege of Alesia.

       When the Cadurci leader Lucterius and his ally Drappes

  from the Senones tribe retreated to the oppidum of

  Uxellodunum, they were besieged by the Romans and had their

  food and water cut off until they surrendered in BC 51.

 

 

NAME         Caereni

CULTURE      Pictish

COUNTRY      Scotland

REGION       Highlands

LANDMARKS    Loch Broom / Loch Eriboll / The Minch

CENTERS      Durness

AGE          Iron (late)

DATES        AD 2nd c

MAP REF      53 - B

REMARKS      The Caereni territory was between Loch Broom and

  Loch Eriboll along the coast of The Minch with a center at

  present-day Durness in northwestern Scotland.

 

 

NAME         Caeroesi

ALTERNATIVE  Caeraesi

CULTURE      Belgae

COUNTRY      Luxembourg

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

LANDMARKS    Rhine

SITES        Luxemburg

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 57

LEADERS      Galba (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Suessiones

MAP REF      54 - C

REMARKS      The Caeroesi were settled near present-day

  Luxemburg or Lttich.  In BC 57 when Caesar invaded

  Belgica, the Caeroesi contributed warriors to fight under

  Galba, the head chieftain of the Suessiones tribe.

 

 

NAME         Caledonii

ALTERNATIVE  Caledones / Caledonians / Gwyddyl Fichti (Irish

             Picts) / Gwyddelain / Gwyddelain Fichti

CULTURE      Pictish

COUNTRY      Scotland / England / Denmark

REGION       Highlands / Tayside / Grampian

TERRITORY    Lloegr

LANDMARKS    North Sea / Loch Ness / Grampian Mountains / Tay

             / Hadrians Wall / Antonine Wall

SITES        Schiehallion Mountain / Mons Graupius

CENTERS      Dunkeld

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 13th c / AD 84 / AD 2nd c / AD 100 / AD 117 /

             AD 122-129 / AD 142 / AD 196 / AD 4th c

LEADERS      Calgach

SEE ALSO     Verturiones

MAP REF      55 - B

REMARKS      The Caledonii were Brythonic-speaking P-Celts

  and were described as tall people with red hair.  They most

  likely arrived in the island of Britain as Bronze Age

  Pictish warriors during BC 13th century.  In Welsh

  mythology, the Gwyddelain tribe was given permission to

  emigrate to Scotland (Alban) after they crossed the North

  Sea (Sea of Llychlyn) from Denmark.  The only people there

  to have given permission would have been the Goidel.

       Wilkens places the ancient city of Calydon in the

  region of Aetolia at La Caillère in western France.  The

  Pictish people (Pictones tribe) were in this area during

  the time of the Mycenaeans.  The legendary Hunt of the

  Caledonian Boar was said to have taken place in the

  vicinity, and the name of the Caledonii may have been

  transplanted from this region during the Trojan War.

       During the Roman invasion, the Caledonii used long

  iron Hallstatt swords with blunt ends, small shields and

  chariots where terrain permitted.  Chariots were reported

  to be in use as late as AD 207.  The Caledonii capital was

  at Dunkeld on the Tay, and they had a sanctuary on

  Schiehallion Mountain.

       In AD 84, the Caledonii stopped the Roman advancement

  into Scotland near Stonehaven in Grampian.  The battle took

  place on Mons Graupius, a hill across from the Roman camp

  of Rae Dykes.  The Celts under Calgach attacked at night

  and the Romans were saved only by the arrival of Agricula

  with his legion.  By AD 100 the Romans were in retreat from

  Scotland and all their fortresses north of the Tyne-Solway

  gap were deserted.

       By AD 117 the Caledonii and their allies were causing

  such trouble to the Romans that the Emperor Hadrian was

  forced to travel to Scotland to evaluate the situation.

  Between AD 122-129 the Romans constructed a great stone

  wall across the country for 74 miles (118 km) between

  Solway and Tyne (Hadrian's Wall).

       Around AD 142, the Romans built a 37-mile (60 km) turf

  defence called the Antonine Wall across Scotland from the

  Forth to the Clyde.  It proved ineffectual as well, and in

  AD 196 the Caledonii and their allies destroyed the wall

  and overran northern England.

       Before the end of AD 2nd century, the Caledonii tribe

  were settled on both sides of Loch Ness and into the

  Grampian Mountains.  The 13 tribes of the Caledonii were

  grouped under the Dicaledonae and the Verturiones.

       By AD 4th century, the Caledonii were divided into the

  two subgroups of the Clanna Cat (cat) and the Clanna Orcs

  (boar).  The Caledonii were called Gwyddyl Fichti (Irish-

  speaking Picts) by the Welsh, which may mean that they

  spoke the language of the Q-Celts.

 

 

NAME         Caleti

ALTERNATIVE  Caletes

CULTURE      La Tène A / Belgae / La Tène II

AFFILIATION  Veliocasses (clan)

COUNTRY      Germany / France

REGION       Normandy

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

LANDMARKS    Channel / Somme / Seine

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 57 / BC 52 / BC 51-50

LEADERS      Galba (war leader) / Vercingetorix (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Bellovaci / Catuvellauni / Meldi / Remi /

             Suessiones / Veliocasses

MAP REF      56 - C

REMARKS      In BC 6th century the Brythonic-speaking Caleti

  moved across the Rhine with the Catuvellauni, Meldi, Remi,

  Suessiones and the Veliocasses tribes, bringing the La Tène

  culture into Gaul.  The Caleti tribe settled in territory

  demarcated by the Somme and Seine rivers and the Channel.

  They intermingled with the local Goidel and Hallstatt

  people who had been occupying the area.

       In BC 57 when Caesar invaded Belgica, the La Tène II

  Caleti contributed 10,000 warriors to fight under Galba,

  head chieftain of the Suessiones.  In BC 52 the tribe also

  fought for Vercingetorix and in BC 51-50 they supplied

  warriors to help the Bellovaci.

 

 

NAME         Callaici

ALTERNATIVE  Callaeci / Gallaeci

CULTURE      Urnfield-Hallstatt

AFFILIATION  Lusitani confederation

COUNTRY      Spain / Portugal

REGION       Galicia / Tras-os-Montes

LANDMARKS    Minho

CENTERS      Calahorra (Caladunum)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 7th c / BC 3rd c

LEADERS      Viriato (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Artabri / Lusitani

MAP REF      57 - D

REMARKS      The Callaeci were an ancient tribe of highland

  cattle herders who settled in northwestern Spain and

  northern Portugal and eventually gave their name to Galicia

  where they were associated with the Castro Culture.

       The tribe lived in circular stone huts, rode horses,

  and had both female and male warriors who used the short

  Hallstatt dagger, javelin, spear and small round shield.

  They wore the helmets and leg guards made popular during

  the Urnfield period.

       In BC 3rd century, the Callaeci were associated with

  the Lusitani confederation.

 

 

NAME         Camuni

CULTURE      Etruscan

AFFILIATION  client of the Rhaeti

COUNTRY      Italy

TERRITORY    Cisalpine Gaul

LANDMARKS    Val Camonica

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 4th c

SEE ALSO     Rhaeti

MAP REF      58 - C

REMARKS      The Camuni were Etruscan pastoral people and a

  client tribe of the Rhaeti.  Their territory in Val

  Camonica was known for its chestnut forests, and the tribe

  probably contributed to the Val Camonica drawings.

 

 

NAME         Cantabri

ALTERNATIVE  Cantabrian

CULTURE      Early-Hallstatt

COUNTRY      Czech / Germany / Spain

REGION       Cantabria

LANDMARKS    Bay of Biscay / Picos de Europa / Deva

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 7th c / BC 1st c / BC 56 / BC 29

SEE ALSO     Aquitani / Artabri / Astures / Lusitani

MAP REF      59 - A/D

REMARKS      The Cantabri tribe was a part of the Early

  Hallstatt expansion that migrated from Czech-Germany to

  Gaul, Spain and Portugal.  The tribal name may be linked to

  that of the Artabri.  In ancient times the area of Bætica

  was known for silver and lead.

       By BC 7th century the Cantabri were settled along the

  Bay of Biscay and in the valley of the Deva river in Spain

  with the Picos de Europa mountains at their backs.  They

  were a rough, tough and honorable people who preferred

  suicide to slavery.  They refused to be intimidated by

  torture and were reputed to sing war songs even while

  dying.  When Cantabri warriors grew too old to die in

  combat, they would throw themselves over a cliff.

       During BC 1st century, the Cantabri tribe protested

  the slaughter of 20,000 Celtiberians by the Romans.  The

  warriors thought that they should declare war on Rome, and

  when the chieftains vetoed this proposal the warriors burnt

  down the meeting hall in protest.

       In BC 56 the Cantabri contributed warriors to help the

  Aquitani to fight the invading Romans.  In BC 29, the

  Romans invading the territory of the Cantabri and the

  Astures were becoming so frustrated that the Roman emperor

  himself was needed to bolster the failing courage of the 7

  legions and a naval squadron.  The Cantabri were finally

  subdued by the Romans but were never conquered.  Their

  tribal way of life (similar to that described under the

  Lusitani tribe) was changed very little.  The tribe gave

  its name to the present-day province of Cantabria.

 

 

NAME         Cantii

ALTERNATIVE  Cantiaci

CULTURE      Belgae / La Tène II / La Tène III

COUNTRY      England

REGION       Kent

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica / Lloegr

LANDMARKS    Thames / Channel

CENTERS      Canterbury / Rochester / London (Caer Lludd)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 3rd-2nd c / BC 1st c / BC 54

SEE ALSO     Atrebates / Catuvellauni / Iceni / Regni /

             Trinovantes

MAP REF      60 - B

REMARKS      The Cantii tribe was part of the La Tène II

  Belgae expansion during BC 3rd-2nd century.  The tribe

  settled in the region of Kent with centers at Canterbury

  and Rochester.  The tribe used present-day London as their

  trading center after the Belgae tribes pushed the Pictish

  tribe of the Trinovantes to the north.  They then changed

  the name of the center from Trinovantum to Caer Lludd in BC

  1st century.

       In BC 54, Caesar landed on a beach in their territory

  during his visit to England.  He reported that they were

  the most civilized (domesticated) of the tribes that he

  encountered.  Other Belgae tribes in the area were the

  Atrebates and the Catuvellauni.

       After the conquest of England by the Romans, the

  Atrebates, Cantii, Iceni, Regni and Trinovantes were

  grouped together in a province.

 

 

NAME         Carietes

CULTURE      Early Hallstatt

COUNTRY      Czech / Germany / Spain

REGION       Cantabria

LANDMARKS    Deva

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c

MAP REF      61 - A/D

REMARKS      The Carietes tribe was a part of the Early

  Hallstatt expansion from Czech-Germany into Gaul.  Groups

  of warriors or tribes also continued over the Pyrenees and

  into Spain where they settled on the Deva river around BC

  6th century.

 

 

NAME         Carni

CULTURE      Gallic / La Tène I

COUNTRY      Austria / Slovenia / Italy

TERRITORY    Gaul / Noricum / Cisalpine Gaul

LANDMARKS    Hercynian Forest / Drave / Tagliamento / Carnic

             Alps / Adriatic Sea

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 4th c / BC 186 / BC 183

LEADERS      Segovesus (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Bituriges

MAP REF      62 - A/C

REMARKS      The Carni tribe was formed from warriors of

  Gauls who followed Segovesus, the Bituriges chieftain, to

  Noricum, Austria in BC 4th century.

       In BC 186, the Carni tribe left Noricum and settled in

  the Carnic Alps around the Drave and Tagliamento rivers

  near the Adriatic Sea.  They survived the Roman invasion in

  BC 183 and although subdued, they remained in the area.

 

 

NAME         Carnonacae

CULTURE      Pictish

COUNTRY      Scotland

REGION       Highlands / Wester Ross

LANDMARKS    The Minch / Glen Carron / Loch Broom

AGE          Iron (Late)

DATES        AD 2nd c

MAP REF      63 - B

REMARKS      By AD 2nd century, the Carnonacae tribe was

  settled between Glen Carron and Loch Broom along the coast

  of The Minch in the area of present-day Western Ross in the

  Scottish Highlands.

 

 

NAME         Carnuti

ALTERNATIVE  Carnutes

CULTURE      Goidel / La Tène A / Gallic / La Tène I / La

             Tène III

AFFILIATION  client of the Remi

COUNTRY      Germany / France

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Loire / Loir / Cher

SITES        Alise Ste Reine (Alesia)

CENTERS      Orléans (Cenabum) / Chartres

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 4th c / BC 54 / BC 52 / BC 51-50

LEADERS      Ambicatus (Rix) / Tasgetios / Cotuatos /

             Conconnetodumnus / Gutruatos

SEE ALSO     Ædui / Ambarri / Andes / Arverni / Aulerci /

             Bituriges / Cenomani / Insubres / Lingones /

             Remi / Senones / Sequani / Turoni

MAP REF      64 - A/C

REMARKS      The Carnuti were a La Tene A tribe who crossed

  the Rhine from the Goidel homeland in Germany and settled

  in Gaul around BC 6th century.  Their territory was across

  the Loire and contained Chartres, the center of druidic

  power in Gaul.  The sacred site of Chartres was the center

  for Beltainn feasts and other important rituals.  The

  Ædui, Ambarri, Aulerci, Carnuti, Lingones, Senones,

  Sequani and Turoni were all related by blood.

       In BC 4th century, the Carnuti tribe belonged to a

  confederation of related tribes led at the time by

  Ambicatus of the Bituriges.  The confederation also

  included the Ædui, Ambarri, Andes, Arverni, Aulerci,

  Bituriges, Carnuti, Cenomani, Insubres, Lingones and

  Senones tribes.

       In BC 54 Caesar appointed a lackey named Tasgetios to

  the position of head chieftain of the Carnuti, but the

  tribe sacrificed him.  In BC 52 the Carnuti were led by the

  chieftains Conconnetodumnus and Cotuatos.  The tribe was

  inflamed by the treatment they were receiving from the

  Roman invaders at their own oppidum of Cenabum.  In a swift

  and deadly attack, the Carnuti killed the Romans but that

  night the Romans marched on the fort, sacked it and set it

  ablaze.

       The Carnuti supplied 12,000 warriors to help fight the

  Romans during the battle of Alesia in BC 52.  During the

  winter of BC 51-50, Caesar camped at Cenabum, putting the

  Carnuti out into the cold.  Many starved or froze to death

  that winter.  Caesar then forced the tribe to turn in their

  chieftain Gutruatos, whom Caesar blamed for the massacre of

  the Romans at the oppidum.  He was flogged to death and his

  head was paraded before his people as an example of what

  would happen if they did not subject themselves to Roman

  rule.

 

 

NAME         Carpetani

CULTURE      Tartessian / Early Hallstatt

AFFILIATION  Lusitani confederation

COUNTRY      Spain

REGION       Castilla-La Mancha / Extremadura

LANDMARKS    Sierra de Alcaraz / Guadiana / Tagus / Sierra de

             Guadarrama / Montes de Toledo

CENTERS      Toledo (Toletum) / Baiona de Tajuna / Alcala de

             Henares

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 3rd c

LEADERS      Viriato (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Lusitani

MAP REF      65 - D

REMARKS      The Carpetani tribe of the Tartessian culture

  was invaded by southerly-moving Hallstatt Celts who

  migrated into the territory around BC 6th century.

       In BC 3rd century, the Carpetani territory stretched

  from the Sierra de Alcaraz in the south across the Guadiana

  and Tagus rivers to the Guadarrama mountains in the north.

  The mountains of Toledo were their western boundary and

  they had centers at Toletum (Toledo), Titulcia (Baiona de

  Tajuna) and Complutum (Alcala de Henares).  The Carpetani

  are sometimes included in the Lusitani confederation,

  formed to fight against the Roman invaders.

 

 

NAME         Carpi

CULTURE      Hallstatt

AFFILIATION  clan of the Volcae

COUNTRY      Austria / Czech / Slovakia

REGION       Bohemia

TERRITORY    Noricum

LANDMARKS    Danube / Theiss

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 1st c

SEE ALSO     Rhacatae / Volcae

MAP REF      66 - A

REMARKS      The Carpi were a clan of the Volcae who left

  their Bohemian homeland and by BC 1st century were settled

  in Slovakia around the Danube and Theiss (Tisza) rivers,

  near the Rhacatae who were another clan of the Volcae.

 

 

NAME         Cassi

CULTURE      Pictish / La Tène A / Briton

AFFILIATION  client of the Catuvellauni tribe

COUNTRY      Germany / England

REGION       Hertfordshire

TERRITORY    Lloegr

LANDMARKS    Gabe River

SITES        Cassiobury Park

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 3rd-2nd c / BC 1st c

SEE ALSO     Baiocasses / Catuvellauni / Dii Casses /

             Tricasses / Veliocasses / Viducasses

MAP REF      67 - B

REMARKS      The Cassi were related to the Baiocasses, Dii

  Casses, Tricasses, Veliocasses and Viducasses tribes.  In

  BC 6th century they all left Germany and migrated to new

  territories, taking with them La Tène A culture.  The Cassi

  were Brythonic-speaking Celts of the Pictish culture who

  were involved in the Pictish invasion of Britain during BC

  6th century.  They settled around Cassiobury Park near

  Watford on the Gabe river in Hertfordshire.

       Sometime during BC 3rd-2nd century, Belgae tribes

  began to invade southwest England and by BC 1st century

  they were subjugated by the Catevellauni tribe.

 

 

NAME         Caturiges

CULTURE      Late Hallstatt / Gallic / La Tene III

COUNTRY      Czech / Germany / France / Italy

REGION       Bohemia / Bavaria / Haute-Marne

TERRITORY    Gaul / Cisalpine Gaul

LANDMARKS    Durance / Piedmont Alps / Ornain / Nera

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 5th c / BC 58

DEITIES      Caturix

SEE ALSO     Cenomani / Centrones / Graioceli / Helvetii /

             Medulli / Volcae Arcomici / Volcae Tectosages

MAP REF      68 - A/C

REMARKS      In BC 5th century the Caturiges left their

  homeland in Bavaria-Bohemia and travelled into France with

  their allies the Cenomani, Centrones, Medulli, Volcae

  Arcomici and Volcae Tectosages.

       The Caturiges passed through the valleys of the Meuse

  and upper Marne on their way to a new home on the upper

  Durance in the Piedmont Alps of France.  It was probably at

  the time of this migration that a sub-group settled in the

  valley of the Ornain river, a tributary of the Marne.  At

  the new territory on the upper Durance, the tribe was

  surrounded by Ligurians and soon came under the protection

  of Cottius, a Ligurian chieftain.  The Caturiges also had a

  settlement in the valley of the Nera river of Italy.

       In BC 58 when Caesar passed through their territory on

  his march against the Helvetii, the Caturiges, Centrones

  and Graioceli tribes managed to slow down his progress.

 

 

NAME         Catuvellauni

EPITHET      Mighty Warriors

ALTERNATIVE  Catalauni (oldest form) / Catubellauni

CULTURE      La Tène A / Belgae / La Tène II / La Tene III

AFFILIATION  clan of the Remi

COUNTRY      Germany / France / England

REGION       Haute-Marne / Hertfordshire / Greater London /

             Buckinghamshire / Oxfordshire

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica / Lloegr

LANDMARKS    Aisne / Marne / Aube / Seine / Thames / White

             Horse of Uffington

CENTERS      Colchester (Camulodun - fortress of Camulos) /

             Uffington Castle / Prae Wood (Verulamium)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 3rd-2nd c / BC 1st c / BC 54 /

             AD 1st c / AD 41

DEITIES      Camulos

LEADERS      Beli Mawr / Lludd / Cassubellaunos / Cunobel /

             Caratacus

SEE ALSO     Atrebates / Caleti / Cantii / Cassi / Coritani /

             Cornovii / Deceangli / Demetae / Dobunni / Meldi

             / Ordovices / Remi / Silures / Suessiones /

             Trinovantes / Veliocasses

MAP REF      69 - C/B

REMARKS      In the BC 6th century the Brythonic-speaking

  Catuvellauni moved across the Rhine with the Caleti, Meldi,

  Remi, Suessiones and Veliocasses tribes, bringing the La

  Tène A culture into Gaul.  The Catuvellauni were a clan of

  the Remi and settled around the headwaters of the Aisne,

  Marne, Aube and Seine rivers.  They intermingled with the

  Hallstatt people who occupied the area.

       Sometime during BC 3rd-2nd century, warriors of the

  Catuvellauni, Atrebates and Cantii tribes settled in

  England, introducing the La Tène III culture.  By BC 1st

  century, the Catuvellauni tribe had captured Trinovantum

  and changed its name to Caer Lludd.  They then crossed the

  Thames and under the chieftains Lludd and Cassubellaunos

  they became the dominant tribe in southern England.  They

  subjected the Cassi tribe, pushed the Trinovantes and the

  Coritani to the north and expanded the tribal territory

  even into Wales.  In BC 54 the Catuvellauni fought Caesar,

  causing him to retreat to Gaul where the Celtic tribes were

  not quite so fierce.

       In AD 1st century another powerful head chieftain,

  Cunobel, subjected the Trinovantes and maded them a client

  tribe when he captured their center Colchester.  He made

  Colchester his main center and caused the tribe to become

  known as the largest international trader outside the Roman

  Empire.

       In AD 41 Caratacus, Cunobel's son, became the head

  chieftain of the Catuvellauni tribe and their clients.  He

  conquered the Dobunni and Atrebates and made them client

  tribes.  Caesar saw this as an opportunity to interfere in

  other people's politics and invaded England in AD 43 with a

  large army including mercenaries and war elephants.

       The Catuvellauni fought a brilliant guerrilla war

  using blitz chariot attacks against the superior Roman

  forces.  Caratacus received little help from surrounding

  tribes and he and his warriors were eventually driven into

  the highlands of Wales where he became the war leader of

  the Silures, Ordovices, Deceangli, Demetae and Cornovii

  tribes.

       After eight years of successful guerrilla warfare,

  Caratacus made the mistake of fighting a pitched battle

  with the Romans and they became besieged.  Caratacus

  escaped only to be turned in by a chieftain of the

  Brigantes.  This was the end of the tribe as a major power

  and the beginning of an even worse subjection of the tribes

  of England under the foot of the Roman military

  occupational forces.

 

 

NAME         Cauci

ALTERNATIVE  Chauci / Chauchi / Ui Cuaich

CULTURE      Germani

COUNTRY      Germany / Ireland

REGION       Wicklow

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 3rd c

SEE ALSO     Menapii

MAP REF      70 - A

REMARKS      The Cauci were a tribe of the Germani who left

  their homeland on the Hanover coast and followed the

  Menapii when they sailed to Ireland in BC 3rd century. They

  landed at Wicklow, just north of the Menapii in Wexford.

 

 

NAME         Cavares

ALTERNATIVE  Cauari

CULTURE      Early Hallstatt / Gallic

AFFILIATION  Sigovellauni (client)

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Rhône / Cevennes

SITES        Arausio

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 9th c

DEITIES      Arausio

SEE ALSO     Sigovellauni

MAP REF      71 - C

REMARKS      During the Early Hallstatt period around BC 9th

  century, the Cavares tribe was settled on the right bank of

  the Rhône in the Cevennes mountains around the present-day

  village of Arausio.  The tribe venerated the sun god

  Arausio.  The Sigovellauni tribe were a client tribe of

  theirs.

 

 

NAME         Cempsi

ALTERNATIVE  Cempsos

CULTURE      Early Hallstatt

COUNTRY      Czech / Germany / Spain / Portugal

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Cevennes Mountains / Pyrenees / Tagus / Sado /

             Guadiana / Cartare / Cape Espichel

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 9th-6th c / BC 6th c

SEE ALSO     Conii / Saefes

MAP REF      72 - A/C/D

REMARKS      The Cempsi tribe was a part of the Early

  Hallstatt expansion of BC 9th-6th century which left their

  German-Czech homeland and migrated into southern France

  where they mixed with Ligurians in the area of the Cevennes

  mountains.

       Sometime around BC 6th century, the Cempsi joined with

  the Saefes tribe and crossed the Pyrenees mountains into

  Spain.  The Cempsi travelled southwest into Portugal where

  they settled on Cape Espichel between the Tagus and Sado

  rivers and inland to the Guadiana river.

       One group of their tribe settled on the island of

  Cartare near Cadiz, which has since disappeared.  Their

  southern border was shared with the Conii.

 

 

NAME         Cenimagni

CULTURE      La Tène III

COUNTRY      England

TERRITORY    Lloegr

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 54

MAP REF      73 - (B) unknown location

REMARKS      During Caesar's visit to Britain in BC 54 he

  mentioned that the Cenimagni lived in southeast England.

 

 

NAME         Cenomani

CULTURE      Late Hallstatt / Armorican / La Tene I /

             La Tene III

AFFILIATION  client of the Aulerci and Volcae Arcomici

COUNTRY      Czech / Germany / France / Italy

REGION       Bohemia / Bavaria / Sarthe / Mayenne

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aremorica / Cisalpine Gaul

LANDMARKS    Rhine / Adda / Adige / Iseo / Garda (Benacus)

CENTERS      Bergamo(Bergomum) / Brescia (Brixia) / Verona /

             Le Mans (Suindinum or Vindinum) / Nîmes

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 5th c / BC 4th c / BC 390 / BC 225 / BC 203

             / AD 80

DEITIES      Brixianus / Ialona / Nemausos

LEADERS      Ambicatus (Rix) / Elitovios

SEE ALSO     Ædui / Ambarri / Andes / Arverni / Aulerci /

             Bituriges / Carnuti / Caturiges / Cenomani /

             Centrones / Insubres / Lingones / Medulli /

             Senones / Veneti / Volcae Arcomici / Volcae

             Tectosages

MAP REF      74 - A/C

REMARKS      In BC 5th century the Cenomani left their

  homeland in Bavaria-Bohemia and travel into France with

  their allies the Caturiges, Centrones, Medulli, Volcae

  Arcomici and the Volcae Tectosages.

       Some of the Cenomani settled in Aremorica where they

  became a client tribe of the Aulerci, while others settled

  around the mouth of the Rhône with the Volcae Arcomici and

  became their client tribe after driving out or subduing the

  Ligurian and Iberian tribes in the area.  They venerated

  the god Nemausus at the healing spring of Nîmes.  The tribe

  minted their own coins which have been discovered at sites

  on the Channel Islands.

       By BC 4th century, the Cenomani belonged to a

  confederation of related tribes led at the time by

  Ambicatus of the Bituriges.  The confederation included the

  Ædui, Ambarri, Andes, Arverni, Aulerci, Bituriges,

  Carnuti, Cenomani, Insubres, Lingones, and Senones tribes.

       In BC 390, a chieftain named Elitovios led warriors of

  the Cenomani and Andes tribes behind Bellovesus into Italy

  where they settled between the Adda and Adige rivers south

  of the Iseo and Benacus (Garda) lakes in the areas of

  Brixia (Brescia) and Verona.  At their center Brixia they

  venerated the sky god Brixianus.  Their territorial

  expansion was stopped by the Veneti.  The Cenomani joined

  in a confederacy with the Andes tribe.

       In BC 225 the Cenomani, Veneti and a Roman army fought

  a recently-arrived force of Celts with 50,000 foot soldiers

  and 20,000 horse and chariot warriors from the other side

  of the Alps.  They destroyed the newcomers.

       Around BC 203 the Cenomani helped Hamilcar of the

  Cathaginians to attack the Roman Placentia.  By AD 80 the

  land of the Italian Cenomani was being broken up and given

  to Roman veterans of the civil war.

 

 

NAME         Centrones

CULTURE      Late Hallstatt / Gallic / La Tène III

AFFILIATION  client of the Nervii

COUNTRY      Czech / Germany / Belgium / Holland / France /

             Italy

REGION       Bohemia / Bavaria

TERRITORY    Gaul / Cisalpine Gaul

LANDMARKS    Garonne / Isère / Piedmont Alps / Mont Cenis

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 5th c / BC 218 / BC 58 / BC 54

LEADERS      Cottius

SEE ALSO     Caturiges / Cenomani / Graioceli / Helvetii /

             Medulli / Nervii / Volcae Arcomici / Volcae

             Tectosages

MAP REF      75 - A/C

REMARKS      In BC 5th century, the Centrones left their

  homeland in present-day Bavaria and Bohemia and travelled

  into France with their allies the Caturiges, Cenomani,

  Medulli, Volcae Arcomici and Volcae Tectosages.  Some of

  the warriors settled north of the Garonne and by BC 218

  another group was established in the Piedmont Alps on the

  upper Isère river.

       The Piedmont Centrones harrassed Hannibal when he

  passed through Mont Cenis on his way to Italy.  They were

  surrounded by Ligurians and soon came under the protection

  of Cottius, a Ligurian chieftain.

       In BC 58, with the help of their neighbors the

  Caturiges and the Graioceli, the Centrones slowed Caesar's

  progress through the mountain when he was on his way to

  butcher the Helvetii.  In BC 54, another group of Centrones

  who were a client tribe of the Nervii helped fight against

  Caesar.

 

 

NAME         Cherusci

CULTURE      Germani

COUNTRY      Germany

LANDMARKS    Main / Werra / Bacenis Forest

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 53

LEADERS      Arminios

SEE ALSO     Suebi

MAP REF      76 - A

REMARKS      The Cherusci were a Germani tribe whose

  territory was north of the Main river in Germany.  They

  were separated from the Suebi tribe by the Bacenis Forest

  and the Werra river.  The Germani tribes prided themselves

  on the amount of wilderness they had within their

  territory.

       In BC 53, a chieftain named Arminios defended his

  tribe against 3 Roman legions and sent Caesar back across

  the Rhine.

 

 

NAME         Cimbri

CULTURE      Germani / La Tène II / Germano-Celtic

COUNTRY      Denmark / Germany / Spain

REGION       Jutland

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Cimbric Peninsula / Gundestrup / Main

SITES        Raevemosen / Orange / Vercelli

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 3rd c / BC 113 / BC 109 / BC 105 / BC 103 /

             BC 74

LEADERS      Claodicus / Spartacus (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Aduatuci / Ambrones / Boii / Helvetii /

             Scordisci / Teutoni / Tigurini / Volcae

MAP REF      77 - A

REMARKS      The Cimbri were a tribe of the Germani culture

  whose homeland was on the Cimbric Peninsula in Jutland.  In

  the more northern area of their territory, the people

  cremated their dead.  By BC 3rd century the Cimbri were

  being influenced by the Celtic people of the La Tène II

  period, intermarrying and adopting words and names into

  their language.

       In BC 113, a chieftain with the Celtic name of

  Claodicus led a large band of warriors southeast between

  the Elbe and the Oder rivers though Germany and Czech until

  they came up against the Boii and the Volcae tribes who

  drove them into the Pannonian area of Hungary.  Here they

  were turned back by the Scordisci, but not before they

  captured or purchased the silver cauldron which eventually

  ended up in a sacred lake in Raevemosen, Denmark.

       The Cimbri then returned to Germany where they were

  united with the Teutoni and Ambrones in the area of the

  Main river.  In BC 109 when the Cimbri and their allies

  decided to cross the Rhine river to search for land in

  Gaul, warriors of the Tigurini, Helvetii and their clans

  joined with them.  In Gaul they crossed paths with a Roman

  army and after trying unsuccessfully to negotiate for land,

  they defeated them.

       In BC 105, the allies ran into two more Roman armies

  which they annihilated in a battle at Orange.  The tribes

  then split up, with the Cimbri travelling over the Pyrenees

  into Spain, the Teutoni and Ambrones to northern Gaul and

  the Helvetii into Switzerland.

       By BC 103, after two years of looking for a home in

  Spain, the Cimbri travelled back into Gaul and joined up

  with the Teutoni and Ambrones again.  They left warriors

  behind to guard their cattle and belongings while the

  remainder travelled by separate routes into Italy,

  searching for empty land.  Those left behind in Belgica

  were to become known as the Aduatuci tribe.

       The Cimbri travelled into Austria, then crossed the

  Brenner Pass into Italy while the Tigurini stayed in

  Noricum as a reserve army.  The Cimbri crushed a Roman army

  by the Adige river, then headed west to join the Teutoni.

  The Teutoni had been defeated by a Roman army at Aix which

  had then joined with the remains of the army that the

  Cimbri had crushed.  This combined Roman army met with the

  Cimbri at Vercelli in Piedmont and defeated them in a

  battle costly to both sides.  The prisoners were sold into

  slavery or forced to fight as gladiators for the amusement

  of the Roman citizenry.

       In BC 74, slaves and prisoners who had been used as

  gladiators revolted under the command of the Thracian

  Spartacus and began to wreak chaos throughout Italy.  Many

  of these people were warriors of the Cimbri and their

  allies.

 

 

NAME         Cocosates

CULTURE      Aquitani

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aquitanica

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 56

SEE ALSO     Sontiati

MAP REF      78 - (C) unknown location

REMARKS      The Cocosates contributed warriors to fight the

  invading Romans during the summer of BC 56 after the defeat

  of the Sontiati tribe.

 

 

NAME         Condrusi

CULTURE      Belgae / La Tène III

AFFILIATION  client of the Treveri

COUNTRY      Germany / Belgium

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

LANDMARKS    Ourthe / Roer / Ardennes

CENTERS      Condroz

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 57 / BC 53

LEADERS      Galba (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Eburones / Segni / Suessiones / Treveri

MAP REF      79 - C

REMARKS      The territory of the Condrusi was on the Ourthe

  and Roer rivers between the Eburones and Treveri tribes. In

  BC 57 when the Romans invaded Belgica, the Condrusi tribe

  contributed warriors to fight under Galba, the head

  chieftain of the Suessiones.  In BC 53 the Condrusi and the

  Segni sent envoys to Caesar promising that they would

  abstain from any further fighting.

 

 

NAME         Conii

EPITHET      House of Kon

ALTERNATIVE  Cynetes / Cynesii

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      France / Portugal

REGION       Algarve

LANDMARKS    Guadiana / Cape St Vincent / Atlantic

SITES        Sagres

CENTERS      Conimbriga / Conistorgis / Latobriga /

             Lituscyneticum

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 15th c / BC 13th c / BC 6th c / BC 4th c

LEADERS      Conn

SEE ALSO     Cempsi / Turdetani / Turduli

MAP REF      80 - A/D

REMARKS      The Conii were a coastal people whose

  inscriptions show that they spoke a mixture of Goidel and

  Brythonic Celtic languages.  It is believed that the

  settlers were en route from the Mediterranean.  They

  probably had links to the Goidel involvement in the 13th

  century Trojan War for domination of the metal-rich lands

  of nearby Ithaca (Andalucía, Spain) and/or the earlier BC

  15th century Goidel invasion of Ireland.  They had

  settlements between the Guadiana river and Cape St Vincent

  which included the sacred moon center on the promontory of

  Sagres.

       By BC 6th century, the Conii had centers at

  Conimbriga, Conistorgis, Latobriga and maybe Lituscyneticum

  on the Mediterranean coast of France.  By BC 4th century,

  they were influenced by the invading Iberians.  The Cempsi,

  Turduli and Turdetani shared a territorial border with

  them.

 

 

NAME         Corainied

ALTERNATIVE  Coranieid / Coranieid / Coranian / Corannyeid /

             Corr (dwarf)

CULTURE      Germani

COUNTRY      Germany / England

TERRITORY    Lloegr

LANDMARKS    Rhine / Humber

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 1st c / AD 5th c

SEE ALSO     Angles / Catuvellauni

MAP REF      81 - B

REMARKS      The Corainied left their homeland in the Rhine

  area of Germany and migrated to England sometime in BC 1st

  century, settling in the Humber river area.  They were

  considered a threat by the powerful Catuvellauni tribe and

  the head chieftain Lludd poisoned their chieftains and

  subjected the tribe.

       In AD 6th century, the people of the Corainied tribe

  sided with the invading Angles who were migrating into

  northeastern England.  The name of the Corainied tribe

  appears in Spanish folklore as the Korriganes.

 

 

NAME         Coritani

CULTURE      Goidel (Trojan) / La Tène III

COUNTRY      England

REGION       Greater London / Leicestershire / Lincolnshire

TERRITORY    Lloegr

LANDMARKS    Thames / Soar (flowing one)

CENTERS      Caer Troia (Town of Troy) / Leicester (Caerleir

             - Leir's fort) / Burrough Hill

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 12th c / BC 9th c / BC 6th c / BC 2nd c /

             BC 1st c

DEITIES      Llyr

LEADERS      Corineus / Brute / Leir

SEE ALSO     Catuvellauni / Trinovantes

MAP REF      82 - B

REMARKS      The suffix "tani" possibly links the Coritani

  with the other Celtic-Tartessian tribes of Spain and

  Portugal.  The Trojan chieftain Corineus joined up with

  another Trojan descendant named Brute and the two led their

  warriors in search of land to conquer.

       The Trojan descendants finally conquered land in

  England where Brute built Caer Troia (Town of Troy) on the

  Thames river at present-day Illford in honour of their

  ancestors who had been driven from the island.

       During BC 9th century, the tribal territory of the

  Coritani was ruled over by Leir, a Trojan (Goidel) who was

  the high chieftain of Britain.  He built a fortress on the

  Soar river just south of present-day Leicester called

  Caerleir (Leir's fort).  When Leir died he was buried under

  the Soar river in a chamber.

       The influx of Pictish tribes from the continent in BC

  6th century caused the Coritani to lose Caer Troia to the

  Trinovantes who pushed them into the northern part of their

  territory.

       The Coritani also had a hillfort at Burrough Hill

  which was still in use in BC 2nd century.  During BC 1st

  century, the Coritani lost control of Leicester to the

  expanding Catuvellauni tribe of the Belgae culture.  The

  sun god Llyr was venerated at Leicester and was referred to

  as half-tongue (Q/P-Celts?).

       After BC 1st century the Coritani, under the influence

  of the Belgae culture from Gaul, began to produce gold

  coins that were traded mostly in their own territory but

  have been found as far away as western Wales.

       In AD 50, the Romans built a fort at Leicester and

  changed the name to Ratae Coritanorum (fort of the

  Coritani).

 

 

NAME         Cornovii

EPITHET      People of the Horn / Promontory People

ALTERNATIVE  Cornavii

CULTURE      Pictish

COUNTRY      Scotland / England / France

REGION       Cornwall / Cheshire / Shropshire / Lancashire /

             Sutherland / Caithness / Brittany

TERRITORY    Lloegr

LANDMARKS    Mersey / Severn

SITES        Wrekin

CENTERS      Chester / Wroxeter / Old Oswestry

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 13th-9th c / BC 5th c / AD 47 / AD 2nd c /

             AD 5th c

DEITIES      Belisama

LEADERS      Caratacus (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Catuvellauni / Deceangli / Demetae / Ordovices /

             Silures

MAP REF      83 - B

REMARKS      The Cornovii were Brythonic-speaking Celts of

  the Pictish culture who had established themselves in

  Britain sometime between BC 13th and BC 9th century.  They

  were cattle people who lived off milk and meat and used the

  hides of their cattle for making their clothing.  The tribe

  settled in Cornwall, to which they gave their name, and

  also had centers at Deva (Chester), Viroconium (Wroxeter)

  and Old Oswestry.  The Old Oswestry fort was occupied in BC

  5th century.

       In AD 47, the southern Cornovii fought under Caratacus

  and his Catuvellauni warriors alongside the Deceangli,

  Demetae, Ordovices and Silures tribes against the invading

  Romans.  By AD 2nd century the Romans were aware of the

  existence of the northern Cornovii with a territory in

  northeast Sutherland and Caithness.

       In AD 5th century warriors of the Cornovii tribe of

  Lancashire migrated to Brittany and the area became known

  as Cornavia.

 

 

NAME         Cotini

CULTURE      Early Hallstatt

AFFILIATION  client of the Quadi and Sarmatians

COUNTRY      Germany / Czech / Poland / Ukraine

REGION       Silesia

TERRITORY    Galicia

LANDMARKS    Oder / Vistula / Danube / Carpathians

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 100

SEE ALSO     Osi

MAP REF      84 - A

REMARKS      The Cotini and the Osi were two Celtic tribes

  who migrated north from their Celtic homeland in Germany-

  Czech around BC 6th century.  They were iron miners and

  settled in modern-day Silesia, an area of Poland and Czech

  that became known as Galicia.  Their territory in the

  foothills of the Carpathian Mountains contained the

  headwaters of the Oder, Vistula (Wisla) and a tributary of

  the Danube.

       Around BC 100, the Cotini were cut off from the Celtic

  world and had to pay tribute to the Germani tribe the Quadi

  and the Indo-Iranian or Slav tribe the Sarmatians.  The

  Cotini did manage to retain their own language.

 

 

NAME         Creones

CULTURE      Pictish

COUNTRY      Scotland

REGION       Highlands

LANDMARKS    Loch Linnhe / Sound of Sleat

CENTERS      near Glenelg

AGE          Iron (late)

DATES        AD 2nd c

SEE ALSO     Caledonii / Carnonacae

MAP REF      85 - B

REMARKS      By AD 2nd century the Creones territory was

  south of the Carnonacae and west of the Caledonii between

  Loch Linnhe and the Sound of Sleat.  The tribe had centers

  in the vicinity of Glenelg.

 

 

NAME         Cubi

ALTERNATIVE  Bituriges Cubi

CULTURE      Goidel / Gallic

AFFILIATION  clan of the Bituriges

COUNTRY      Germany / France

TERRITORY    Gaul / Thuringia

LANDMARKS    Indre / Cher / Main / Thuringian Mountains

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 12th-9th c / BC 6th c

SEE ALSO     Bituriges / Turoni

MAP REF      86 - A/C

REMARKS      The Cubi were of the Goidel culture and between

  BC 12th and 9th centuries they settled in central France

  between the Indre and the Cher rivers with their parent

  tribe the Bituriges.  Later they became an independent

  tribe.  They buried their dead in tumuli.

       During the mid-Hallstatt period around BC 6th century

  warriors of the Cubi and Turoni tribes migrated to the

  Thuringian mountains of Germany north of the Main in an

  area known for its copper and iron deposits.

 

 

NAME         Curiosolites

ALTERNATIVE  Coriosolites

CULTURE      Aremorican / La Tène

COUNTRY      France

REGION       Brittany / Jersey / Guernsey

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aremorica

LANDMARKS    Channel / Aulne / Vilaine

CENTERS      St Malo (Alet) / Le Catel / St Brelade / St

             Saviour

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd-AD 2nd c / BC 57 / BC 52 / BC 50-AD 75

LEADERS      Vercingetorix (war leader)

MAP REF      87 - C

REMARKS      The territory of the Curiosolites was on the

  coast of Brittany between the headwaters of the Aulne and

  Vilaine rivers.  They were a seafaring tribe involved in

  trade and their coins have been found at numerous sites in

  the Channel Islands and England.

       Between BC 2nd century and AD 2nd century the

  Curiosolites also had two centers on the island of Jersey

  at St Brelade and Le Catel.  Due to the size of the coin

  hoards found, archaeologists have suggested that the tribe

  had their mint on the island.  The tribe also had a center

  at St Saviour on Guernsey from BC 50 to AD 75 where they

  were engaged in metal-working and salt distillation.

       In BC 57, the Romans invaded their territory in

  Brittany and stationed troops there while they tried to

  destroy the Veneti.  In BC 52 the Curiosolites contributed

  warriors to help Vercingetorix in the struggle for Celtic

  independence.

 

 

NAME         Dal Riada

EPITHET      The Tribe of Riders

ALTERNATIVE  Dal Riara / Dalriadic / Scotti

CULTURE      Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland / Scotland

REGION       Antrim / Argyll

TERRITORY    Munster / Ulster / Cinel Loairn / Cinel Gabrain

             / Cinel Comgall / Cinel Angus

LANDMARKS    Crinan Isthmus

CENTERS      Dunadd / Oban (Dunollu)

AGE          Iron (late)

DATES        AD 3rd c / AD 5th c / AD 7th c / AD 842

LEADERS      Conaire Riada / Cairbre Riada / Erc / Fergus

             macEirc / Cinaeth mac Ailpin

MAP REF      88 - B/(E) umarked locations

REMARKS      During the rule of Conaire Riada in AD 3rd

  century, there was a famine in the ancient province of

  Munster in Ireland.  Conaire's son Cairbre Riada led a

  portion of the tribe north to the old province of Ulster,

  where they settled in Antrim.  The name Riada means to

  travel by horse or chariot.

       In AD 5th century, Erc, head chieftain (Ri Ruirech) of

  the Dal Riada, had a number of sons who invaded the Pictish

  islands off Scotland and conquered Argyll, making a center

  at Dunadd on the Crinan Isthmus.  Eventually the brothers

  formed the four territories of Cinel Loairn, Cinel Gabrain,

  Cinel Comgall and Cinel Angus.  Fergus macEirc was their

  first head chieftain of Albainn (Scotland), forming the

  double chiefdom of the Dal Riada.  The Dal Riada in

  Scotland became known as the Scotti, which became the name

  for all Goidel or Irish.

       Until AD 7th century, the Scotti stayed within their

  captured territory but then they began to expand again into

  the territory of the Picts.  In AD 842 Cinaeth mac Ailpin

  joined the two cultures together when he became the first

  high chieftain of Albainn (Ard-righ Albainn).  The country

  became known as Scotland.

 

 

NAME         Darini

CULTURE      Goidel

AFFILIATION  clanna Deirgthene / clanna Dedad

COUNTRY      Spain / Portugal / Ireland

TERRITORY    Munster / Ulster

SITE         Temair Luachra (Tara of the Rushes)

CENTER       Raith Cashel (Cashel)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 1st

LEADERS      CuRoi macDaire

MAP REF      89 - (D)/(E) unknown locations

REMARKS      The Darini were Goidel warriors from Spain-

  Portugal who settled in the old provinces of Munster and

  Ulster in Ireland.  The clanna Deirgthene and the clanna

  Dairenne developed as two royal houses in Munster.  From

  these two clans came the chieftains and Ri's of the

  province.  The Clanna Dedad (The Degads) was developed as a

  unit of elite warriors or champions and CuRoi macDaire was

  their most famous leader.  The Clanna Dedad made their

  headquarters at Temair Luachra and Raith Cashel (Cashel)

  was their seat of power in the province.

       It is believed that the descent was on the distaff or

  female side of the family.  The two clans fostered their

  children to each other.  The female belonged to the

  mother's clan but lived among the clan of the father.  Male

  children were sent to the household of the mother's clan to

  be educated.  The children were fostered to a house of

  influence where they were trained and educated.

 

 

NAME         Decantae

CULTURE      Pictish

COUNTRY      Scotland

REGION       Highlands / Easter Ross

LANDMARKS    Moray Firth / Dornoch Firth

AGE          Iron (late)

DATES        AD 2nd c

SEE ALSO     Carnonacae

MAP REF      90 - B

REMARKS      By AD 2nd century, the Decantae tribe was

  settled between Moray Firth and Dornoch Firth in Easter

  Ross, east of the Carnonacae tribe.

 

 

NAME         Deceangli

CULTURE      Briton

COUNTRY      Wales / England

REGION       Gwynedd {Gwin-eth} / Clwyd {clud}

TERRITORY    Gwynedd / Lloegr

LANDMARKS    Irish Sea

AGE          Iron (late)

DATES        AD 47-50

LEADERS      Caratacus (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Catuvellauni / Cornovii / Demetae / Ordovices /

             Silures

MAP REF      91 - B

REMARKS      The Deceangli tribe was settled in Gwynedd,

  north Wales and east to Chester and Liverpool in England.

  From AD 47-50, the tribe fought for Caratacus and his

  Catuvellauni warriors along with the Cornovii, Demetae,

  Ordovices and Silures tribes against the invading Romans.

 

 

NAME         Demetae

CULTURE      Briton

COUNTRY      Wales

REGION       Dyfed

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 1st c / AD 47-50

LEADERS      Pwyll / Caratacus (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Catuvellauni / Cornovii / Deceangli / Ordovices

              / Silures

MAP REF      92 - B

REMARKS      The Demetae tribe were settled in Dyfed, Wales.

  During BC 1st century the head chieftain of Dyfed, Pwyll,

  died fighting against the invading Catuvellauni tribe of

  the Belgae culture.

       From AD 47-50 the Demetae, Cornovii, Deceangli,

  Ordovices and Silures tribes supplied warriors to help the

  Catuvellauni freedom fighter Caratacus against the invading

  Romans.

 

 

NAME         Desi

EPITHET      Vassals

ALTERNATIVE  Decies / Deise / Deisi / Dessi

COUNTRY      Ireland / Wales

REGION       Dyfed / na Deise

TERRITORY    Meath / Dungarvan / Munster / Leinster

AGE          Iron (late)

DATES        AD 3rd c / AD 277 / AD 6th c / AD 730

LEADERS      Angus Gae-Aduath / Eochaidhe Allmuir /

             Voteocorigas / Teudor mac Regin

MAP REF      93 - B/(E) unmarked locations

REMARKS      The Desi were a tribe of industrial workers

  involved with copper mines who settled in the area of Tara

  in Ireland.  During AD 3rd century the tribe had a

  chieftain named Angus Gae-Aduath.  A son of the high

  chieftain of Ireland raped his niece and Angus took revenge

  by killing the warrior, but in the process he also put out

  the eye of the boy's father.  The high chieftain had to

  step down because of this blemish.

       In AD 277, the new high chieftain expelled the Desi

  tribe from Meath.  The tribe dispersed and some settled in

  Leinster and Dungarvan in Munster.  Others, under the

  chieftain Eochaidh Allmuir, sailed to Wales where they

  settled in Dyfed.  The area, still wild and desolate, is

  known as na Deise.

       An AD 6th century Desi ruler named Voteocorigas

  (Voterporius) was considered a tyrant.  In AD 730 the

  territory was ruled by Teudor mac Regin, a descendant of

  Eochaidhe Allmuir of the Desi.  His name was carved in

  ogham on a standing stone now in the museum at Carmarthen.

 

 

NAME         Diablintes

CULTURE      Goidel / La Tène III / Aremorican

AFFILIATION  clan of the Aulerci

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aremorica

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 56

SEE ALSO     Aulerci / Veneti

MAP REF      94 - (C) unknown location

REMARKS      The Diablintes were a clan of the Aulerci.  In

  BC 56 they contributed warriors to help the Veneti fight

  the invading Romans.

 

 

NAME         Dii Casses

CULTURE      Pictish / La Tène A / Belgae

COUNTRY      Germany

LANDMARKS    Rhine / Main

SITES        Mainz

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c

SEE ALSO     Baiocasses / Cassi / Tricasses / Veliocasses /

             Viducasses

MAP REF      95 - C

REMARKS      The Dii Casses were Brythonic-speaking Celts of

  the Pictish culture who left inscriptions at Mainz on the

  west bank of the Rhine at its confluence with the Main

  river.  The tribe was related to the Cassi, Baiocasses,

  Tricasses, Veliocasses and Viducasses.  After BC 6th

  century, the Dii Casses left their homeland in Germany as

  part of different waves of migration.

 

 

NAME         Dobunni

CULTURE      Goidel (Trojan)

COUNTRY      England

REGION       Gloucestershire

TERRITORY    Troad / Lloegr

CENTERS      Bagendon

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 13th c / BC 11th c / BC 3rd-2nd / AD 41 /

             AD 43

SEE ALSO     Atrebates / Catuvellauni

MAP REF      96 - B

REMARKS      The Dobunni tribe was settled in the area of

  Gloucestershire with a center at Bagendon, near present-day

  Cirencester (Corinium).  Because the old name of Corinium

  suggests the Trojan (Goidel) leader Corineus of the

  Coritani tribe who settled in England in BC 11th century,

  the Dobunni may have been older Goidel of Troad who fought

  for Troy during the Trojan War of BC 13th century.

       When the Belgae tribes began to arrive in southern

  England during BC 3rd-2nd century, the Dobunni tribe came

  under their influence and began to mint gold coins at

  Bagendon.

       When Caratacus became the head chieftain of the

  Catuvellauni in AD 41, he expanded his tribal territory by

  subjugating the Dobunni and the neighboring Atrebates.  The

  move prompted the Atrebates chieftain to run to the Romans

  for aid and led to the subsequent Roman invasion of Britain

  in AD 43.

 

 

NAME         Dragani

EPITHET      Dragons

ALTERNATIVE  Draganes

CULTURE      Ligurian

COUNTRY      Spain / France

REGION       Cantabria / Landes

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aquitanica

LANDMARKS    Pyrenees / Picos de Europa / Bay of Biscay

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c

DEITIES      Busgosu

SEE ALSO     Cempsi / Saefes

MAP REF      97 - C/D

REMARKS      A BC 6th century tale related by Avieno

  mentioned that the children of the Dragani were settled in

  Spain and France, north of the Cempsi and Saefes tribes on

  the Bay of Biscay side of the snowy Pyrenees mountains.  At

  that time the Pyrenees range included the Picos de Europa

  in the northwest of Spain.  The Dragani were of the

  Ligurian culture and may have venerated the god Busgosu.

 

 

NAME         Durotriges

CULTURE      Pictish / Hallstatt / La Tène / Briton

COUNTRY      England

REGION       Dorset

TERRITORY    Lloegr

CENTERS      Maiden Castle (Mai Dun) / Hengistbury Head

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 8th c / BC 700 / BC 5th c / BC 150 / BC 52 /

             AD 43 or 44

SEE ALSO     Veneti

MAP REF      98 - B

REMARKS      The Durotriges were a tribe of Britons who were

  settled in Dorset by BC 5th century.  The huge hillfort of

  Mai Dun (Maiden Castle), dating originally from BC 8th

  century, was within their territory and so was Hengistbury

  Head, a site of Bronze Age barrows.

       Hengistbury was a strategic promontory fort dating

  from about BC 700 with double ramparts and a good natural

  harbor.  The port was actively involved in Veneti sea trade

  around BC 150, and the Durotriges manufactured glass and

  metal products including coins.  Aremorican coins were

  found at the site and a hoard of Celtic coins found on the

  island of Jersey included coins belonging to the Durotriges

  tribe.  Chariot wheel ruts have been found at Maiden Castle

  that measure 3'6"-3'9" (Hallstatt) and 4'8½" (La Tène).

       After BC 52, Veneti from Gaul who managed to escape

  Caesar's attempt at genocide took refuge in the territory

  of the Durotriges and in AD 43 or 44 the Romans attacked

  the fortress of Maiden Castle and slaughtered all males,

  females and children.

 

 

NAME         Eburones

ALTERNATIVE  Eburon / Eburos

CULTURE      La Tène II / Belgae

AFFILIATION  client of the Treviri

COUNTRY      Germany / Netherlands / Belgium / France

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

LANDMARKS    Rhine / Maas

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd c / BC 57 / BC 54-53 / BC 50

LEADERS      Galba (war leader) / Ambiorix / Catuvolcus

SEE ALSO     Aduatuci / Nervi / Treviri

MAP REF      99 - C

REMARKS      In BC 2nd century the Eburones were settled

  along the left bank of the Rhine and across the Maas rivers

  in the lowlands of present-day Germany, Netherlands,

  Belgium and France.

       In BC 57 when Caesar invaded Belgica, the Eburones

  contributed warriors to fight under Galba, head chieftain

  of the Suessiones.  In BC 54 the Eburone chieftains

  Ambiorix and Catuvolcus fought the invading Roman army and

  because they were a small tribe they invited the Germani

  from across the Rhine to help them.  Caesar heard of the

  invitation and invited the Gauls to invade and plunder the

  territory of the Eburones.  In the winter of BC 53, the

  Eburones with the help of the Aduatuci, Nervi and their

  clients allied under the Eburones chieftain Ambiorix to

  fight Rome.

       In BC 50 Caesar again devastated their territory in

  another failed attempt at eliminating their head chieftain

  who was so successful in waging a guerrilla war against the

  Romans.

 

 

NAME         Eburovices

CULTURE      Goidel / La Tène A / Aremorican

AFFILIATION  clan of the Aulerci

COUNTRY      Germany / France

REGION       Normandy

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aremorica

LANDMARKS    Mayenne / Sarthe / Loir / Iton / Eure

SITES        Alise Ste Reine (Alesia)

CENTER       Evreux

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 56 / BC 52

LEADERS      Viridovix (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Aulerci / Lexovii / Venelli

MAP REF      100 - C

REMARKS      In BC 6th century the Eburovices left Germany

  with their parent clan the Aulerci and settled in Aremorica

  around the headwaters of the Mayenne, Sarthe and Loir

  rivers and at Evreux on the Iton river, a branch of the

  Eure.

       During the Roman invasion of Gaul in BC 56, the

  Eburovices joined with the Aulerci and Lexovii tribes,

  killed their pro-Roman councillors and aligned with

  Viridovix, chieftain of the Venelli.  They also contributed

  warriors to fight the Romans in BC 52 during the siege of

  Alesia.

 

 

NAME         Elusates

CULTURE      Iberian / Aquitani

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aquitanica

LANDMARKS    Gélise

CENTERS      Eauze (Elusa)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 5th c / BC 2nd c / BC 56

SEE ALSO     Sontiati

MAP REF      101 - C

REMARKS      The Elusates were an Iberian tribe settled in

  Aquitanica after BC 5th century with a center at Elusa

  (Eauze) by the Gélise river.  During BC 2nd century, the

  tribe produced a coin called a Drachma.  The tribe

  contributed warriors to fight the invading Romans during

  the summer of BC 56 after the Sontiati were defeated.

 

 

NAME         Eoganachta

CULTURE      Goidel

AFFILIATION  Ui Liathain (clan) / Clanna Erainn of Munster

             (client)

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Aran Islands - Inishmore

TERRITORY    Munster / Connacht

CENTER       Cashel / Dun Eoganachta

AGE          Iron (late)

DATES        AD 200 / AD 5th c

DEITIES      Segomo

LEADERS      Eoghan Mor

SEE ALSO     Erainn / Ui Liathain

MAP REF      102 - (E) unmarked location

REMARKS      Eoghan Mor was the progenitor of the tribe of

  Eoganachta.  Eoghan was a Gallic chieftain who invaded

  Ireland and became the head chieftain of the southern half

  of the island around AD 200.  His territory was known as

  Leth Moga (The Half of Mug).  His descendants still ruled

  Munster from Cashel in AD 5th century.  They venerated the

  Celto-Ligurian god Segomo.

 

 

NAME         Epidii

CULTURE      Pictish

COUNTRY      Scotland

REGION       Central / Kintyre / Knapdale / Argyll / Lorne

LANDMARKS    North Channel / Firth of Lorne

CENTERS      Dunadd

AGE          Iron (late)

DATES        AD 2nd c / AD 5th c

SEE ALSO     Novantae / Dal Riada

MAP REF      103 - B

REMARKS      The Epidii were a tribe of Brythonic-speaking

  Picts who were settled in Scotland before AD 2nd century.

  Their territory included Kintyre, Knapdale, Argyll and

  Lorne on the North Channel and the Firth of Lorne.  The

  Epidii lived across the Firth of Clyde from the Novantae

  tribe.  In AD 5th century the Epidii were pushed out of

  their territory by the invading Dal Riada.

 

 

NAME         Erainn

EPITHET      The Old Erainn (Sen Erainn)

ALTERNATIVE  Clanna Erainn / Erenn Eireamhoin / Iverni

CULTURE      Goidel

AFFILIATION  Munster Erainn (client of the Eoganachta)

COUNTRY      Ireland

REGION       Limerick / Kerry / Cork

TERRITORY    West Munster (Luachair)

LANDMARKS    Slieve Mish / Corco Duibne / Dingle Peninsula

SITES        Teamhair Erann (Tara of the Erainn)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 4th c / AD 200

SEE ALSO     Eoganachta

MAP REF      104 - (E) unmarked location

REMARKS      The Erainn were descendants of Oengus Tuirmech

  Temrach the 70th Goidel high chieftain of Ireland in BC 4th

  century.  The name Erainn derives from "eks-ranni" (those

  who live outside the divisions).

       Teamhair Erann (Tara of the Erainn) in West Munster

  was their burial center.  The Erainn territory, called

  Luachair, covered the parts of the counties of Limerick and

  Kerry and most of Cork.  In AD 200, the Erainn of Munster

  became a client tribe of the invading Eoganachta tribe.

 

 

NAME         Esubii

ALTERNATIVE  Esuvii

CULTURE      Aremorican

COUNTRY      France

REGION       Normandy

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aremorica

LANDMARKS    Vilaine / Mayenne

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 57 / BC 56

DEITIES      Esus

SEE ALSO     Atesuii

MAP REF      105 - C

REMARKS      The tribal territory of the Esubii was near the

  headwaters of the Vilaine and the Mayenne rivers in France.

  The Esubii and Atesuii tribes claimed descent from the god

  Esus.

       In BC 57, the Esubii submitted to Roman domination but

  after being forced to supply grain throughout the winter

  they rebelled and fought the Roman invaders in BC 56.

 

 

NAME         Euganean

ALTERNATIVE  Euganei

CULTURE      Ligurian

AFFILIATION  client of the Veneti

COUNTRY      Italy

LANDMARKS    Alps / Adige

CENTERS      Verona / Padua (Patavium)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 4th c / BC 89

SEE ALSO     Rhaeti / Veneti

MAP REF      106 - C

REMARKS      The Euganean territory in BC 4th century was in

  the Alps north of Cisalpine Gaul, with centers at Verona

  and Patavium (Padua).  The tribe became a client of the

  Veneti.  They shared the territory with the Rhaeti, who had

  settled there to escape the invading Gauls.  Some Euganean

  mixed with the Rhaeti and spread into the Alps, where they

  mined and traded in iron ore.

       The Romans invaded their territory around BC 89 and

  subjected the people, seizing control of their mines.

 

 

NAME         Fianna

EPITHET      Warrior Band (Fingalians)

ALTERNATIVE  Feinne / Fene [si-old Ir] / Feni [pl-old Ir] /

             Fennid / Fian [si-Scot] / Fiana / Fiann [si-

             Scot] / Fianna {Fee-ana}

CULTURE      Gallic / Goidel

COUNTRY      Ireland

LANDMARKS    Gabhrah {Gav-ra}

SITES        hill of Skrene

AGE          Iron (late)

DATES        AD 3rd c / AD 284

LEADERS      Fionn mac Cumhaill / Oscar

SEE ALSO     Galian

MAP REF      107 - (E) unmarked location

REMARKS      The Feachd na Féinn (Host of the Fians) were

  bands of professional warriors in Ireland who were subject

  to the Ard Righ Eirinn (high chieftain of Ireland).  The

  warriors were picked from the subject clans of the ruling

  Goidel, the freeholders and the youngest of the noble class

  who would inherit nothing.  Many claimed descent from the

  Danann and the Firbolg.  One of their greatest leaders,

  Fionn mac Cumhaill, was of the clanna Baoisgne of the

  Galian.

       The Fianna were rural people and their territory was

  the countryside and the waterways.  There were many Fian,

  each with a leader or chieftain who elected a head

  chieftain as their leader.  At one time there were 150

  chieftains, with 27 warriors each, giving a total of 4050

  warriors to be called upon by the Ard Righ.

       The Fianna fought on foot, using mainly the spear and

  long shield but also swords.  They were hunters as well as

  warriors who spent the dark half of the year (Samhain to

  Beltainn) warring and the light half of the year (Beltainn

  to Samhain) hunting.  They lived a semi-nomadic life with

  many camps throughout Ireland and Scotland.

       The Fianna was open to both males and females and had

  a rigorous set of tests that a candidate had to pass before

  being allowed to join a band.  No one was accepted without

  being versed in the 12 areas of poetry which showed their

  mental skills.  Then they had to pass a number of physical

  tests that proved they could defend themselves and were

  superior in the arts of running, jumping, endurance, etc.

       When a warrior joined the Fianna he or she severed all

  ties with the birth family, clan and tribal chieftain.

  Their kin and tuatha also had to release them so that they

  could not make a claim for or against them.

       One way in which the Fianna were financially

  maintained was through bride price.  All maidens had to be

  offered first to the Fianna in marriage and when those of

  high birth were wed, the Fianna would receive her weight in

  gold and silver.

       The end of the Fianna came in AD 284 at the battle of

  Gabhra when Oscar, chieftain of the Munster Fianna and head

  chieftain of all Fianna, came to do battle with Cairbre,

  the new high chieftain of Ireland.  Cairbre had refused to

  pay the bride price to the Fianna when his daughter was

  married.  The battle was fought by the stream of Gabhrah

  near Tara on the hill of Skrene.  Oscar and Cairbre both

  died from the wounds they received when they fought each

  other in single combat.

 

 

NAME         Fir Domnann

EPITHET      Worshippers of Domnu

ALTERNATIVE  Damnonii (Scotland) / Domnain / Domnanid /

             Domnann / Domnannaig (Ireland) / Dumnonii

             (England)

CULTURE      Nemedian of the Yamnaya

COUNTRY      Ireland / England / Scotland / France

REGION       Cornwall / Devon / Somerset / Dorset / Mayo /

             Sligo / Strathclyde / Brittany

TERRITORY    Connacht / Irrus Domnann / Domnonea / Lloegr

LANDMARKS    Promontory of Domnu (The Lizard) / Malahide Bay

             / Clyde Basin

CENTERS      Exeter (Isca Dumnoniorum)

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 18th c / BC 16th c / BC 5th c / AD 90 / AD

             2nd c / AD 5th c

DEITIES      Domnu

LEADERS      Indech

SEE ALSO     Fomorii / Nemedians

MAP REF      108 - B/(E) unmarked location

REMARKS      The Fir Domnann of Scotland were the descendents

  of Beoan, a son of the Nemedian (of the Yamnaya culture)

  who left Ireland in BC 18th c.  They settled in Dobar and

  Iardobar and by AD 2nd century Fir Domnann were still

  settled in southern Scotland south of the Clyde in the

  Strathclyde.

       The Fir Domnann of England descended from Fergus

  Lethderg, another son of the Nemedians of Ireland.  By BC

  5th century the tribe was settled in the counties of

  Cornwall, Devon, Somerset and Dorset in England.  In Devon

  and Dorset they became well-diggers because of the chalky

  soil in the region.  A portion of the tribe was still

  settled there in AD 90.  In AD 5th century some of the Fir

  Domnann migrated to Brittany in search of empty land and

  settled an area called Domnonea.

       The Fir Domnann of Ireland were of the goddess Domnu,

  and fought on the side of the Fomorii during the second

  battle of Magh Tuireadh in BC 16th century when the Danann

  conquered Ireland.

       During the Bronze Age, a portion of the Fir Domnann

  tribe was settled on the north coast of the counties of

  Mayo and Sligo in the old province of Connacht where they

  became known as the Domnannaig.  Their territory was called

  Irrus Domnann.  The Land-bridge or Promontory of Domnu

  (Erris Domnann) in county Mayo was called after the tribal

  goddess.  North of Dublin at Malahide Bay was called the

  Rivermouth of the goddess Domnu (Inber Domnann).

 

 

NAME         Gabali

CULTURE      Goidel / Gallic

AFFILIATION  clan of the Arverni

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Cevennes / Aveyron / Allier

SITES        Alise Ste Reine (Alesia)

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 12th-9th c / BC 52

LEADERS      Vercingetorix (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Arverni / Helvii / Ruteni

MAP REF      109 - A/C

REMARKS      The Gabali were a Goidel people and buried their

  dead in tumuli.  They were a clan of the Arverni and

  sometime between BC 12th and 9th centuries they settled

  south of the Arverni tribe in the Cevennes Mountains around

  the headwaters of the Allier and Aveyron rivers.

       In BC 52, the Gabali tribe joined with the Ruteni and

  the Arverni to fight for Vercingetorix against the invading

  Romans.  During the battle for Alesia, the Gabali and

  Arverni tribes laid waste to the crops of the Helvii so

  that the Romans could not use them.  They also supplied

  horse warriors for the attack on the rear of the Roman army

  during the siege of Alesia.

 

 

NAME         Gaesatae

EPITHET      Spear Bearer

ALTERNATIVE  Gaesati / Gaisatai (mercenaries)

CULTURE      Late Hallstatt / Germani / Belgae

COUNTRY      Germany / France / Belgium / Ireland / Italy

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

LANDMARKS    Vara / Magra / Alps

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 370 / BC 222 / AD 3rd century

LEADERS      Labraid Loingsech / Viridomar / Fionn mac

             Cumhaill

SEE ALSO     Fianna / Galian / Insubres / Luaighni / Rhaeti

MAP REF      110 - (C)/(E) unknown locations

REMARKS      The Gaesatae (mercenaries) were professional

  foot-soldiers (battle-line) who fought with a heavy spear

  or javelin called a gaesum.  The gaesum was made in many

  personalized shapes and sizes.  Javelin heads have been

  found shaped like flames or broad leaves, with crimped

  edges, socketed or tanged heads and some with holes in them

  to reduce the weight.  In the Pyrenees, all-iron javelins

  have been found, and different stories mention spears with

  heads on both ends.

       The Rhaeti of the Alps had Gaesatae who were chariot

  warriors or battle-line soldiers.  There was a Germani

  Gaesatae which contained many Belgae.  The Gaesatae of the

  Belgae culture wore trousers, carried heavy slashing

  swords, shields, rode in chariots and fought with their

  dreaded spears.

       In the Italian valleys of the Vara and Magra were

  found carved stone boundary markers which displayed naked

  warriors wearing a dagger on the right side, attached to a

  waist belt.  In the right hand the warriors carried an axe

  and in the left a spear.  The inscription on one suggests

  that they may have been guards of a holy site or a border.

  The Late Hallstatt dagger suggests a date around BC 6th

  century.

       In BC 370 Labraid Loingsech led an army of Galian and

  Luaighni, who were Gaesetae warriors of Gaul, to recover

  his territory in Leinster.  They later were referred to as

  the Gailioin.  In BC 222 the Insubres of Italy brought

  30,000 Gaesatae warriors led by Viridomar to fight the

  Romans.  In AD 3rd century, Fionn mac Cumhaill was the

  leader of the Fianna, which was a fighting force of

  Gaesatae warriors.

 

 

NAME         Galedin

CULTURE      Germani

COUNTRY      England

REGION       Isle of Wight

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 3rd-2nd c

SEE ALSO     Cimbri

MAP REF      111 - B

REMARKS      In Welsh mythology in the time of the Cimbri

  chieftain Ce Hsones, the Galedin tribe were given

  permission to settle on the Isle of Wight when their island

  sank beneath the sea.  They came in naked boats (no sails)

  and for nine generations would have no privileges or

  immunities against the native people, but they would have

  their protection.

 

 

NAME         Galian

ALTERNATIVE  Gaileoin / Galian / Gailioin / Fir Galian of

             Leinster

CULTURE      La Tène I / Gallic / Aremorican

AFFILIATION  Ui Tarsigh (clan)

COUNTRY      France / Ireland

REGION       Leinster

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aremorica

CENTERS      Dinn Rig

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 370 / BC 1st c / AD 3rd c

LEADERS      Labraid Loingsech (Moen) / Fionn mac Cumhaill

SEE ALSO     Fianna / Gaesatae / Luaighni / Ui Tarsigh

MAP REF      112 - (C)/(E) unknown locations

REMARKS      The Galian were part of the force of Gaesatae

  warriors led to Ireland by Labraid Loingsech on the eve of

  Samhain in BC 370.  He led the warriors of the Galian and

  Luaighni to attack Din Rig in order to reconquer his

  territory in Leinster.  They fought with spears called

  laighne (lyna) which had heads of blue-green iron.

       During the Cattle Raid of Cualgne in BC 1st century,

  the Galian fought for the cause of Connacht.  They were

  warriors of the highest quality, and their professionalism

  caused Medbh so much worry that Ferghus had to distribute

  them among the rest of the warriors, but they still

  outshone the others.

       The Galian spread throughout Ireland fighting as

  mercenaries, and in AD 3rd century the famous Fianna leader

  Fionn mac Cumhaill was of the Clanna Ui Tarsigh of the

  Galian.

 

 

NAME         Garumni

CULTURE      Aquitani

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aquitanica

LANDMARKS    Garonne (Garumna)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 56

LEADERS      Adiatunnus (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Sontiati

MAP REF      113 - C

REMARKS      The Garumni tribe took their name from the

  Garumna (Garonne) river in their territory.  They

  contributed warriors to fight the invading Romans during

  the summer of BC 56 after the Sontiati were defeated.

 

 

NAME         Gates

CULTURE      Aquitani

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aquitanica

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 56

SEE ALSO     Sontiati

MAP REF      114 - (C) unknown location

REMARKS      The Gates tribe contributed warriors to fight

  the invading Romans during the summer of BC 56 after the

  Sontiati were defeated.

 

 

NAME         Geidumni

ALTERNATIVE  Geidumnii

CULTURE      Belgae

AFFILIATION  client of the Nervii

COUNTRY      Netherlands / Belgium

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 54

LEADERS      Ambiorix (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Nervii

MAP REF      115 - (C) unknown location

REMARKS      The Geidumni were a client tribe of the Nervii

  and in BC 54 they fought the Romans under the war leader

  Ambiorix.

 

 

NAME         Graioceli

CULTURE      Gallic

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Graian Alps / Isère / Arc

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 58

SEE ALSO     Caturiges / Centrones / Helvetii

MAP REF      116 - C

REMARKS      The Graioceli settled in the Graian Alps between

  the Isère and Arc valleys.  They helped their neighbors,

  the Caturiges and Centrones tribes, slow down Caesar's

  progress on his campaign against the Helvetii in BC 58.

 

 

NAME         Grovii

ALTERNATIVE  Gravii

CULTURE      Early Hallstatt

AFFILIATION  clan of the Bracari / Lusitani confederation

COUNTRY      Spain / Portugal

REGION       Galicia / Entre-Douro-e-Minho

LANDMARKS    Atlantic / Qerez / Ulla / Minho / Douro

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 7th c / BC 219

LEADERS      Viriato (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Bracari / Lusitani

MAP REF      117 - D

REMARKS      The Grovii were a clan of the Early Hallstatt

  tribe the Bracari, and by BC 7th century had settlements

  around the Qerez, Ulla, Minho and Douro rivers in Spain and

  Portugal.

       In BC 219, many warriors from the Grovii tribe left to

  fight for Hannibal during the 2nd Punic war.  During the

  Roman invasion, the Grovii were part of the Lusitani

  confederation fighting under Viriato.

 

 

NAME         Grudii

CULTURE      Belgae

AFFILIATION  client of the Nervii

COUNTRY      Netherlands / Belgium

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 57

LEADERS      Ambiorix (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Nervii

MAP REF      118 - (C) unknown location

REMARKS      The Grudii, client of the Nervii, contributed

  warriors to fight under Ambiorix against the invading

  Romans in BC 54.

 

 

NAME         Harudes

CULTURE      Germani

AFFILIATION  clan of the Suebi confederation

COUNTRY      Germany / Austria

LANDMARKS    Inn / Danube / Rhine

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 1st c / BC 58

LEADERS      Ariovistos (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Suebi

MAP REF      119 - A

REMARKS      During BC 1st century, the Harudes tribe were

  settled on the right bank of the Rhine between the Danube

  and the Inn rivers and were a clan of the Suebi

  confederation.

       In BC 58, warriors of the Harudes tribe crossed the

  Rhine into Gaul to help Ariovistos with his war against

  Caesar.  They had a combined force of 6,000 horse warriors

  and 6,000 foot-warriors.  The two types of warrior fought

  together as teams.  The foot-warrior kept up with the

  horse-warrior by holding the mane or tail of the horse

  while running alongside.

 

 

NAME         Helvetii

CULTURE      Early Hallstatt / La Tène II / Gallic

AFFILIATION  Tigurini and Tugeni (clans) / Tulingi (client)

COUNTRY      Germany / Switzerland / France

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Rhine / Main / Bernese Oberland / Hercynian

             Forest / Jura Mtns / Lake Leman / Rhône / Alps

SITES        Bibracte / Alise Ste Reine (Alesia) / Geneva

             (Chougny)

CENTERS      Avenches (Aventicum)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 9th c / BC 113 / BC 109 / BC 105 / BC 58 /

             BC 52

LEADERS      Orgetorix

SEE ALSO     Ædui / Allobroges / Ambrones / Boii / Cimbri /

             Latobrigi / Raurici / Santoni / Sequani /

             Teutoni / Tigurini / Tugeni / Tulingi

MAP REF      120 - A/C

REMARKS      During BC 9th century, the homeland of the

  Helvetii was a vast mountainous area on the right bank of

  the Rhine south of the Main in central western Germany. The

  Helvetii kept the tradition of their ancestors and buried

  their dead in tumuli.  They were the last of the ancient

  Celtic people to leave this area of Germany and it was the

  incoming tribes of the Germani culture that helped them on

  their way.

       When the Cimbri, Teutoni and Ambrones tribes entered

  their territory in BC 113, the Helvetii and their clans

  joined with them on their way into Gaul in BC 109, leaving

  behind the "Desert of the Helvetii".  In France, the

  warriors ran into three Roman armies which they defeated.

       The Helvetii and their clans then split from the

  Cimbri and Teutones and headed into Switzerland where in BC

  105 they settled on the plateau north of the Bernese

  Oberland.  The Hercynian Forest started on the border of

  their territory and Aventicum (Avenches) was their center.

  The Rhine separated them from the Germani tribes, and the

  Jura mountain range was the boundary between their

  territory and that of the Sequani.  The Rhône and Lake

  Leman (Lake Geneva) protected them from Roman territory.

       The Helvetii were surrounded by natural boundaries

  which protected them, but their territory was less than

  250x200 or 50,000 square miles (400x300 or 120,000 sq km).

  By BC 58 they were becoming overcrowded, and engaged in

  constant warfare with the Germani tribes on the other side

  of the Rhine.

       A chieftain named Orgetorix instigated a great

  migration by negotiating passage through the territories of

  the Sequani and Ædui to reach the land of the Santoni

  where they had made a deal for a new territory.  Orgetorix

  was murdered and never made the journey.

       Caesar considered the migration a threat to Rome and

  he preferred having the Celts between him and the Germans

  whom he feared so much.  He therefore destroyed the bridge

  that spanned the Rhône at present-day Geneva (Chougny).

  This was in the territory of the Allobroges which was then

  under the Roman yoke.  The Helvetii had tried many times to

  deal peacefully with Caesar but he hated the Tigurini, a

  clan of the Helvetii, and held them personally responsible

  for the death of his father-in-law's grandfather back in BC

  107.  The defeat of the Roman armies at the time had caused

  embarassment to the Roman people.

       When the Great Migration began on March 28 in BC 58,

  the Helvetii had no intention of returning, and burned

  their houses behind them, destroying 12 oppida and 400

  villages of roughly 640 people each.  Along with the

  263,000 Helvetii, there were 32,000 Boii, 36,000 Tulingi,

  23,000 Raurici, and 14,000 Latobrigi, totalling 368,000

  men, women and children plus cattle and wagons to carry

  their possessions and food.  They had no other choice but

  to cross the Jura Mountains and pass through the territory

  of the Sequani and the Ædui.

       At Bibracte in Burgundy, Caesar attacked the migrating

  people without warning.  Of the 368,000 people, only 92,000

  were able warriors.  Only 110,000 people survived the

  slaughter, and except for the Boii who were allowed to

  settle on Ædui territory, the rest were sent back to

  survive the winter without homes or crops.  Caesar had

  murdered 258,000 men, women and children.  This proved to

  be just a warm-up for the cruelty he would inflict on the

  Celtic people before he finished his reign of terror in

  Gaul.  In BC 52 the Helvetii supplied 8000 warriors to help

  fight against Caesar during the siege of Alesia.

 

 

NAME         Helvii

ALTERNATIVE  Helvi

CULTURE      Gallic

COUNTRY      France

REGION       Provence

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Cevenne / Allier / Loire / Rhône

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 83 / BC 52

SEE ALSO     Arverni / Gabali / Helvetii

MAP REF      121 - C

REMARKS      The Helvii may have been a clan of the Helvetii.

  Their territory was in the Cevennes Mountains and included

  the Allier and Rhône rivers and the headwaters of the

  Loire.  In BC 83 the tribe submitted to Rome, their

  territory becoming a part of Province.

       During the siege of Alesia in BC 52, Vercingetorix

  sent horse warriors from the Arverni and Gabali tribes into

  their territory to burn their crops so that they could not

  supply food for the Romans.

 

 

NAME         Hylli

CULTURE      Gallic

COUNTRY      Albania

LANDMARKS    Balkan Peninsula / Vijose / Adriatic Sea

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 3rd c

LEADERS      Brennus (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Scordisci

MAP REF      122 - A

REMARKS      The Hylli tribe may have been formed by warriors

  from the remnants of Brennus's army who settled by the

  Vijose river on the Adriatic Sea.  The other possibility is

  that they were a local tribe who were Celticized by the

  Scordisci when they settled in the area.

 

 

NAME         Iapodes

CULTURE      Hallstatt

COUNTRY      Yugoslavia

TERRITORY    Pannonia

LANDMARKS    Adriatic Sea

CENTERS      Metulum / Avendone / Monetium

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 3rd c / BC 171 / BC 129-56 / BC 52

MAP REF      123 - A

REMARKS      The Iapodes tribe lived in the mountains east of

  the Adriatic Sea with centers at Metulum, Avendone and

  Monetium.  The warriors tatooed their bodies like the

  Picts, Illyrians and Thracians.

       In BC 171, the Iapodes harrassed the Roman colony of

  Aquileia in Illyricum and from BC 129-56 they fought with

  the Romans, ending in a treaty which was broken in BC 52.

 

 

NAME         Iceni

ALTERNATIVE  Iceni {Ekeni}

CULTURE      Pictish / La Tène A / Briton

AFFILIATION  Achaeans

COUNTRY      Netherlands / England

REGION       Norfolk / Suffolk

TERRITORY    Lloegr

LANDMARKS    Icknield Way

SITES        St Albans (Verulamium) / London (Londinium) /

             Colchester (Camulodun - fortress of Camulos)

CENTERS      Caistor St Edmund (Venta Icenorum)

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 15th-13th c / BC 13th c / BC 5th c / BC 10 /

             AD 41 / AD 59

DEITIES      Andrasta

LEADERS      Hu Gardarn / Pratugasus / Boudicca

SEE ALSO     Atrebates / Cantii / Regni / Trinovantes

MAP REF      124 - B

REMARKS      The Iceni were one of the tribes led by Hu

  Gardarn from Thrace to the North Sea sometime around BC

  15th-13th century.  When they crossed over to England

  (Lloegr) by way of the Netherlands they settled in Norfolk

  and Suffolk with a center at Caistor St Edmund outside

  Norwich.  The name of the ancient track known as the

  Icknield Way which begins (or ends) at the fort is probably

  associated with their tribal name.

       Because the Iceni arrived in England during BC 13th

  century and settled near Troy (Gogmagog Hills, England) it

  is easy to imagine that they were a part of the Achaean

  confederation who destroyed Troy.  The Iceni were chariot

  warriors who became rich in minerals, trading Irish gold to

  Europe from Norfolk.  It is believed that they brought gold

  from Ireland via Anglesey, the druidic center.

       The Iceni were affected by the Trinovantes, Picts from

  Brittany, who brought the La Tène A culture.  By BC 5th

  century, the Trinovantes were in control of Lloegr.  The

  Iceni minted their first coins around BC 10, cast with

  images of boars and horses.

       When the Romans arrived in AD 41, the Iceni chieftain

  Pratugasus thought that he could protect the tribal holding

  by becoming a client of Rome.  When he died in AD 59, he

  left half of his worth to Rome and the other half to his

  daughters.

       The Romans, who had earlier given the chieftain a

  grant, now under Nero considered it to have been a loan and

  demanded payment.  The Iceni tribe was also sufferring the

  burden of land tax, property tax, customs dues and a corn

  levy which had forced them to borrow from a Roman money

  lender who charged them high interest rates.  Senece, the

  lender, then called the loan and with it the outstanding

  interest.  The Celts were not experienced at dealing in

  this type of financial trickery or with this type of

  criminal.  The end result was that the Iceni lost land,

  cattle, grain and other possessions in lieu of payment.

       The Roman government then confiscated the legacy that

  Pratugasus had left to his daughters.  Roman bureaucrats

  refused to allow his wife Boudicca to become chieftain,

  even though the tribe had elected her.  The warriors of the

  Iceni were becoming very angry at the interference of a

  foreign power in their tribal business.  The Roman military

  was sent to quell their anger and during the encounter

  Boudicca was beaten and her daughters were raped.

       The Iceni tribe revolted against Rome and were joined

  by their neighbors the Trinovantes.  The injustice and

  deceit of the Romans sent them on a wild rampage of

  destruction against anything Roman.  The warriors, led by

  Boudicca, sacked and burned to the ground the Roman centers

  of Camulodun (Colchester), Londinium (London) and

  Verulamium (St Albans).  Boudicca sacrificed the enemy and

  their goods to the war goddess Andrasta.

       When Rome destroyed the druidic center at Anglesey the

  Iceni lost their initiative and it was not long before they

  were subdued by the Roman occupational army.  After the

  Roman conquest of England, the Atrebates, Cantii, Iceni,

  Regni and Trinovantes tribes were grouped together into a

  province.

 

 

NAME         Insubres

CULTURE      Goidel / Early Hallstatt / Gallic / La Tène

AFFILIATION  clan of the Ædui

COUNTRY      Germany / France / Italy

TERRITORY    Gaul / Cisalpine Gaul / Plain of the Insubres

LANDMARKS    Rhine / Plateau of Somma / Ticino / Addua / Como

             / Maggiore

SITES        Melzo (Melpum) / Chiusi (Cousium) / Rome

CENTERS      Milan (Mediolanum)

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 9th c / BC 4th c / BC 391 / BC 196

LEADERS      Ambicatus (Rix) / Bellovesus / Segovesus

SEE ALSO     Ædui / Ambarri / Andes / Arverni / Aulerci /

             Bituriges / Boii / Carnuti / Cenomani / Insubres

             / Lingones / Senones

MAP REF      125 - A/C

REMARKS      The Insubres, who were a clan of the Ædui, left

  the Goidel Homeland in BC 9th century and travelled along

  with the Ædui to Gaul, where they settled.  A portion of

  the tribe split off and eventually migrated over the Alps

  and into Italy and when they reached the Plateau of Somma,

  they settled along the banks of the Ticino river.  Their

  territory was called the Plain of the Insubres.  These

  warriors were carrying the long Hallstatt swords.

       By BC 4th century, the Insubres of Gaul belonged to a

  confederation of related tribes led at the time by

  Ambicatus of the Bituriges.  The confederation included the

  Ædui, Ambarri, Andes, Arverni, Aulerci, Bituriges,

  Carnuti, Cenomani, Insubres, Lingones and Senones tribes.

       In BC 391 two swarms of warriors, consisting of young

  males and females from the confederation, were led to new

  lands.  Bellovesus led his warriors over the Alps to

  northern Italy and Segovesus took his people through the

  Hercynian Forest of Germany, Austria, Hungary and former

  Yugoslavia.

       The followers of Bellovesus were mostly warriors of

  the Insubres tribe.  They followed a trail that led them

  across the Alps by the valley of the Dora Baltea where they

  defeated the Etruscans by the Ticino river.  The tribe

  considered the fact that the territory had the name "Plain

  of the Insubres" a good omen and settled in the area of

  their ancestors, a territory bordered by Lake Maggiore,

  Lake Como and the two rivers Ticino and Addua.

       A few years later, the Boii, Senones and Lingones

  tribes joined with the Insubres, destroyed the Etruscan

  town of Melpum (Melzo) and founded Mediolanum (Milan).  The

  Celts then attacked and captured Cousium (Chiusi) and Rome.

  By BC 196 they had lost control of the area to the Romans

  but remained a distinct culture for several centuries.

 

 

NAME         Jutes

CULTURE      Germani / Germano-Celtic

COUNTRY      Denmark / Germany / England

REGION       Jutland / Kent / Wessex / Isle of Wight

LANDMARKS    Cimbrian Peninsula / Severn

AGE          Iron (late)

DATES        AD 5th c / AD 577

SEE ALSO     Angles / Saxons

MAP REF      126 - A/B

REMARKS      The Jutes lived on the Cimbrian Peninsula north

  of the Angles.  In AD 5th century, a Celtic chieftain named

  Vortigern invited the Angles, Jutes and Saxons to settle in

  southern England.  By AD 577 the Jutes were settling in

  Kent and Wessex to the Severn river and on the Isle of

  Wight.  There they intermingled with the local population

  of Celtic people and in time a Germano-Celtic population

  developed.

 

 

NAME         Laevi

CULTURE      Celto-Ligurian / Gallic

AFFILIATION  clan of the Salluvii

COUNTRY      France / Italy

TERRITORY    Gaul / Cisalpine Gaul

LANDMARKS    Rhône / Po

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 4th c

SEE ALSO     Boii / Salluvii

MAP REF      127 - C

REMARKS      The Laevi were a clan of the Salluvii who left

  their territory on the east bank of the Rhône and travelled

  over the Alps to settle among the Boii and the Salluvii

  north of the Po river in Italy.

 

 

NAME         Latobrigi

ALTERNATIVE  Latovici

CULTURE      Early Hallstatt / Gallic

AFFILIATION  clan of the Volcae

COUNTRY      France / Switzerland

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Rhine / Doubs / Jura / Vosges

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 5th c / BC 58

SEE ALSO     Helvetii / Raurici / Volcae

MAP REF      128 - C

REMARKS      The Latobrigi were a clan of the Volcae.  In BC

  5th century they settled near the Raurici tribe between the

  Rhine and the Doubs and between the Jura and Vosges

  Mountains.

       On March 28 in the year BC 58, 14,000 people of the

  Latobrigi gathered their belongings together, burned their

  homes and set out on a long migration with the Helvetii and

  other tribes to the promised land.  They never reached

  their destination.  Because of personal reasons and because

  of his fear of the German tribes, Caesar murdered 258,000

  men, women and children of the migrating community out of a

  total of 368,000 of whom only 92,000 could bear arms.  The

  barbarity of this massacre was glossed over in Caesar's

  reports, as was his continual refusal to mention that he

  fought female warriors.

 

 

NAME         Lemovices

ALTERNATIVE  Lemovii

CULTURE      La Tène A / Gallic

COUNTRY      Germany / France

REGION       Haute-Vienne

TERRITORY    Gaul / Limousin

LANDMARKS    Rhine / Vienne / Isle

SITES        Alise Ste Reine (Alesia)

CENTER       Limoges

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 52

LEADERS      Sedulios

MAP REF      129 - C

REMARKS      The Lemovices were a La Tène A people and in BC

  6th century, warriors of the tribe left their homeland in

  Germany on the right bank of the Rhine and migrated to

  France.  They settled at the headwaters of the Vienne and

  Isle rivers.  They had a center at Limoges in the region of

  Limousin, both named after them.

       In BC 52 they supplied warriors to fight the Romans

  during the battle of Alesia where their chieftain Sedulios

  was killed.

 

 

NAME         Lepontii

CULTURE      Late Hallstatt / Gallic

COUNTRY      Switzerland / Italy

TERRITORY    Gaul / Cisalpine Gaul

LANDMARKS    Rhône / Alps / Val d'Ossola / Ticino / Val

             Leventina

CENTERS      Ornavasso / Giubiasco

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 4th c

MAP REF      130 - C

REMARKS      The homeland of the Lepontii was in Switzerland

  at the headwaters of the Rhône between the Bernese and

  Pennine Alps.

       In BC 4th century, they were a part of the Alpine

  migration of Celts into northern Italy.  The tribe settled

  in the Val d'Ossola and the Val Leventina.  They had

  centers at Ornavasso and Giubiasco.  Artifacts have been

  found at sites in their territory with Celtic names

  inscribed on them.

 

 

NAME         Letavia

ALTERNATIVE  Litavia

CULTURE      Pictish / La Tène A / Aremorican / Briton

COUNTRY      France / England

REGION       Brittany / Cornwall

TERRITORY    Thrace / Gaul / Aremorica / Llydaw / Lloegr

LANDMARKS    Loire / Leguer

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 15th-13th c / BC 6th c

LEADERS      Hu Gardarn / Prydain

MAP REF      131 - C/(B) unknown location

REMARKS      The Letavia were one of the tribes of the

  Pictish culture who in BC 15th-13th century were led by Hu

  Gardarn from Thrace to the North Sea, then travelled south

  to Llydaw (Brittany) where they settled between the Liger

  (Loire) and Leguer rivers.

       In BC 6th century, a chieftain called Prydain led

  warriors of the Pictish tribes to Cornwall in England

  (Lloegr) where they became known as the Britons.

 

 

NAME         Leuci

EPITHET      The Lightners

CULTURE      Early Hallstatt / La Tène II / Belgae

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

LANDMARKS    Meuse / Moselle

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 9th c / BC 58

SEE ALSO     Lingones / Sequani / Treveri

MAP REF      132 - C

REMARKS      The Leuci, like the Treveri, were Hallstatt

  Celts who were settled between the Meuse and Moselle rivers

  in France by BC 9th century.

       In BC 58 the Leuci, Lingones and Sequani tribes

  supplied grain to Rome when Caesar was fighting Ariovistos.

 

 

NAME         Levaci

CULTURE      Belgae

AFFILIATION  client of the Nervii

COUNTRY      Netherlands / Belgium

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 54

LEADERS      Ambiorix (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Eburones / Nervii

MAP REF      133 - C

REMARKS      The Levaci were a client tribe of the Nervii and

  in BC 54 fought against the invading Romans under the

  Eburones' chieftain Ambiorix.

 

 

NAME         Lexovii

ALTERNATIVE  Lexovia

CULTURE      Pictish / La Tène A / Aremorican / Briton

AFFILIATION  Viducasses (client)

COUNTRY      France / England

REGION       Normandy / Cornwall

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aremorica / Lloegr

LANDMARKS    Channel / Orne / Seine / Touques

SITES        Alise Ste Reine (Alesia)

CENTERS      Lisieux

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 15th-13th c / BC 6th c / BC 56 / BC 56-55 /

             BC 52

LEADERS      Hu Gardarn / Prydain / Viridovix (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Aulerci / Venelli / Viducasses

MAP REF      134 - C/(B) unknown location

REMARKS      The Lexovii were one of the Pictish tribes that

  followed Hu Gardarn from Thrace to the North Sea, then

  turned south and settled in Aremorica sometime between BC

  15th-13th century.

       The territory of the Lexovii tribe was along the

  Channel between the Orne and Seine rivers, with a center at

  Lisieux on the Touques river.  When the Viducasses arrived

  in BC 6th century bringing La Tène A culture, they became a

  client tribe of the Lexovii.  In the same century, a

  Pictish chieftain named Prydain led warriors of the tribes

  to Cornwall in England.  In later years the Lexovii minted

  their own coins.

       In BC 56 the Lexovii warriors killed their pro-Roman

  councillors and fought under the Venelli chieftain

  Viridovix.  After losing the battle they had to suffer the

  indignity of putting up Roman soldiers for the winter of BC

  56-55, during which time they and the Aulerci tribe were

  forced to feed the invaders.

       In BC 52 the Lexovii supplied 3,000 horse warriors to

  help attack the Roman rear guard who were sieging the

  fortress of Alesia.

 

 

NAME         Libici

ALTERNATIVE  Libui

CULTURE      Celto-Ligurian / Gallic

AFFILIATION  clan of the Salluvii

COUNTRY      France / Italy

TERRITORY    Gaul / Cisalpine

LANDMARKS    Po / Dora Baltea / Dora Riparia / Sesia

CENTERS      Turin (Torino) / Vercelli (Vercellae)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 4th c

SEE ALSO     Salluvii

MAP REF      135 - C

REMARKS      The homeland of the Libici was in southeastern

  France near present-day Marseilles.  They were a clan of

  the Salluvii tribe who were a mixture of Ligurians and

  Early Hallstatt invaders.

       In BC 4th century some of the tribe migrated to

  northern Italy where they settled by the Po, Dora Baltea,

  Dora Riparia and Sesia rivers.  The Libici of Italy had

  centers at Torino (Turin) and Vercellae (Vercelli).

 

 

NAME         Lingones

CULTURE      Goidel / La Tène A / Gallic

AFFILIATION  Tricasses (client)

COUNTRY      Germany / France / Italy

REGION       Haute-Marne / Lower Emilia

TERRITORY    Gaul / Cisalpine Gaul

LANDMARKS    Rhine / Vosges Mtns / Langres Plateau / Yonne /

             Saône / Meuse / Moselle / Marne / Seine /

             Garonne / Alps / Po

SITES        Bourbonne-les-Bains / Beire-le-Chatel

CENTERS      Langres (Andematunnum)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 7th c / BC 6th c / BC 4th c / BC 58 / BC 52 /

             BC 51-50

DEITIES      Baco / Borvo / Damona / Ianuaria / Mabon /

             Moccos / Modron

LEADERS      Ambicatus (Rix) / Orgetorix

SEE ALSO     Ædui / Ambarri / Andes / Arverni / Aulerci /

             Bellovaci / Bituriges / Boii / Carnuti /

             Cenomani / Insubres / Leuci / Senones / Sequani

             / Tricasses / Turoni

MAP REF      136 - A/C

REMARKS      In BC 7th century, the territory of the Lingones

  was on the right bank of the Rhine near the Boii in central

  western Germany.  The Ædui, Ambarri, Aulerci, Carnuti,

  Lingones, Senones, Sequani and Turoni tribes were all

  related by blood.

       In BC 6th century, warriors of the Lingones tribe

  probably armed with La Tène A weapons moved across the

  Rhine and settled in the Vosges Mountains and over to the

  Yonne river on the Langres plateau.  The territory included

  the headwaters of a number of rivers including the Marne

  and the Saône.  They had a center at Andematunnum (Langres)

  and sacred springs at Bourbonne-les-Bains and Beire-le-

  Chatel.

       During BC 4th century, the Lingones belonged to a

  confederation of related tribes headed at the time by

  Ambicatus of the Bituriges.  The confederation also

  included the Ædui, Ambarri, Andes, Arverni, Aulerci,

  Bituriges, Carnuti, Cenomani, Insubres and the Senones

  tribes.  During this time a portion of the tribe settled on

  the Garonne along with some of their Senones allies.

       Lingones warriors joined with those of the Boii and

  travelled over the Pennine Alps and into northern Italy

  where they settled south of the Po in Lower Emilia.  From

  there they controlled the mouth of the Po river.

       In BC 58 the Gallic Lingones supported Orgetorix

  during his campaign against Roman rule but together with

  the Leuci and the Sequani they supplied grain to Caesar in

  his fight against Ariovistos.

       In BC 52 the Lingones withheld troops from helping

  Vercingetorix and in BC 51-50 they supplied Caesar with

  horse warriors in his campaign against the Bellovaci.

 

 

NAME         Luaighni

ALTERNATIVE  Lagin / Luaighne

CULTURE      La Tène I / Belgae

COUNTRY      Belgium / Ireland

REGION       Meath / Lune

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica / Leinster

LANDMARKS    Shannon / Irish Sea

SITES        Dinn Rig

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 370 / AD 2nd c

LEADERS      Labraid Loingsech / Cairbre Caitcheann

SEE ALSO     Gaesatae / Galian / Menapii

MAP REF      137 - (C)/(E) unknown locations

REMARKS      The Luaighni were a part of the force of

  Gaesatae warriors who followed Labraid Loingsech from the

  continent to Ireland and attacked Dinn Rig on the eve of

  Samhain in BC 370.  The warriors fought with a spear that

  had a broad head of blue-green iron called a laighni

  (lyna).

       The warriors gave their name to the province of

  Leinster (Laighin).  They finally settled between the

  Shannon and the Irish Sea.  They also settled in county

  Meath in the Barony of Lune which was called after them.

  This may have been the forerunner of the migration of a

  branch of the Menapii tribe.  They and the Galian were both

  Gaesatae warriors from Gaul.

       Cairbre Caitcheann was a chieftain of the Luaighni in

  AD 2nd century at the time that they were rent-payers to

  the Goidel rulers.

 

 

NAME         Lugi

CULTURE      Pictish

COUNTRY      Scotland

REGION       Caithness / Sutherland

LANDMARKS    Noss Head / Dornoch Firth / North Sea

AGE          Iron (late)

DATES        AD 2nd c

MAP REF      138 - B

REMARKS      In AD 2nd century, the Lugi were situated in

  northern Scotland in the present-day regions of Caithness

  and Sutherland, from Noss Head to Dornoch Firth along the

  coast of the North Sea.

 

 

NAME         Lugoves

CULTURE      La Tène II / Belgae

COUNTRY      Spain

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

SITES        Tarragona

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 3rd c

DEITIES      Lugh

MAP REF      139 - D

REMARKS      The Lugoves tribe entered Spain during the

  Belgic expansion of La Tène II around BC 3rd century.  The

  bootmakers of the Lugoves tribe venerated Lugh at

  Tarragona.

 

 

NAME         Lusitani

ALTERNATIVE  Lucis

CULTURE      Tartessian / Hallstatt

AFFILIATION  clan of Lusones / Lusitani confederation

COUNTRY      Portugal

TERRITORY    Lusitania

LANDMARKS    Douro / Tagus / Serra de Caramulo / Serra de

             Estrela

CENTERS      Celiobriga / Conimbriga / Lacobriga / Mirobriga

             / Talabriga

AGE          Iron

TIME PERIOD  BC 6th c / BC 3rd c / BC 219 / BC 2nd c / BC 139

             / AD 16th c

DEITIES      Luso / Ares / Endovelico / Artegina

LEADERS      Viriato (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Artabri / Bracari / Callaici / Carpetani /

             Cempsi / Grovii / Lusones / Saefes / Vaccaei /

             Vettones

MAP REF      140 - D

REMARKS      The writer Avieno referred to a BC 6th century

  Phoenician navigational guide book that mentioned the Lucis

  tribe as being in the snowy territory north of the Cempsi

  and the Saefes.

       By BC 3rd century, the Lusitani had settlements

  between the Douro and Tagus rivers in Portugal with centers

  at Celiobriga, Conimbriga, Lacobriga, Mirobriga and

  Talabriga.  The Lusitani were a fusion of Hallstatt Celts

  with the ancient Tartessians.  The Celtic side of the

  Lusitani were a clan of the Lusones tribe who claimed to

  have been descendants of Luso, son of Baco the god of

  boars.  The Lusitani had a war god named Endovelico and a

  war goddess called Artegina.

       The Lusitani were a very agile highland cattle people

  preferring to live in almost inaccessible craggy mountains

  and only venturing to the lowlands to plunder.  They used

  leather boats and dugout canoes to navigate the rivers but

  avoided ocean travel.  They made use of horses in war and

  peace.  They bartered goods and used shavings of silver for

  coins.

       Their basic clothing was made from coarse black goat-

  hair or goatskin but for battle the clothing was colorfully

  embroidered.  They wore torcs, leather or metal helmets

  with three plumes, thick linen vests, tunics or kilts,

  leather or fabric putties or spats to protect the legs, and

  when appropriate a long cloak as well.  They fought with

  short daggers, javelins which were all or half iron,

  bronze-tipped lances for stabbing and a small shield called

  a caetra.  The shield, concave on the outside, was only 2

  feet in diameter and rather than being carried in the hand,

  it was affixed to the front of the body by leather straps.

       Both sexes wore their hair long and held it in place

  with a headband during battle.  They used saunas and oiled

  their bodies, slept on beds of straw on the ground and

  covered themselves with woolen blankets.  Their preference

  in food was acorn bread, butter, goats' milk, chestnuts,

  spring water and barley beer, reserving wine for special

  festivals.  They ate one communal meal a day, sitting in a

  circle on stone benches.  They served the food from wooden

  and clay vessels, passing it around the circle starting

  with the oldest and most important member.

       The Lusitani played many games that relied on physical

  dexterity such as boxing, racing and practice combats on

  horse or on foot.  They danced in circles with males and

  females joining hands.  The dances involved the use of high

  jumps as well as vocal accompaniment to flutes and

  trumpets.

       Their shamans often cut off the right hands of their

  prisoners and used their entrails to divine the future. The

  prisoners, as well as horses and male goats, were

  sacrificed to the deity Ares.  Criminals condemned to death

  were thrown off cliffs, while a tribe member found guilty

  of killing near kin was stoned to death.

       The Lusitani practiced cremation, placing articles

  such as amulets, ceramics, fibulae and weapons with the

  ashes.  They sometimes placed the ashes in urns but at

  other times put them in a stone-covered rectangular cavity

  in a rock or scattered them to the wind.  At funerals of

  heroes, such as that of Viriato, the Lusitani would perform

  hecatombs (the sacrificing of 100 oxen).  They displayed

  their sick on the pathways so that if passers-by recognized

  the ailment, they could suggest a cure.

       In BC 219, warriors of the Lusitani tribe joined up

  with Hannibal the Carthaginian and followed him to Italy to

  fight the Romans.  When the Romans began to expand into

  Spain and Portugal early in BC 2nd century, the Artabri,

  Bracari, Callaici, Carpetani, Grovii, Vaccaei and Vettones

  tribes formed a confederation under the Lusitani tribe to

  fight against the invaders.  Viriato led the Lusitani

  confederation in repeated attacks against the Romans.

  Because of the agility and ease of movements of the

  warriors in dangerous mountain territory, they posed a

  serious threat to the Romans.  After many Lusitani

  victories against the invaders, Rome hired three traitors

  to assassinate Viriato in BC 139.  After his death, the

  Romans were finally able to conquer their territory.  In AD

  16th century, the name "Lusitanian" became vogue as a

  reference to modern-day Portuguese.

 

 

NAME         Lusones

CULTURE      Ligurian / Urnfield-Hallstatt / Iberian

AFFILIATION  Lusitani (clan)

COUNTRY      Spain

LANDMARKS    Tagus / Turia / Jalon

CENTERS      Daroca (Contrebia) / Munebrega (Mundobriga) /

             Calatorao (Nertobriga)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 5th c

DEITIES      Luso

SEE ALSO     Lusitani

MAP REF      141 - D

REMARKS      The Lusones were a Celto-Ligurian population who

  were invaded by the northward-moving Iberians sometime

  around BC 5th century.  They had settlements around the

  headwaters of the Tagus, Turia, Jalon and several other

  smaller rivers in Spain.

       The Lusones had centers at Contrebia (Daroca),

  Mundobriga (Munebrega) and Nertobriga (Calatorao).  They

  claimed descent from Luso, son of Baco the god of boars.

  The Hallstatt part of the Lusitani tribe were probably a

  clan of the Lusones.

 

 

NAME         Lutia

CULTURE      Celtiberian

COUNTRY      Spain

REGION       Soria

LANDMARKS    Duero river

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd c.

MAP REF      142 - D

REMARKS      During the siege of Numantia in BC 2nd century,

  a chieftain named Rhetogenes tried to solicit help in the

  defence of the fortress.

       Warriors of the Lutia tribe agreed to help but the

  Roman commander received news of the situation and

  surrounded the village of the Lutia with his soldiers.  All

  the young warriors of the tribe were ordered to come

  forward.  He then commanded his soldiers to cut off the

  right hand of each one.

 

 

NAME         Maeatae

CULTURE      Pictish

COUNTRY      Scotland

REGION       Central / Lothian

LANDMARKS    Forth

AGE          Iron (late)

DATES        AD 200 / AD 6th c

SEE ALSO     Caledonii

MAP REF      143 - B

REMARKS      In AD 200, the territory of the Maeatae was

  north of the Antonine Wall on both sides of the Forth

  river, just south of the Caledonii tribe.  They were

  recognized as a tribe in that area until AD 6th century.

 

 

NAME         Mandubii

CULTURE      La Tène A / Gallic

COUNTRY      France

REGION       Côte d'Or

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Yonne / Seine / Serein / Aube

CENTERS      Alise Ste Reine (Alesia)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 52

DEITIES      Alisanos / Baco / Moritasgos / Vindonnos

LEADERS      Vercingetorix (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Sequani

MAP REF      144 - C

REMARKS      Around BC 6th century, the Mandubii tribe

  invaded the territory of the Sequani and pushed them to the

  east.  The Mandubii then settled in the present-day region

  of Côte d'Or with an oppidum at Alesia, thought to be on

  Mt. Auxois, near Alise Ste Reine.

       During BC 1st century, they contributed warriors to

  fight the invading Romans and in BC 52 they sacrificed

  their fortress at Alesia when Vercingetorix was besieged

  during the last stand for Celtic independence in Gaul.  The

  Mandubii tribe supplied most of the grain and cattle to

  feed the defenders during the siege at Alesia.

 

 

NAME         Marcomani

EPITHET      Marchmen

ALTERNATIVE  Marcomanni

CULTURE      Germani / La Tène II / Germano-Celtic

AFFILIATION  clan of the Suebi confederation

COUNTRY      Germany / Czech

REGION       Wrttemberg / Bohemia

LANDMARKS    Rhine / Main / Black Forest / Danube / Abnoba

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 109 / BC 58 / BC 9

LEADERS      Ariovistos (war leader) / Marbod

SEE ALSO     Boii / Cimbri / Helvetii / Suebi / Teutoni

MAP REF      145 - A

REMARKS      The Marcomani tribe evolved from the warriors

  left behind when the Cimbri, Teutoni, Helvetii and other

  Celtic tribes departed in BC 109.  The tribe occupied the

  area known as the Desert of the Helvetii, a vast empty area

  on the right bank of the Rhine south of the Main.  Their

  territory included the Silva Marciana (Black Forest) in the

  mountain range known as Abnoba which contains the

  headwaters of the Danube.  They chose a Celtic name which

  meant frontiersmen (Marchmen).

       In BC 58, warriors of the Marcomani tribe, as a clan

  of the Suebi confederation, crossed the Rhine into Gaul to

  help Ariovistos in his battle against Caesar.  They had a

  combined force of 6,000 horse warriors and 6,000 foot-

  warriors.  The two types of warrior fought together as a

  team.  The foot-warrior kept up with the horse-warrior by

  running alongside the horse, holding onto its mane or tail.

       Also around BC 58, the Boii departed from their

  territory in Bohemia, leaving a vacant area known as the

  Desert of the Boii.  In BC 9 the Marcomani, under their

  chieftain Marbod, moved to that area to settle.

 

 

NAME         Mediomatrici

ALTERNATIVE  Mediomatrices

CULTURE      Urnfield-Hallstatt / La Tène II / Belgae

COUNTRY      Germany / France / Luxembourg / Belgium

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

LANDMARKS    Ardennes / Meuse / Moselle / Marne / Saar

SITES        Alise Ste Reine (Alesia)

CENTERS      Metz (Divodorum "citadel of the gods")

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 9th c / BC 52

DEITIES      Icovellauna / Sucellos / Inciona / Veraudinus

MAP REF      146 - C

REMARKS      The Mediomatrici tribe was composed of warriors

  of the early Hallstatt culture who left their German

  homeland around BC 9th century and crossed the Rhine to

  settle in the Ardennes Mountains.  Their territory covered

  an area that straddled the Meuse, Moselle and Saar rivers.

  Their name means "the people between the Matrona (Marne)

  and the Matra".  They had a center at Divodorum (Metz).

       In BC 52, the Mediomatrici supplied 5,000 horse

  warriors to attack the rear of Caesar's army that was

  besieging Alesia.  The tribe minted their own coins.

 

 

NAME         Medulli

EPITHET      The Mead Drinkers

CULTURE      Late Hallstatt / Gallic / Celto-Ligurian

COUNTRY      Germany / Czech / France

REGION       Bavaria / Bohemia

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aquitanica

LANDMARKS    Bay of Biscay / Garonne / Lake Medoc / Arc /

             Maurienne / Piedmont Alps

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 5th c / BC 4th c / BC 218

LEADERS      Cottius

SEE ALSO     Allobroges / Caturiges / Cenomani / Centrones /

             Volcae Arcomici / Volcae Tectosages

MAP REF      147 - A/C

REMARKS      In BC 5th century the Medulli tribe left their

  homeland in Bavaria-Bohemia and travelled into France with

  their allies the Caturiges, Cenomani, Centrones, Volcae

  Arcomici and the Volcae Tectosages.  By BC 4th century, a

  group of the Medulli were settled in the area of Aquitanica

  along the Bay of Biscay, south of the Garonne to Lake

  Medoc.

       Another branch of the tribe settled on the Arc river

  in the Maurienne valley of the Piedmont Alps.  Hannibal met

  with resistance when he passed through this territory in BC

  218.  This group of the Medulli were up-river from the

  Allobroges and were surrounded by Ligurians and soon came

  under the protection of Cottius, a Ligurian chieftain.

 

 

NAME         Meldi

CULTURE      La Tène A / La Tène II / Belgae

AFFILIATION  client of the Suessiones

COUNTRY      Germany / France

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

LANDMARKS    Marne / Seine

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 54

SEE ALSO     Caleti / Catuvellauni / Remi / Suessiones /

             Veliocasses

MAP REF      148 - C

REMARKS      In BC 6th century, the Brythonic-speaking Meldi

  moved across the Rhine with the Caleti, Catuvellauni, Remi,

  Suessiones and Veliocasses tribes, bringing the La Tène

  culture into Gaul.  The Meldi settled an area bounded by

  the Marne and Seine rivers and they intermingled with the

  Hallstatt people who had occupied the area.

       In later years the tribe minted coins.  During the

  Roman invasion of Gaul in BC 54, Caesar ordered the Meldi

  to build him 60 ships to help carry his troops across the

  Channel to England.

 

 

NAME         Menapii

CULTURE      Goidel / La Tène A / La Tène II / Belgae

COUNTRY      Netherlands / Ireland

REGION       Wexford

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica / Leinster

LANDMARKS    Rhine / Waal / Channel

CENTERS      Menapia

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 4th c / BC 57 / BC 56 / BC 55 /

             BC 53

LEADERS      Labraid Loingsech / Galba (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Aduatuci / Armorici / Brigantes / Cauci /

             Luaighni / Morini / Nervii / Suessiones /

             Tencteri / Usipetes / Veneti

MAP REF      149 - C

REMARKS      In BC 6th century the Menapii left the Goidel

  homeland on the right bank of the Rhine and established

  themselves near the mouths of the Rhine and Waal, where

  they were surrounded by swamps, marshlands and forests.

       In BC 4th century, battle-line (Luaighni) warriors of

  the Menapii and Cauci tribes followed Labraid Loingsech to

  Ireland to regain his territory.  Later, more of the

  Menapii tribe settled in Ireland beside the Brigantes tribe

  in Wexford with a center at Menapia.

       In BC 57 during the Roman invasion of Belgica, the

  continental Menapii contributed 10,000 warriors to fight

  under Galba, the head chieftain of the Suessiones.  They

  supported the Veneti when Caesar invaded their territory in

  BC 56 and were one of the last tribes to be defeated.  In

  BC 55, the Tencteri and Usipetes tribes from the north of

  the Rhine were their unwanted guests but left in the

  spring, returning back across the Rhine.

       When the Romans invaded Menapii territory in BC 55,

  the tribe fled to the woods.  The Romans, finding no

  opposition, set fire to their building and crops.  In BC 53

  the Menapii, Aduatuci and the Nervii invited Germani tribes

  to join them to fight the Romans.  When the battle went

  badly for the Celts and their allies, Caesar demanded that

  hostages be handed over to him.  When they refused, Caesar

  sent his troops.  The Menapii fled to the woods again, and

  again the Romans burnt their homes and crops, and also

  stole their cattle.  The Menapii succeeded in engaging five

  legions before Caesar could pound them into submission.

  Finally they had no choice but to ask Caesar for peace.

       Throughout the Roman invasion of Gaul, the Menapii,

  Armorici and Morini always supported each other.  Iman

  Wilkens suggests that during the Bronze Age Brittany and

  northern Netherlands were two of the four areas that were

  referred to as Thrace.  The Menapii tribe may have had a

  high concentration of Thracians.

 

 

NAME         Morini

CULTURE      Goidel / La Tène II / Belgae

AFFILIATION  client of the Atrebates / Morna (clan)

COUNTRY      Belgium / France / Ireland

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

LANDMARKS    Channel / Leie

SITES        Alise Ste Reine (Alesia)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 3rd c / BC 57 / BC 56 / BC 55 / BC 52 / BC 30

LEADERS      Galba (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Ambiani / Atrebates / Armorici / Menapii / Morna

             / Suessiones / Veneti

MAP REF      150 - C

REMARKS      The Morini had early ties with the area around

  the Strait of Dover.  The Morini, Atrebates and the Ambiani

  were pushed across the Rhine in BC 3rd century and formed a

  confederation of tribes.  They established themselves in

  western Gaul between the Channel and the Leie river.  The

  Clanna Morna of Ireland was probably a clan of theirs.

       During the Roman invasion of Belgica in BC 57, the

  Morini tribe contributed 25,000 warriors to fight under the

  Suessiones head chieftain Galba.  In BC 56 the tribe

  supplied warriors to help the Veneti.  After suffering

  defeats at the hands of the Romans they rebelled in BC 55

  but were subdued again.  However, they managed to supply

  5,000 warriors to fight the Romans during the siege of

  Alesia in BC 52.

       The Morini and the Menapii were the last two tribes of

  Gaul to be conquered by the Romans, and in BC 30 the Morini

  revolted again.  Throughout the Roman invasion of Gaul the

  Morini, Menapii and Armorici tribes always supported each

  other.

 

 

NAME         Morna

ALTERNATIVE  Clanna Morna / Molum

CULTURE      Goidel / Belgae

AFFILIATION  clan of the Morini

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica / Connacht

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 4th c / AD 3rd c

LEADERS      Goll

SEE ALSO     Menapii / Morini

MAP REF      151 - (C) unknown location / (E) unmarked

             location

REMARKS      The clanna Morna were most likely an offshoot of

  the Morini tribe who came to Ireland in BC 4th century as

  battle-line warriors, or followed the Menapii later.

       In AD 3rd century, a member of the clan named Goll

  became an important chieftain of the Fianna of Connacht.

 

 

NAME         Namnetes

ALTERNATIVE  Namnetii

CULTURE      Aremorican

COUNTRY      France

REGION       Brittany

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aremorica

LANDMARKS    Loire / Bay of Biscay

CENTERS      Nantes

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 56

SEE ALSO     Veneti

MAP REF      152 - C

REMARKS      The Namnetes tribe was settled on the right bank

  of the Loire to the Bay of Biscay, with a center at Nantes.

  They were allies of the Veneti and fought the invading

  Romans in BC 56.

 

 

NAME         Nantuates

EPITHET      People of the Valley

CULTURE      Urnfield-Hallstatt / Gallic

COUNTRY      Switzerland

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Rhône / Alps / Lake Leman

CENTERS      St-Maurice

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 9th-6th c

SEE ALSO     Veragri / Seduni

MAP REF      153 - C

REMARKS      The Nantuates were a Bronze Age culture who

  settled in their area sometime between BC 9th and 6th

  centuries.  Their territory was in the Swiss Alps southeast

  of Lake Leman on the left bank of the Rhône, with a center

  at present-day St-Maurice.  They were down-river from the

  Veragri and Seduni tribes.

 

 

NAME         Nemedian

CULTURE      Yamnaya

COUNTRY      Turkey / Ireland

REGION       Cork

TERRITORY    Phrygia / Munster / Connacht / Ulster / Leinster

LANDMARKS    Black Sea / Bosporus / Kizilirmak / Plateau of

             Phrygia / Cork Harbour / Magh Cera (Carra) /

             Magh nEba / Magh Luirg / Magh Seireo / Magh

             Tochair / Magh Seimne / Magh Macha / Magh

             Muirthemne / Magh Bernsa / Magh Moda (Magh

             Lugad) / Loch Cal / Loch Munremair / Loch

             nDairbrech / Loch nAnnind

SITES        Great Island / Tory Island / Conann's Tower

             (Tuir Chonaind)

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 19th-18th c

LEADERS      Nemhedh / Fergus

SEE ALSO     Fomorii / Fir Domnann / Partholean

MAP REF      154 - A/(E) unmarked locations

REMARKS      The Nemedians were Bronze Age farmer-herders,

  descendents of Magog, son of Iafeth of the early Aryans.

  Their homeland on the Plateau of Phrygia was bordered by

  the Black Sea, the Bosporus and the Kizilirmak (Halys)

  river.  This territory was an early settlement of Yamnaya

  warriors and is referred to by its ancient Aryan name

  Phrygia.  The Greeks later referred to it as Greek Scythia

  or Mygdonia (Mhéigindt) and it was also called by its

  Thracian name Bithynia.

       The chieftain Nemhedh, a relative of Partholon, and

  his 4 sons led 44 or 34 boatloads with 30 followers in each

  boat to Ireland 30 years after Partholon's people died from

  the plague.  On their voyage they came across a golden

  tower rising out of the ocean.  When they tried to capture

  it the tide came in and many of Nemhedh's warriors were

  drowned.  It took the survivors a year and a half before

  the remaining boatload reached Ireland.  They landed on

  Great Island in Cork Harbour on an eve of Beltainn.

       Nemhedh led his warriors to victory in the battle of

  Ros Fraechain (Badbgna) on or near Slieve Baune in the

  south of Co. Roscommon in old Connacht.  After that battle,

  the Nemedians built the two fortresses of Raith Cindeich in

  Ui Niallain and Raith Cimbaith in Seimne.

       During the time of the Nemedians, 4 new lakes burst

  forth.  In the 9th year appeared Loch Cal in Ui Niallain,

  which is Lochgall of the barony of Oneilland in Co. Armagh,

  and Loch Munremair in Ui Luigne of Sliabh Guaire, which is

  Loch Ramor in Co. Cavan.  After the 12th year, Loch

  nDairbrech, which is Loch Derryvaragh in Co. Westmeath, and

  Loch nAnnind, which is Loch Ennell also in Co. Westmeath,

  burst forth.

       The settlers cleared the timber from the land and

  create 12 new plains: Magh Cera (Carra) in Co. Mayo; Magh

  nEba, a maritime plain west of Ben Bulben; Cuile Tolaidin

  which is the barony of Kilmaine in south Co. Mayo; Magh

  Luirg south of the Curlew mountains in Co. Sligo; Magh

  Seireo in Tethba which is the plain that circles the town

  of Kells; Magh Tochair in Tir Eogain, now a part of

  counties Meath, Westmeath and Langford Offaly; Magh Seimne

  in Araide on Magee Island; Magh Macha in Airgialla at Moy

  near Armagh; Magh Muirthemne in Brega which is a maritime

  plain in Co. Louth; Magh Bernsa in Laighne on the border of

  Carlow and Kildare; Leccmag in Muma; and Magh Moda (Magh

  Lugad) in Ui Tuirtre west of Lough Neagh.

       The Nemhedh won 2 more battles against the Fomorii at

  Murbolg in Dal Riada, present-day Whitepark Bay in the

  north of Co. Antrim, and Cnamros (Camross) near Taghmon in

  Co. Wexford between Wexford Harbour and Bannow Bay in old

  Leinster.  Soon after, Nemedh and 2000 of his people died

  of plague.  The survivors were forced to become a client

  tribe of the Fomorii.  They had to pay an annual tribute of

  2/3 of their harvest, milk, calves and newborn children, to

  be delivered to Magh Ceitne on Tory Island every Samhain.

       The 3 champions of the Nemedians, Semul son of

  Iarbonel son of Nemhedh, Erglan son of Beoan son of Starn

  son of Nemhedh and Fergus son of Nemhedh, were not happy

  with this situation.  Fergus was elected head chieftain and

  he proposed to attack Conann's Tower (Tuir Chonaind), the

  Fomorian stronghold on Tory Island.  They led an army of

  30,000 warriors on the land and another of 30,000 by sea.

  The Nemedians defeated the Fomorii, killing their

  chieftain.  The victory was short-lived when a Fomorii

  fleet of 3x20 ships arrived under the leadership of Morc

  mac Deiled and a mutually devastating battle took place.

  By the end of the battle only one ship with 30 Nemedian

  warriors returned to Ireland.

       The names of the 30 (32) warriors who survived the

  battles of Magh Ceitne with their leader Fergus Lethderg

  were: Erglan (Arglan), Mathach, Iardacht (Artach), Beothach

  (Bethach), Semeon, Britan Mael, Baath (Baad), Ibath (Ibad),

  Beocan (Bechad), Brondul (Bronal), Fal (Pal), Gorthigern

  (Gortigern), Grenan, Glassan, Ceram (Ceran), Cobran

  (Gabran), Fortecht (Fortach), Gosten (Goscen), Guilliuch

  (Guilliue), Caman, Glas, Forand (Feran), Gam, Eadam (Dam),

  Ding, Dael, Griman, Taman, Tuirriue, Feb (Eriuc, Conothan).

       The Nemedians then divided Ireland three provinces but

  it was not long before they eventually deserted the island.

  Fergus and his son Britan Mael voyaged to Moin Conain in

  England and most likely became the Fir Domnann of Devon.

  The 3 sons of Beoan went to the north of Albainn and became

  the Fir Domnann of Scotland.  Ibath and his son Baath

  voyaged north and their descendants became known as The

  Danann.  Semeon went to Thrace either in France or the

  Balkan Peninsula where their descendants became known as

  the FirBolg.

 

 

NAME         Nemetati

CULTURE      Early Hallstatt

COUNTRY      Portugal / Spain

LANDMARKS    Douro

CENTERS      Nemetobriga

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 7th c

MAP REF      155 - D

REMARKS      In BC 7th century, the tribe of the Nemetati

  were settled on the right bank of the Douro and developed a

  center at Nemetobriga.

 

 

NAME         Nemetes

CULTURE      Germano-Celtic / Belgae

AFFILIATION  clan of the Suebi confederation

COUNTRY      Germany / France

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

LANDMARKS    Ardennes / Saar / Rhine

CENTERS      Spires

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 70 / BC 58

DEITIES      Nemetona

LEADERS      Ariovistos (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Suebi / Triboci / Vangiones

MAP REF      156 - C

REMARKS      The Nemetes were a Germano-Celtic tribe with a

  Celtic name.  They were a clan of the Suebi confederation

  and along with the Triboci and Vangiones they moved across

  the Rhine around BC 70.  They settled on the left bank in

  the vicinity of the present-day town of Spires (Speyer).

       In BC 58, the Nemetes helped Ariovistos in his battle

  against Caesar.  They had a combined force of 6,000 horse

  warriors and 6,000 foot-warriors.  The two types of warrior

  fought together as a team and the foot-warrior kept up with

  the horse-warrior by holding on to the horse's mane or tail

  while running alongside.

 

 

NAME         Nervii

CULTURE      La Tène II / Belgae

AFFILIATION  Centrones, Geidumni, Grudii, Levaci and

             Pleumoxii (clients)

COUNTRY      Germany / Netherlands / Belgium

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

LANDMARKS    Rhine / Scheldt

SITES        Sambre / Alise Ste Reine (Alesia)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 2nd c / BC 57 / BC 54 / BC 53 / BC 52

LEADERS      Galba (war leader) / Boduognatus / Ambiorix

             (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Aduatuci / Atrebates / Centrones / Eburones /

             Geidumni / Grudii / Levaci / Menapii / Pleumoxii

             / Suessiones / Viromandui

MAP REF      157 - C

REMARKS      The Nervii were La Tène II Celtic people who

  crossed the Rhine in BC 2nd century and settled on the

  right bank of the Scheldt river.  The Centrones, Geidumni,

  Grudii, Levaci and Pleumoxii all became client tribes.

       The Nervii were considered to be the toughest warriors

  in Gaul and were respected for their bravery by all other

  tribes.  Like tribes of the Germani, they did not allow

  luxuries or wine into their territory because they believed

  it made warriors lazy and depleted their courage.  They

  fought only as battle-line soldiers, possessing no horse

  warriors.

       When Caesar invaded Belgica in BC 57, the Nervii

  contributed 50,000 warriors to fight under the war leader

  Galba, head chieftain of the Suessiones.   When Caesar

  marched into their territory, the Aduatuci, Atrebates and

  Viromandui joined the Nervii and fought under their

  chieftain Boduognatus.  They gathered at the river Sambre

  and made their camp across from Caesar's superior force of

  horse warriors, slingers and legions of Roman soldiers.

  Out of 60,000 Nervii warriors only 500 survived, nearly

  annihilating the tribe.

       In the winter of BC 54, the Aduatuci, Eburones, Nervii

  and all their client tribes rallied under the Eburones

  chieftain Ambiorix.  In BC 53 the Nervii again joined their

  allies the Aduatuci and the Menapii to fight Caesar and his

  Romans, who were raiding their territories, burning their

  crops and stealing their cows.  During the siege of Alesia

  in BC 52, the Nervii supplied 5,000 warriors to attack the

  rear of Caesar's force.

 

 

NAME         Nitiobriges

CULTURE      Goidel / Gallic

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Dordogne / Lot / Garonne

CENTERS      Agen (Aginnum)

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 9th / BC 109 / BC 52

LEADERS      Vercingetorix (war leader) / Teutomatos

SEE ALSO     Ruteni / Cimbri

MAP REF      158 - A/C

REMARKS      The Nitiobriges were a tribe of the Bronze Age

  who settled between the Dordogne, Lot and Garonne rivers

  around BC 9th century.  They arrived around the same time

  as the Ruteni and both tribes buried their dead in tumuli.

  The Cimbri passed through their territory in BC 109 on

  their way to Spain.

       In BC 52, the Nitiobriges supplied horse warriors to

  the war leader Vercingetorix to fight the Romans.  The

  Nitiobriges chieftain Teutomatos also supplied 5,000

  warriors to help attack the rear of Caesar's army.

 

 

NAME         Novantes

ALTERNATIVE  Novantae

CULTURE      Briton

COUNTRY      Scotland

REGION       Dumfries and Galloway

LANDMARKS    Firth of Clyde / Solway Firth / North Channel

AGE          Iron (late)

DATES        AD 2nd c

SEE ALSO     Trinovantes

MAP REF      159 - B

REMARKS      In the time of Ptolemy, the Brythonic-speaking

  Novantae tribe was settled in present-day Dumfries and

  Galloway in Scotland.  The name suggests a connection to

  the early Briton Trinovantes.

 

 

NAME         Ordovices

EPITHET      The Hammer Fighters

CULTURE      Battle Axe

COUNTRY      Wales

REGION       Gwynedd / Powys

TERRITORY    Gwynedd / Ceredigion

LANDMARKS    Irish Sea / Severn / Wye / Aeron / Anglesey

CENTERS      Aberffraw / Port Dinorwic

AGE          Chalcolithic / Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 3rd millennium / AD 47 / AD 449 / AD 5th-7th

DEITIES      Sabrina

LEADERS      Caratacus (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Catuvellauni / Cornovii / Deceangli / Demetae /

             Silures / Saxons

MAP REF      160 - B

REMARKS      The Ordovices were an ancient tribe of highland

  warriors who fought with stone hammers.  It is quite

  possible that they were Battle Axe people who came to

  Britain from the continent in the Chalcolithic period

  around the end of the 3rd millennium.  Their territory in

  Wales included parts of the present-day districts of

  Gwynedd, Powys and Ceredigion, with Aberffraw and Port

  Dinorwic as centers.  They controlled the headwaters of the

  Severn and Wye rivers.

       In AD 47, the Ordovices, along with the Cornovii,

  Deceangli, Demetae and Silures tribes, helped Caratacus and

  his Catuvellauni warriors fight the invading Romans.

       From AD 5th-7th century they fought as one of the

  Cymry tribes and against the different invaders of their

  territory.  In AD 449, Vortigern fled to their territory to

  escape the treachery of the Saxons.

 

 

NAME         Oretani

CULTURE      Tartessian / Hallstatt / La Tène II / Belgae

COUNTRY      Spain

LANDMARKS    Guadalquivir / Guadiana

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 3rd c

MAP REF      161 - D

REMARKS      The Oretani tribe was formed when local

  Tartessians mixed with invading Hallstatt warriors in BC

  5th century.  The tribes settled in the mountains between

  the upper Betis (Guadalquivir) and the Anas (Guadiana).

       In BC 3rd century, warriors of the invading Belgae

  tribes mixed into the population, bringing with them the La

  Tène II culture.

 

 

NAME         Osi

ALTERNATIVE  Onsi

CULTURE      Early Hallstatt

AFFILIATION  client of the Quadi and Sarmatian

COUNTRY      Czech / Austria / Poland / Hungary / Croatia

REGION       Silesia

TERRITORY    Pannonia / Galicia

LANDMARKS    Oder / Vistula / Carpathians / Danube

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 2nd c / BC 100

SEE ALSO     Antariatae / Arauisci / Cotini

MAP REF      162 - A

REMARKS      The Osi and Cotini were two tribes who migrated

  north and east from their Celtic homeland in Germany-Czech

  around BC 6th century.  They were iron miners who settled

  in the Silesia area of Poland and Czech, an area that

  became known as Galicia.  Their territory in the foothills

  of the Carpathian Mountains contained the headwaters of the

  Oder, Vistula (Wisla) and a tributary of the Danube.

       Around BC 100 the Osi were cut off from the Celtic

  world and had to pay tribute to the Germani tribe, the

  Quadi, and a tribe of the Sarmatians.  They did manage to

  keep their own language.

       During BC 2nd century, another group of the Osi tribe

  settled in Pannonia where they became lowland farmers.  The

  region was in the northern part of the territory of the

  Antariatae, on the left bank of the Danube across from the

  Arauisci tribe.

 

 

NAME         Osismii

ALTERNATIVE  Oestrimnios / Oestrymnians / Osismi / Ostiaei

CULTURE      Goidel / Aremorican

COUNTRY      Portugal / France

REGION       Brittany

TERRITORY    Ophiussa / Gaul / Aremorica

LANDMARKS    Aulne / Bay of Biscay / Channel / Finistère /

             Tagus / Douro

SITES        Alise Ste Reine (Alesia)

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 12-9th c / BC 6th c / BC 57 / BC 56 / BC 52

LEADERS      Vercingetorix (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Saefes / Veneti

MAP REF      163 - A/C/D

REMARKS      The Osismii were warriors of the Goidel culture

  who helped defeat tribes of the Ligurian culture in

  Aremorica during the Bronze Age.  They settled in the area

  of Finistère around the Alaunos (Aulne) river bounded by

  the Bay of Biscay and the Channel.  The Osismii tribe

  traded with Ireland and Britain, and minted their own coins

  which have been found at sites on the Channel Islands.

       Another portion of the tribe settled on the west coast

  of Portugal between the Tagus and the Douro rivers where

  they traded with the Tartessians.  Their territory was

  called Ophiussa and in BC 6th century they were invaded by

  the Saefes tribe and were most likely assimilated into

  their culture.

       In BC 57 the Aremorican tribes were invaded by the

  Romans, and in BC 56 the Osismii contributed warriors to

  help the Veneti fight the invaders.  In BC 52, they

  supplied warriors to help Vercingetorix defend Alesia by

  attacking the rear of Caesar's siege force.

 

 

NAME         Paemani

CULTURE      Belgae

COUNTRY      Belgium / Luxembourg

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

LANDMARKS    Lesse

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 57

LEADERS      Galba (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Suessiones

MAP REF      164 - C

REMARKS      The Paemani tribe was settled in the valley of

  the Lesse river, a tributary of the Meuse.  In BC 57 when

  Caesar invaded Belgica, the Paemani contributed warriors to

  fight under Galba, the head chieftain of the Suessiones.

 

 

NAME         Parisii

ALTERNATIVE  Parici / Parisi / Parsii

CULTURE      Goidel / Gallic

AFFILIATION  client of the Senones and the Suessiones

COUNTRY      England / France

REGION       Humberside / Paris

TERRITORY    Gaul / Lloegr

LANDMARKS    Humber / Seine / Marne

SITES        Alise Ste Reine (Alesia)

CENTERS      Kingston-upon-Hull / Paris

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 13th c / BC 6th c / BC 53 / BC 52

DEITIES      Goddess-without-Name / Dis

LEADERS      Paris / Vercingetorix (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Arverni / Senones / Suessiones

MAP REF      165 - B/C

REMARKS      The Parisii were Gaelic-speaking Q-Celts of the

  Goidel culture who were settled on the Humber river area in

  England by BC 13th century.  The tribe was named after

  their leader Paris (Parigii) who was killed in the Trojan

  War.  After the war was over, warriors of the tribe

  migrated to France where they settled at the confluence of

  the Seine and Marne rivers.  They founded Paris as their

  main center in Gaul.

       Both Paris and Kingston-upon-Hull became major centers

  of the tribe.  They came with bronze swords and the custom

  of burying their dead in tumuli graves.  The graves of both

  England and France contain chariot burials.

       Paris was thought to be a center of sun worship, and

  dolmens have been found with Egyptian-type sun ships

  engraved on them.  The name Paris probably evolved from

  Barisis (Barque d'Isis or "boat of Isis").

       Sometime after BC 6th century, the Parisii tribe in

  Gaul became a client tribe of the Senones and at other

  times a client of the Suessiones.  They were one of the

  first tribes to join with the Arverni under their young

  leader Vercingetorix in BC 53.  In BC 52 they burned their

  oppidum at Paris on the Seine river in order to escape the

  fate of the Senones oppidum, and supplied 8,000 warriors to

  attack the rear of Caesar's army at Alesia.

 

 

NAME         Partholean

CULTURE      Yamnaya

COUNTRY      Turkey / Ireland

TERRITORY    Phrygia / Munster

LANDMARKS    Black Sea / Bosporus / Kizilirmak / Plateau of

             Phrygia / Magh nItha / Magh Tuireadh / Magh Li /

             Magh Ladrand / Loch Laiglinne / Loch Cuan / Loch

             Rudraige / Loch Dechet / Loch Mesc / Loch Con /

             Loch Echtra

SITES        Slemna of Magh Ibha / Magh Sen nElta /

             Taimhleacht Muintir

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 19th c

LEADERS      Partholon

SEE ALSO     Fomorii / Nemedian

MAP REF      166 - A/(E) unmarked locations

REMARKS      The homeland of the Partholean tribe was the

  Plateau of Phrygia which was bordered by the Black Sea, the

  Bosporus and the Kizilirmak (Halys) river.  Their territory

  was an early settlement of Yamnaya warriors and is referred

  to by its ancient Aryan name Phrygia.  The Greeks later

  referred to it as Greek Scythia or Mygdonia (Mhéigindt/

  Meigint) and it was also called by its Thracian name

  Bithynia.

       The chieftain Partholon, a descendant of Magog son of

  Iafeth, led 1000 warriors, artisans and farmers on a 10-

  week voyage from their homeland to Munster in Ireland where

  they landed on the eve of Beltainn.

       The Partholeans' voyage from Phrygia to Aladacia

  (Aladaciam/Aladaigia/Calad Daciam/Caladaicia/Chaladagia/

  Haladaciam/) was a month in duration.  From Aladacia to

  Gothia (Goithia/Goithiam) took 9 days and from Gothia to

  Spain (Easbain/Easpain/Heaspain/Hesbain/nEspain) was a

  voyage of another month.  From Spain to Ireland (Erinn)

  took 9 days and they landed on the 14th (16th/17th) day of

  the moon in the modern month of May at the Da Econd (Two

  Fools) river.

       Another version of the story said they made landfall

  286 years after the Deluge at Inber Scene (mouth of the

  Shannon) in Munster on the eve of Beltainn.

       The Partholeans brought agriculture to Ireland when

  they introduced the plow and oxen.  Before they arrived

  there was only Magh Sen nElta (Old Plain of flocks) so they

  cleared the forest and created the four plains of Magh

  nItha in Leinster, Magh Tuireadh in Connacht, Magh Li (Lii)

  in Ui mac Uais between the Bir and Camus and Magh Ladrand

  (Latharna) in Dal nAraide.

       The Partholeans were also responsible for the 7 lakes:

  Loch Laiglinne in Ui mac Uais of Breg, Loch Cuan and

  Rudraige in Ulster, Loch Dechet, Loch Mesc and Loch Con in

  Connacht, and Loch Echtra un Airgialla.

       During their 10th year, the Partholeans fought the

  Fomorii at Slemna on Magh Ibha.  The first week of the

  battle was fought with magic and the Fomorians were

  described as having 1 leg, 1 arm and 1 eye.  No one was

  killed in that week but when the Fomorii lost the war of

  magic, a battle of weapons followed.

       When Partholon died in his 29th year after the taking

  of Ireland, his sons divided the island into 4 coiceda or

  provinces.  Some scribes reckon that all of the tribe died

  of the plague at this time while others thought that the

  plague came 550 years after Partholon's death and

  annihilated everyone except Tuan who escaped by shape-

  changing.  It is most likely that this was calculated in

  moon years and that they were there only 42 sun years,

  which correlates with the number of generations recorded.

       On a Beltainn, 5000 men and 4000 women died within one

  week.  There is a grave site at Tallaght near Dublin called

  Taimhleacht Muintir Partholain that contains the skeletons

  of 900 Partholeans who died of the plague on Beltainn.

       Another version of the Partholon story claims that the

  seed of Partholon lived in Ireland for 550 years then they

  were killed off by the Cynocephali. 

 

 

NAME         Petrocorii

EPITHET      Of the Four Tribes

ALTERNATIVE  Petrucorii

CULTURE      Goidel / Gallic

COUNTRY      France

REGION       Perigord

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Isle

SITES        Vesone / Alise Ste Reine (Alesia)

CENTERS      Perigueux (Lacite)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 52

LEADERS      Vercassivellaunus (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Arverni

MAP REF      167 - A/C

REMARKS      By BC 6th century, the Petrocorii were settled

  along the Isle river in France with present-day Perigueux

  (Lacite) as a center.  They had in their territory a sacred

  spring called Vesone.  In BC 52 the Petrocorii fought under

  the Arverni commander Vercassivellaunus during the battle

  of Alesia.

 

 

NAME         Pictones

ALTERNATIVE  Pictoni / Pictavi

CULTURE      Pictish / Gallic

COUNTRY      France

REGION       Poitou

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Loire / Bay of Biscay / Vienne

SITES        La Caillère (Calydon)

CENTERS      Poitiers (Lemonum)

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 15th-13th c / BC 56 / BC 52 / BC 51-50

LEADERS      Vercingetorix (war leader) / Duratios

SEE ALSO     Arverni

MAP REF      168 - C

REMARKS      The Pictones were Pictish Celts who had

  established themselves between the Loire and the Bay of

  Biscay with a fortress at Lemonum (Poitiers) sometime

  around BC 15th-13th century.

       Wilkens places the ancient city of Calydon in the

  region of Aetolia at La Caillère, west of Poitiers.  This

  suggests that the Pictones (Aetolians) were the suppliers

  of ships for the Achaean force during the Trojan War.  The

  legendary Hunt of the Caledonian Boar may also have taken

  place in this vicinity.

       The Pictones had an uncertain relation with the

  Romans.  In BC 56 Caesar ordered the Pictones to supply

  ships to the Romans.  In BC 52 during Vercingetorix's

  attempt to repel the invading Romans, the Pictones were one

  of the first tribes to join with the Arverni tribe.  They

  also supplied 8,000 warriors to attack the rear of Caesar's

  siege force at Alesia.  In BC 51-50, under a chieftain

  named Duratios, the Pictones sided with the Romans.

 

 

NAME         Pleumoxii

CULTURE      Belgae

AFFILIATION  client of the Nervii

COUNTRY      Netherlands / Belgium

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 54

LEADERS      Ambiorix (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Nervii

MAP REF      169 - (C) unknown location

REMARKS      The Pleumoxii were a client tribe of the Nervii

  and in BC 54 they fought under Ambiorix against the Romans.

 

 

NAME         Ptianii

CULTURE      Aquitani

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aquitanica

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 56

SEE ALSO     Sontiati

MAP REF      170 - (C) unknown location

REMARKS      After the defeat of the Sontiati in BC 56, the

  Ptianii contributed warriors to fight the invading Romans.

 

 

NAME         Raurici

CULTURE      Late Hallstatt / Gallic

COUNTRY      Germany / Switzerland / France

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Ruhr / Rhine / Doubs / Vosges / Hercynian Forest

SITES        Alise Ste Reine (Alesia)

CENTERS      near Basle

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 3rd c / BC 58 / BC 52

SEE ALSO     Helvetii / Santoni

MAP REF      171 - A/C

REMARKS      The original homeland of the Raurici tribe was

  on the Ruhr river in Germany, a tributary of the Rhine.  By

  BC 3rd century, they had moved up the Rhine and settled by

  the Doubs river in the southern Vosges Mountains, with a

  center near present-day Basle in Switzerland.

       The territory of the Raurici was bordered by the

  Hercynian Forest, and because of overcrowding and constant

  harassment by the tribes of Germani on the other side of

  the Rhine, the Raurici decided to migrate with their

  neighbors the Helvetii to a promised land in the territory

  of the Santoni in BC 58.  There were 23,000 people of the

  Raurici tribe in the great migration that was set upon by

  the Romans under Caesar.  The few that survived the

  slaughter were sent home to their territory, where they had

  burnt their homes in anticipation of never returning.

       In BC 52 during the siege of Alesia, the Raurici

  supplied 12,000 warriors to attack the rear of Caesar's

  forces.

 

 

NAME         Redones

ALTERNATIVE  Redonnes

CULTURE      Aremorican

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aremorica

LANDMARKS    Vilaine / Ille / Channel Islands

SITES        Alise Ste Reine (Alesia)

CENTERS      Rennes

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 57 / BC 56 / BC 52

DEITIES      Mullo

LEADERS      Vercingetoris (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Veneti

MAP REF      172 - C

REMARKS      The Redones had their center at the site of

  present-day Rennes on the confluence of the Vilaine and

  Ille rivers.  They minted coins which have been found at

  sites on the Channel Islands.

       The Redones were invaded by the Romans in BC 57, and

  fought them again in BC 56 when the Romans invaded the

  Veneti territory.  They contributed warriors to attack the

  rear of Caesar's siege army at Alesia in BC 52.

 

 

NAME         Regni

CULTURE      Pictish / La Tene A / Briton

COUNTRY      England

REGION       Sussex

TERRITORY    Lloegr

LANDMARKS    Channel

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / AD 1st c

SEE ALSO     Atrebates / Cantii / Iceni / Regni / Trinovantes

MAP REF      173 - B

REMARKS      The Regni tribe was made up of Pictish warriors

  who invaded England (Lloegr) in BC 6th century.  Being

  agriculturalists, they settled along the south coast in

  Sussex.

       In BC 3rd-2nd century, the Regni lost territory to the

  incoming Belgae tribes.  After the Romans conquered England

  in AD 1st century, the Atrebates, Cantii, Iceni, Regni and

  Trinovantes were grouped together in a province.

 

 

NAME         Remi

EPITHET      The First

ALTERNATIVE  Rhemi

CULTURE      La Tène A / La Tène II / Belgae

AFFILIATION  Catuvellauni (clan) / Carnuti and Suessiones

             (clients)

COUNTRY      Germany / Belgium / France

REGION       Haute-Marne

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

LANDMARKS    Aisne / Marne / Oise

CENTERS      Bibrax / Reims

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 57 / BC 51-50

DEITIES      Camulos / Tricephalus

LEADERS      Vertiscos

SEE ALSO     Bellovaci / Caleti / Carnuti / Catuvellauni /

             Lingones / Meldi / Suessiones / Veliocasses

MAP REF      174 - C

REMARKS      In the BC 6th century, the Brythonic-speaking

  Remi tribe travelled across the Rhine along with the

  Caleti, Catuvellauni, Meldi, Suessiones and Veliocasses,

  bringing the La Tène A culture into Gaul.  The Remi

  intermingled with the Hallstatt people who had occupied the

  area.  Their territory was centered on the Aisne, between

  the Marne and the Oise rivers, with oppida at Bibrax and

  Durocortorum (modern-day Reims).

       In BC 57, the Remi became Roman lackeys when they

  supplied information on the strength of the other Belgae

  tribes.  The other Belgae tribes, under the leadership of

  Galba of the Suessiones, attacked the Remi because of their

  traitorous acts.  When Caesar sent Roman archers and

  slingers to help the Remi, the Belgae tribes laid waste to

  the countryside around the fortress.

       The Remi and the Lingones were the only two Belgae

  tribes which did not send help to Vercingetorix.  Caesar

  kept two legions in the territory of the Remi to protect

  them from the Bellovaci.  In the winter of BC 51-50, the

  Remi reported to Caesar that the Bellovaci were going to

  attack the Suessiones who were a client tribe of theirs.

  In the battle that ensued, the Remi and the Suessiones

  supplied horse warriors to help the Romans.  The Remi lost

  their chieftain Vertiscos and a large number of horse

  warriors to a Bellovaci ambush.

 

 

NAME         Rhacatae

CULTURE      Late Hallstatt

AFFILIATION  clan of the Volcae

COUNTRY      Austria / Czech / Slovakia

TERRITORY    Noricum

LANDMARKS    Danube / Theiss

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 1st c

SEE ALSO     Carpi / Volcae

MAP REF      175 - A

REMARKS      The tribal territory of the Rhacatae was on the

  Danube in Austria.  They were a clan of the Volcae who left

  their Bohemian homeland and by BC 1st century were settled

  around the Danube and the Theiss (Tisza) rivers by the

  Carpi, another Volcae clan.

 

 

NAME         Rhaeti

ALTERNATIVE  Raeti

CULTURE      Etruscan / Ligurian

AFFILIATION  Camuni (client)

COUNTRY      Italy / Switzerland / Austria / Germany

TERRITORY    Rhaetia

LANDMARKS    Po / Euganean Hills / Alps / Ticino / Addua /

             Inn / Brenta / Adige

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 4th c / BC 15

LEADERS      Raetus

SEE ALSO     Camuni / Euganean

MAP REF      176 - C/A

REMARKS      In BC 4th century, the invading Gauls pushed the

  Etruscans out of the Po Valley.  An Etruscan chieftain

  named Raetus led a group of the defeated people into the

  hills of the Euganean overlooking Verona.  The people

  became knowns as the Rhaetians and as they spread into the

  Alps they mixed with the Euganeans who were Ligurians.

       The Rhaeti and the Euganeans were involved in the

  mining and trading of iron ore which was abundant in their

  territory.  Their area also included the headwaters of

  important rivers as well as many goddesses of hot springs.

  The Romans invaded their territory around BC 15 and

  subjected the people, taking control of their mines.

 

 

NAME         Ruteni

EPITHET      Fair Haired

ALTERNATIVE  Rutheni

CULTURE      Goidel / Gallic

COUNTRY      France

REGION       Aveyron

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Garonne / Lot / Aveyron / Tarn / Cevennes

SITES        Alise Ste Reine (Alesia)

CENTERS      Rodez (Segodunum)

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 9th c / BC 52

SEE ALSO     Cadurci / Nitiobriges / Volcae Arcomici

MAP REF      177 - A/C

REMARKS      The Ruteni were a tribe of Bronze Age tumulus

  builders who settled in Gaul in BC 9th century along with

  the Nitiobriges.  They settled around the Garonne, Lot,

  Aveyron and Tarn rivers near the Cevennes Mountains with a

  center at Segodunum (Rodez).

       During the siege of Alesia in BC 52, horse warriors of

  the Ruteni and Cadurci tribes laid waste to the crops of

  the Volcae Arcomici to prevent them from supplying the

  Romans with food.  They also supplied 12,000 warriors to

  attack the rear of Caesar's army.

 

 

NAME         Saefes

ALTERNATIVE  Sefes

CULTURE      Early Hallstatt

COUNTRY      Czech / Germany / Portugal / Spain

REGION       Bohemia / Bavaria

TERRITORY    Ophiussa

LANDMARKS    Bay of Biscay / Ebro / Douro / Atlantic / Tagus

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 500

SEE ALSO     Cempsi / Osismii

MAP REF      178 - A/D

REMARKS      The Saefes tribe were part of the Early

  Hallstatt expansion in BC 6th century who migrated from

  Czech-Germany through Gaul over the Pyrenees and into Spain

  and Portugal.

       The Saefes travelled with the Cempsi tribe and some of

  their members settled along the Bay of Biscay and the

  headwaters of the Ebro, but by BC 500 the majority of the

  tribe was settled along the Douro from Numantia (Numancia)

  to the Atlantic amongst the other Hallstatt tribes, and

  south along the coast to the Tagus, where they shared a

  border with the Cempsi.

       The Saefes preferred steep mountain regions.  Their

  territory was called after the Serpent and had been notated

  by the Greeks as Ophiussa.  It was mentioned in the

  Phoenician text of BC 6th century, related by Avieno, that

  the Saefes expelled the earlier population who were called

  the Osismii.

 

 

NAME         Salluvii

ALTERNATIVE  Saluvii / Salassi / Salyens

CULTURE      Hallstatt / Ligurian / Celto-Ligurian / Gallic

AFFILIATION  client of Salyes / Libici and Laevi (clans)

COUNTRY      France / Italy

REGION       Aix-en-Provence

TERRITORY    Gaul / Cisalpine Gaul

LANDMARKS    Rhône / Dora Baltea

SITES        Entremont

CENTERS      near Marseilles / Ivrea (Eporedia)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 4th c

DEITIES      Glanis / Olloudios / Griselicae

SEE ALSO     Laevi / Libici / Salyes

MAP REF      179 - C

REMARKS      The Salluvii tribe was a mixture of Ligurian and

  Early Hallstatt.  They became a client tribe of the Salyes

  and settled east of the Rhône with their capital near

  Massilia (Marseilles) and their religious center at

  Entremont.

       In BC 4th century warriors of the Salluvii and their

  clans the Laevi and the Libici migrated to northern Italy

  where they settled along the Dora Baltea river.  There they

  made their capital at Eporedia (Ivrea).

 

 

NAME         Salyes

CULTURE      Hallstatt / Ligurian / Celto-Ligurian / Gallic

AFFILIATION  Salluvii (client)

COUNTRY      France

REGION       Aix-en-Provence

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Rhône

SITES        Marseilles (Massilia)

CENTERS      Entremont

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 4th c / BC 2nd c

DEITIES      Glanis / Olloudios / Griselicae

LEADERS      Bituitus (war leader)

SEE ALSO     Allobroges / Arverni / Salluvii

MAP REF      180 - C

REMARKS      The Salyes tribe was developed from Ligurian

  natives and incoming Early Hallstatt.  By BC 4th century,

  they were settled east of the Rhône with their capital at

  Entremont.

       In BC 2nd century they attacked Massilia (Marseilles),

  which gave the Romans an excuse to invade southern Gaul.

  The Salyes chieftains sought help from the Allobroges who

  asked Bituitus, the chieftain of the Arverni, to raise an

  army.  The army was defeated by Rome.

 

 

NAME         Santoni

ALTERNATIVE  Santones

CULTURE      Pictish / Hallstatt

COUNTRY      Germany / France

REGION       Saintonge

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Main / Neckar / Bay of Biscay / Gironde / Isle /

             Charente / Vienne / Rhine

SITES        Alise Ste Reine (Alesia)

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 9th c / BC 1st c / BC 58 / BC 56 / BC 52

SEE ALSO     Helvetii / Veneti

MAP REF      181 - A/C

REMARKS      The homeland of the Santoni tribe was between

  the Main and Neckar rivers in Germany.  At the end of the

  Bronze Age around BC 9th century, some of the tribe

  migrated into Gaul where they held a large territory

  bordered by the Bay of Biscay and the Gironde, Isle and

  Vienne rivers.  By BC 1st century they had adopted the

  practice of electing a vergobrat (magistrate) to oversee

  the making of laws.

       In BC 58, the Santoni agreed to allow the Helvetii and

  their friends to settle in their territory, but because of

  Caesar's needless interference, thousands were slaughtered

  and the survivors were forced to return to the devastated

  homes they had left.

       In BC 56, the Santoni were ordered to supply ships to

  the Romans for their campaign against the Veneti but in BC

  52 they were able to supply 12,000 warriors to attack the

  rear of Caesar's siege force at Alesia.

 

 

NAME         Saxons

EPITHET      Swordsmen

CULTURE      Germani / Germano-Celtic

COUNTRY      Germany / England

REGION       Schleswig / Normandy / Brittany / Essex / East

             Sussex / West Sussex

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aremorica / Lloegr

LANDMARKS    North Sea / Cimbrian Peninsula / Loire

CENTERS      Bayeux

AGE          Iron (late)

DATES        AD 150 / AD 286 / AD 350 / AD 5th century

SEE ALSO     Angles / Jutes / Regni

MAP REF      182 - A/B/C

REMARKS      In AD 150, the Saxons inhabited Schleswig on the

  Cimbrian Peninsula and three islands off the coast.  By AD

  286 their chief occupation was pirating the North Sea and

  the Channel.  From AD 350 the Saxons controlled territory

  almost to the Rhine and by AD 5th century they had

  settlements in France at Bayeux, Normandy, and at the mouth

  of the Loire in Brittany.

       In AD 5th century, a Celtic chieftain named Vortigern

  invited the Angles, Saxons and Jutes to settle in southern

  England.  The Saxons were fisher/agriculturalists who

  preferred the costal regions so settled along the North Sea

  and the channel at Essex, East Sussex and West Sussex.

  Here they intermingled with the Regni tribe who were also

  farmers.

       The Saxons were a strong military force in the area

  but as they became Christians they fell under the influence

  of the Latin-speaking Celtic nobility.  The two groups of

  people eventually merged to become a Celto-Germani people

  with English evolving as their language.

       "The thoroughness of the Saxon conquest and settlement

  of Celtic Britain has been much exaggerated by the Teutonic

  school of English Historians.  The vast majority of the

  people of western England are descended from a Celtic-

  speaking ancestry."  -  Hon. Ruaraidh Erskine of Marr -Vol.

  3, pg 1888 of the N.U.E.

 

 

NAME         Scordisci

EPITHET      Of the Shar-Dagh

CULTURE      Gallic

COUNTRY      Yugoslavia

TERRITORY    Illyricum / Moesia / Macedonia

LANDMARKS    Danube / Shar-Dagh

SITES        Drena / Delphi

CENTERS      Belgrade (Singidunum)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 3rd c / BC 110 / AD 8

LEADERS      Bathanattos

SEE ALSO     Antariatae / Cimbri

MAP REF      183 - A

REMARKS      In BC 3rd century after the Gaulish attack on

  Delphi, a chieftain named Bathanattos led a portion of

  Brennus's army into the territory of the Antariatae and

  settled between the Danube river and Mons Scordus (Shar-

  Dagh or "Silver Mountain") on the borders of Moesia and

  Macedonia.  They called themselves the Scordisci after the