Chapter 1



DATES





BC 200,000 - The wild Aurochs (cow) was a chief form of food until the farming communities of the late Iron Age  destroyed its habitat.  The last wild animal died in a zoo in AD 1625.

BC 45,000 - The Neanderthal cave bear cult appeared.

BC 43,000 - Mutant humans born between the Caspian Sea and the Indian Ocean developed speech.  The variety of modern  humans evolved from their breeding with Neanderthals and other groups of early humans.

BC 40,000 - Paleolithic hunters at Moldova in southern Russia erected a circular tent within a ring of mammoth bones.

BC 33,000 - Paleolithic people in the area of present-day France carved lunar calendars into bones and stones.

BC 30,000 - A rough oval-shaped tent was erected within a ring of mammoth tusks in the Yonne Valley of France.

BC 30,000 - Highly sophisticated drawings and paintings of animals were made on the walls of the Chauvet cave of the Ardèche region in southern France.

BC 18,000 - The Côa valley in Portugal was home to Paleolithic artists.

BC 15,000 – Cave Paintings from the Dusheh cave in Iran, depict humans riding horses.

BC 15,000 - Paleolithic artists decorated Escoura Cave near Evora in southern Portugal.

BC 15,000 - Javelin throwers became popular in Europe because hunters could throw light javelins much farther than heavy spears.

BC 12,000-10,000 - A strong fishing culture began to develop around Denmark. The sea level rose from 360 ft (110 m) below present levels to 130 ft (40 m) below present level.

BC 10,000 - Wild dogs were being domesticated by Paleolithic hunters.

BC 10,000 - The bow and arrow began to replace the javelin thrower because of its greater range and accuracy.

BC 10,000 - Climatic changes and hunting caused the extinction of the cave bear and the Irish elk.

BC 9000 - The Neolithic or New Stone Age culture began to evolve in the Middle East.

BC 9000-5000 - The Libyan culture began to evolve from the Capsian culture as they moved northwards in North Africa.

BC 8850 - Proto-Neolithic gazelle hunters of Palestine lived in oval or circular huts approximately 25 ft (8 m) in diameter. The walls, which started below ground level, were plastered and painted.

BC 8700 - Proto-Neolithic herders in Afghanistan, Iran and Iraq began to domesticate goats and sheep.

BC 8600 - The proto-Neolithic gardeners of Jericho, Palestine built an urban community of mud-brick dwellings for their 2000 inhabitants, surrounded by walls to protect them from the local herders.  Defensive towers were added later.

BC 8300 - The Ice Age came to an end in Europe and the glaciers began to retreat.  The ocean level was 250 ft (75 m) below present level.

BC 8000 - Linen was being woven in present-day Iraq.

BC 8000 - The mean temperature of Scotland increased by 2ºC (4º F).

BC 7500 - There were approximately 10,000 humans living on the island of Britain.

BC 7000 - A proto-Neolithic settlement of wooden dwellings was built at Mountsandel in Ireland.

BC 7000 - A proto-Neolithic settlement was constructed at Hacilar in Turkey.  The buildings were made with sun-dried mud bricks, and the inner walls and floor were plastered, painted and burnished.

BC 7000 - A 25 ft (7.5 m) circular dwelling was constructed at Grampian, Scotland by Neolithic hunters.

BC 6800 - The oldest known true Neolithic farming community was settled at Catalhuyuk, Turkey with a population of 5000. The walls of their homes were made of adobe brick and the insides were covered in paintings similar to Paleolithic cave art.

BC 6500 - Ceramic ware was developed for everyday use by artisans of the eastern Mediterranean region.

BC 6000 - The chicken was domesticated in China, allowing the daily collecting of eggs.

BC 6000 - The Copper Age of Iraq began in the valleys of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers.

BC 6000 - Neolithic farmers from Turkey spread to the lower Balkans.

BC 6000 - Neolithic farmers settled in Scotland where the temperature was warm and the soil was fertile.

BC 6000 - Neolithic artisans of Mersin and Hacilar in Turkey began to decorate their pottery with paint.

BC 6th millenium - The world began to experience long hot summers and short mild winters.  The meltwater from the retreating glaciers eventually brought the sea level up to 65 ft (20 m) below present level.  Large areas of land were flooded while others sank without a trace.  When the weight of the glaciers was reduced, the land experienced rebound effects, causing earthquakes.

BC 5500 - A large tract of land in southwestern Wales called the Cantrer Gwaelod oak forest sank beneath the sea.

BC 5500 - Artisans in parts of Bulgaria, Romania, and Yugoslavia entered a Chalcolithic Age by cold-hammering surface copper into shapes.

BC 5000 - The artisans of Catal Huyuk in Turkey used iron-ore pigment to enhance the color of their pottery.

BC 5000 - European skeletons found in a mound near present-day Boston, Massachusetts were amino acid dated to this time.

BC 5th millenium - Neolithic farmers from Turkey established themselves in the Danube valley where they developed the Danubian slash-and-burn farming method.

BC 5th millenium - Neolithic people in Bulgaria were working gold.

BC 5th-2nd millenium - People of the Megalithic culture built giant stone structures as they developed the science of applied geometry.

BC 4500 - The Megalithic stone circles of Long Meg and her daughters were built in the Eden Valley in Cumbria, England.

BC 4500 - The Megalithic site of Carnac, Brittany was constructed using Pythagorean right-angle triangle calculations.

BC 4500 - Neolithic herders of the Ukraine steppes were taming wild horses.

BC 4500 - Megalithic burial sites were constructed in the Upper Alentejo region of Portugal.

BC 4500 - A stone building was constructed off the coast of France on the island of Guernsey.

BC 4500 - The Danubian culture was established across northern Europe from western Ukraine to northern France.

BC 4400 - Neolithic dairy herders from present-day Iraq migrated into Europe and North Africa.

BC 4241 - A solar calendar was constructed in Egypt.

BC 4100 - Beer-drinking was popular in the Neolithic communities of Iraq.

BC 4000 - Iraq experienced a great flood which may have given rise to the Deluge of the Gilgamesh Epic of Babylonian literature.

BC 4000 - The presence of domesticated grapes in Iraq suggests that the inhabitants may have been enjoyin drinking wine.

BC 4000 - The Sumerians of southern Iraq invented the ox-pulled plow.

BC 4000 - Artisans of Iraq developed the potter's wheel and bred woolly sheep.

BC 4000 - A cast bronze rod in Syria was made with a content of 89.9% copper and 9.1% tin, similar to modern-day bronze.

BC 4000 - The impressive Maes Howe megalithic chamber was built on Orkney Island for the communal burial of its settlers.

BC 4th millenium - Cave tombs with skylit chambers were being constructed at Grutas de Alapraia near Cascais in Portugal.

BC 4th millenium - People in southern Portugal were using animal-drawn wheeled vehicles.

BC 4th millenium - The Ertebolle-Ellerbek culture was born in northern Europe when the indigenous Neolithic hunter-fishers mixed with the incoming Danubian farmers.

BC 3800 - Neolithic cattle herders built their dwellings on an extinct volcano in Wales.

BC 3700 - The cairn was constructed at Carrowmore Megalithic Cemetery in Ireland.

BC 3600 - Sumerian scholars of Iraq invented a script and the decimal system.  At the same time, bureaucrats developed the concept of taxation.

BC 3600 - Flint was being mined at Cissbury Ring in Sussex, England.

BC 3600 - Neolithic farmers were living on Orkney Island at Knap of Howar.

BC 3500 - A hillfort with hut circles was in use at Knockadoon in Lough Gur, Ireland, south of Limerick.

BC 3500 - The megalithic construction of Windmill Hill in England was initiated.

BC 3500 - Artisans of the Sumerian culture in Iraq discovered the concept of the solid wheel.

BC 3500 - People of the Harappan culture constructed two cities of mud-dried bricks at Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa in the Indus Valley of Pakistan.

BC 3500 - Harps of wood were being constructed in the city of Ur in Iraq.

BC 3500 - Neolithic farmers of the Danubian culture established themselves in Wales.

BC 3500-2300 - The semi-nomadic Chalcolithic herders of the Kurgan culture migrated from the Ukraine-Russian steppes through the Balkans to northern France, Britain, Ireland and southern Scandinavia.  The Kurgans spread the use of Aryan language, Vedic religion, domesticated horses and wheeled vehicles.  This cultural migration laid the foundations of the powerful Celtic and Germanic cultures that were to follow.

BC 3400 - The Neolithic Bell Beaker People were settled in Aremorica.

BC 3400 - People of the Megalithic culture constructed the Poulnabrone portal dolmen at Galway in Ireland.

BC 3300 - Construction began on the megalithic Avebury henge in Wiltshire, England with the placement of 100 sarsen stones.

BC 3300 - The Megalithic culture began construction on New Grange in Ireland.

BC 3200 - Neolithic Bell Beaker people were already established in present-day Netherlands.

BC 3200 - Upper and Lower Egypt were emerging as independent entities, and hieroglyphic writing and papyrus were being developed.

BC 3100-2800 - The Bell Beaker People began construction on Stonehenge in England.

BC 3000 - A composite bow made from antlers, leather and sinew appeared in the Lena valley of Siberia.

BC 3000 - The Sumerian culture of Iraq began its Bronze Age.

BC 3000 - The first dynasty of Egypt was established by Sumerians from Iraq.

BC 3000 - Yamnaya Horse warriors crossed the Caucasus and went through the Balkan Peninsula into Europe.  They brought knowledge of bronze, horses, solid wheels, the Aryan language and the Vedic religion.

BC 3000 - Scholars in Iraq developed written records, and merchants sold goods from a widespread foreign trade.

BC 3000 - The wild burrow was being domesticated in the Nile Valley, allowing traders to pack more goods overland.

BC 3000 - Neolithic Ligurian lake dwellers were living in established settlements on piles in Bodensee, Switzerland.

BC 3000 - The mild winters of the Plessur valley of Switzerland made it a popular place to settle.

BC 3000 - The crab-apple was being cultivated in Switzerland and Britain.

BC 3000 - The Carreg Sampson dolmen was constructed near Abercastle, Wales.

BC 3000 - The Neolithic settlement of Skara Brae in Scotland was inhabited.

BC 3000 - The Giant's Ring dolmen was constructed south of Belfast in Northern Ireland.

BC 3000-2200 - The Copper Age of western Europe began when the Almerians from one of the eastern Mediterranean cultures set up industrial towns at Los Millares (Spain) and Vila Nova de São Pedro (Portugal).

BC 3000-2000 - Musicans of the Megalith culture in Scotland were playing on reed pipes similar to those used in Egypt.

BC 3rd millenium - The megalithic stone circle called Castle Rigg was constructed in England.

BC 3rd millenium - The village of Prasklice in the Czech republic was occupied by people of the Unetice Culture.

BC 3rd millenium - The proto-Belgae culture began to develop from the local Neolithic and the incoming Nordic stock.

BC 3rd millenium - The Chalcolithic fortified sites of Castro do Zambujal and Cerro do Castelo de Santa Justa of Portugal were established by the Almerians.

BC 3rd millenium - The Dacian-Getae culture was born on the Balkan Peninsula out of the Neolithic community and the nomadic Kurgan culture from Ukraine-Russia.

BC 2900 - The first ziggurat was built at ancient Ur in Iraq.

BC 2900 - The stepped pyramid of Egypt was under construction.

BC 2900 - Massive flooding occurred in the Mediterranean as the result of a rising sea level caused by a warming climate. The ocean level was 16 ft (5 m) above the present level, its highest level.

BC 2800 - The Sumerian musicians from the city of Ur in present-day Iraq were playing on reed pipes and lyres.  Verses of the songs were notated in cuneiform script. Musicians were sometimes sacrificed with their instruments in the tombs of their chieftains.

BC 2800 - The Bronze Age was evolving in the Aegean area of Turkey.

BC 2700 - A Megalithic burial chamber on Mainland, Orkney was built to align with the sun at winter solstice.

BC 2600 - Stonehenge was expanded and refined to aid astronomical observations.

BC 2500 - Bronze Age people were living in the Wemyss (caves) near Dysart in Fife, Scotland.

BC 2500 - The drying climate was causing the Sahara region of north Africa to evolve into a desert.

BC 2500 - An impressive round cairn was constructed at Camster in the Caithness region of Scotland.

BC 2500 - A megalithic passage grave with a beehive chamber and alignment to summer solstice was constructed at Carrowkeel, Ireland.

BC 2500 - A clochan (beehive hut) complex was constructed in Boussargues, southern France.

BC 2500 - Mummification was being practiced as a burial ritual in Egypt.

BC 2400 - The Bronze Age Akkadian Empire under Sargon acquired control of north and south Iraq.  A shortage of tin forced them to acquire the precious metal from Cornwall and other sites west of the Mediterranean.

BC 2400 - A temple to the sun god Ra was under construction at Abu Ghurab in Egypt.

BC 2400 - The Akkadian army developed the phalanx formation and initiated the use of the chariot in battle.

BC 2300 - Horse warriors of the Aryan-speaking Yamnaya culture used their fast-moving spoke-wheeled chariots to conquer eastern Turkey and Syria, developing the Hittite empire.

BC 2300 - The Bell Beaker culture of Portugal spread the Copper Age from Portugal to Spain, Algeria, Sicily, Sardinia, France, Germany, Czech, Denmark and Ireland.

BC 2300 - The Battle Axe culture which had evolved in northern Europe had already migrated into the Aremorica region of France.

BC 2300 - The megalithic site of Stonehenge was altered again.

BC 2200 - A disintergrating climate caused movement among northern Semites in the Persian Gulf.  Some resettled along the Mediterranean coast of Syria and Lebanon, where they became known as the Phoenicians, famous for their extensive sea trade with foreign cultures.

BC 2200 - A Bronze Age site was established at Unetice in Czech, marking the beginning of the Bronze Age in continental Europe with the Unetice culture.

BC 2200 - The megalithic passage grave called the Mound of the Hostages was built at Tara in county Meath in Ireland.

BC 2200 - A large wooden palisade was constructed at Mount Pleasant in Dorset, England.  Its gate-posts were made from trees that were 5 ft (1.5 m) in diameter.

BC 2145 - Construction began on Silbury Hill in Wiltshire, England.

BC 2100 - Warriors of the Yamnaya culture in Turkey developed the chariot blitzkrieg as a form of warfare.

BC 2100 - The Torc Bearer culture was established in Ugarit, Syria and Byblos, Lebanon.

BC 21st century - Probable time of the "Noah's Flood" of Judaeo-Christian mythology.

BC 21st century - The Amazon chieftain Cessair fled from the eastern shore of the Mediterranean and landed in Ireland with 50 female warriors and 3 males.

BC 21st century - Gomer, son of Iafeth, led Goidel warriors from the Black Sea across Europe the north Sea.

BC 2091-1580 - The Hyksos, using archers and chariots, invaded the Nile delta, made Avaris their capital and ruled Egypt for 500.

BC 2000 - The proto-Illyrian culture began to develop from a fusion of the Danubian and the Yamnaya cultures on the Balkan Peninsula.

BC 2000 - The Urnfield culture was evolving in the area of Hungary-Romania.

BC 2000 - Warriors of the newly-developing Goidel culture settled around the Firth of Forth in Scotland, York in northern England and Wiltshire in southern England.

BC 2000 - The zigguarat called the "Tower of Babel" (Gates of God) was built at Birs Nimrud at Borsippa old Babylon on the Euphrates river.

BC 2000 - Special beaker mugs for drinking mead were being made in Britain.

BC 2000 - Alpine lake villages in Switzerland of the Ligurian culture were cultivating grains, growing flax for linen, raising domesticated animals and using stone tools.

BC 2000 - A settlement at Jarlshof on the Shetland Islands in Scotland had use of bronze tools.

BC 2000 - The legendary King Minos built his residence at Knossos in Crete.

BC 2000 - The Thorhouse Stone Circle megalith was built in Dumfries, Scotland.

BC 2000 - The domesticated chicken was common in the Indus Valley.

BC 2000 - The Harappan civilization of the Indian subcontinent began to decline because of worsening climatic conditions, the spread of malaria and the appearance of Yamnaya chariot warriors.

BC 2000-1800 - Assyrian merchants in Kanesh, Turkey placed their clay documents inside sealed clay envelopes with a summary of the contents written on the outside.

BC 2nd millenium - The Ligurians had settled as far north as Bohemia, west to the coast of France and south to the Mediterranean from Italy to southern Spain and Portugal.

BC 2nd millenium - The industrial town of El Argar in southern Spain, already known for its gold and silver, came under the influence of the Ligurians and a bronze industry known as the Argaric culture began.

BC 2nd millenium - Most of Europe passed from the Neolithic Age to the use of copper and bronze.

BC 20th century - The Goidel druid Nel was invited to Egypt and there Gaedhal Glas was born.

BC 1900 - The Babylonian empire emerged in present-day Iraq between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers.

BC 1900 - The emerging Assyria was a dependent of Babylon.

BC 1900 - The Mycenaeans were trading gold, silver and bronze products, glass faience beads and amber between the North, Baltic and Aegean seas.

BC 19th century - Partholon and his followers landed and  settled in Ireland.

BC 19th century - The Bell Beaker people were adding 10% tin to their copper.

BC 19th century - Nemhedh and his followers arrived in Ireland.

BC 1850 - The Assyrian Empire extended its influence to the Mediterranean coast of Syria.

BC 1850 - Britain joined the Bronze Age.

BC 1800 - Earthquakes in Asia Minor and Europe were the cause of considerable movement of cultures.

BC 1800 - The Torc Bearers entered Europe from Syria and Lebanon, bringing their knowledge of the smelting and working of copper and influencing the Unetice culture of Czech.

BC 1800 - Tribal people of the Sinai peninsula in Egypt developed an alphabet.

BC 1800 - Hattusha (Boghaz Keui) on the Anatolian plateau in Turkey was made the capital of the Hittite empire (Anatolian civilization) and iron began to be used.

BC 1800 - The first Suez Canal was cut to link the Mediterranean and the Red Sea by connecting a series of lakes.

BC 1800 - Bell Beaker People settled on the Isle of Man.

BC 1800 - A rare iron leaf-shaped spearhead was possessed by the builders of the Egyptian pyramids.

BC 1800-1600 - A type of all-wood plow was being used in Hvorslev, Denmark.

BC 1800-1200 - Highland cattle herder-warriors of the Unetice-Tumulus cultures began to appear in western Europe, Britain and Ireland carrying bronze weapons.

BC 18th century - The Hittites conquered Syria.

BC 1757 - A Syrian royal residence of 260 rooms covering 34 acres (14 hectares) was destroyed by the Babylonians.

BC 1700 - The Nordic Bronze Age people developed a textile-for-copper trade with the Stone Age Amerindians of North America. During this millenium, 500 million (metric) pounds of copper were mined and disappeared from the Lake Superior area of North America.

BC 17th century - Warriors of the Firbolg culture arrived in Ireland.

BC 1600 - Chariot warriors of the Yamnaya culture carrying iron weapons crossed the Pamirs and conquered the Indus Valley in Pakistan.  They brought with them many of the hymms that made up the Rig-Veda.

BC 1600-1500 - The Wessex culture was involved in the reconstruction of Stonehenge.

BC 1600-1100 - The Mycenaean culture dominated the southern and eastern part of present-day Greece.

BC 16th century - Brath, son of Death, led Goidel warriors from the Crimean Peninsula overland to Spain where they captured land in Galicia.

BC 16th century - Golamh, son of Bile, led Goidel warriors from the Crimean to Egypt then to Thrace.  They then travelled overland to Germany and south to Galicia in Spain.

BC 16th century - The Danann began to arrived in Ireland, coming from the north of the world.

BC 1580-1546 - Pharaoh Aahmes (Ahmose/Amasis) founded the 18th dynasty of Egypt and drove out the Hyksos.

BC 1560 - A megalithic calendar ring was built on Mainland Island, Orkney, in Scotland using 60 standing stones placed 6 degrees apart.

BC 1500 - The chicken was domesticated in the Middle East.

BC 1500 - Volcanoes and earthquakes were causing tidal waves and hurricanes, affecting European tribal movements.

BC 1500 - A circular hillfort was built on Greenan Mountain in Donegal, Ireland.

BC 1500 - The city of Babylon in Iraq began to use iron building clamps to bind its stone walls together.

BC 1500 - The Hittites took advantage of the rich iron ore deposits of Anatolia and began mass-producing iron weapons.  The process of working iron was a highly-guarded secret.

BC 1500 - The tumulus became the popular method of burial in Europe.

BC 1500-1200 - The Yamnaya Vedic scholars of the Indus Valley invented the concept of zero.

BC 15th century - The Syrians included chickens in their tribute to the Egyptian Pharaoh Tuthmosis III.

BC 15th century - Brochs with chambers and stairwells within the walls were being constructed on the island of Sardinia.

BC 15th century - People at Wandlebury Ring (Troy) near Cambridge, England were using glass objects imported from the eastern Mediterranean.

BC 15th century - The Gaelic-speaking Goidel (Milesian) invaded Ireland from Spain and defeated the Danann at the battle of Taillcenn.

BC 15th century - Warriors of the Pictish culture sailed from Thrace to Wexford Bay in Ireland.

BC 15th century - The Pictish chieftain Cruithnechan led his followers from Ireland to Scotland.

BC 15th-12th century - Warriors of the Tumulus-Urnfield cultures raided into the Near East and were sometimes referred to as the Sea People by the Egyptians.

BC 15th-13th century - Warriors of the Tumulus-Urnfield cultures travelled from Turkey across Europe where they settled mainly in Germany, Switzerland and France.

BC 1470 - The Mycenaean island of Thera (Santorini) blew up in a volcanic explosion that caused massive tidal waves in the Aegean.  Ash from the eruption has been found as far away as Greenland.

BC 1450 - The Mycenaeans captured Crete and destroyed the royal residences of Knossos.

BC 1400 - The Assyrian city of Ashshur (Kalat Sherghat) was built on the west bank of the Tigres river at the confluenc with the Zab in Iraq.  The site was an old frontier post of the Akkadian Empire.

BC 1400 - The Babylonians became subject to the more aggressive Assyrian Empire.

BC 1400 - Glass was being mass-produced in Iraq and Egypt.

BC 1400 - A phonetic alphabet developed by the Canaanites was widely used in the area of present-day Syria, Lebanon and Israel. The Phoenicians were using a cuneiform version of this alphabet.

BC 1400 - The bronze-producing industrial site of El Argar began to decline.

BC 1400-1000 - The middle Bronze Age in Britain was characterized by axes (palstaves), rapiers, leaf-shaped spearheads, settlements with palisades, crannogs, hill-forts, and "Celtic fields".

BC 14th century - A tomb of the Atridae was constructed at Mycenae.

BC 1318 - The second Suez canal was cut in the time of Seti I and was utilized until AD 770.

BC 1300 - The glaciers begin to expand, lowering the water levels in the oceans.  A shortage of rainfall caused lakes, springs and rivers to dry up.

BC 1300 - Summer heat waves began to reach catastrophic proportions, igniting forests which destroyed wildlife and burned human habitations.

BC 1300 - The Assyrians established a library in their capital city of Calah in present-day northern Iraq.  The books were clay tablets engraved with a cuneiform script of the Semitic language.

BC 1300-800 - The Bronze Age Urnfield culture influenced most of Europe with its burial practices.

BC 13th century - Hittite artisans executed a carving depicting bagpipes.

BC 13th century - Warriors of the Pictish culture established themselves in England.

BC 13th century - Earthquakes disrupted the settlements along the coast at the eastern end of the Mediterranean. Volcanic eruptions occurred as far apart as Iceland, Sicily and the Sinai, causing great tidal waves.

BC 13th century - The dramatic climatic change throughout the century brought cooler temperatures and severe droughts. The great rivers of Europe and North Africa began to shrink and the savannah of Libya became a desert.

BC 1250 - A section of present-day Schleswig-Holstein in northern Germany sank beneath the waves of the Baltic Sea.

BC 1250 - The Amazon chieftain Penthesileia died fighting the Achaeans during the Trojan war.

BC 1240 - The fall of Troy was a major event in the battle for control of the trade between the Baltic and the Mediterranean seas.

BC 1235 - The Hittites were invaded by the Sea People, bringing their collapsing empire to an end.  The center of iron production then shifted to the Balkan Peninsula.

BC 1235-1190 - Sea People attacked the Mycenaeans, Hittites, Phoenicians and Egyptians.  They were an iron-using people from Europe with a land army as well as sea power.

BC 1230 - The Phoenicians established Lixus in Morocco as a trading post.

BC 1225 - The Jewish tribes of Egypt were driven away when severe drought brought about crop failures to the Nile region.

BC 1215 - Ulysses visited present-day Lisbon where he had an affair with Calypso and sired a son called Abidis.

BC 1210 - Phoenicians established Cadiz (Gades) as a trading post in Spain.

BC 1200 - The destruction of the city of Mycenae on the island of Peloponnesus helped bring about the end of the Mycenaean culture.

BC 1200 - The climate of Scotland began to get wetter as the dry period came to an end.

BC 1200 - Bronze Age Celts had a center at present-day Stanwick near Southampton in England.

BC 1200 - Phoenicians were trading in the area of the Baltic Sea.

BC 1200 - The Bronze Age of Scandinavia was at its peak.

BC 1200 - The industrial center of El Argar in Spain was abandoned.

BC 12th century - The people of the Ilford Hill settlement in southern England were living in circular timber-framed houses.

BC 12th century - After the fall of Troy Dorians (Trojans) descended on the lower Balkans and conquered the Mycenaean.

BC 12th century - Sea People working for the Phoenicians settled in present-day Cyprus and the eastern Mediterranean, where they frequently engaged the Egyptians in battle.

BC 12th century - Bronze Age refugees from Troy were led to Italy by Aeneas where they settled around present-day Rome.

BC 12th century - Phoenicians from Tyre set up a trading post around modern-day Seville in Spain to search for tin, copper and silver, thus helping lay the foundations for the Tartessian culture.

BC 12th century - The Phoenicians arrived in North Africa where the Berbers were already established.

BC 1188-1165 - The Pharaoh Rameses III ruled Egypt and defeated the Sea People in four major battles.

BC 1131 - Brute (Brutus) and his followers of Trojan descendants sailed from Italy and landed in Cornwall, England.

BC 1100 - The Etruscan culture developed when warriors of the Tumulus-Urnfield cultures mixed with Villanovans (Urnfield) in the Po valley and Tuscany (Etruria).

BC 1100 - The Urnfield culture was a dominant influence throughout Europe, from Romania to Ireland and from the Baltic to the Mediterranean.

BC 1100 - The Phoenicians established Utica as a trading post in Tunisia.

BC 1100 - The Phoenicians established Lisbon (Alis Llppo) as a trading post in Portugal.

BC 1050-950 - The invasion of the Aramaean highland herders into Babylon brought the first Chaldeans to the area.

BC 1050-600 - The late Bronze Age arrived in Britain with the Urnfield people.  They used bronze swords, socketed axes and sickles and beaten bronze shields.  They settled mainly around the Thames Valley.

BC 1050-500 - The Germani culture practiced cremation and buried their dead in urnfields.

BC 1000 - A rock bridge called Tarr's Steps was constructed over the River Barle in Somerset, England.

BC 1000 - The Etruscan culture influenced the Hallstatt culture of Austria.

BC 1000 - Hallstatt Celts were settled at Novo Mesto, Slovenia.

BC 1000 - The Illyrians were mining salt at Gmunden, Austria.

BC 1000 - Iron weapons were produced at Kavousi, Crete.

BC 1000 - Bronze sickles and palstaves of the Urnfield culture were being made at Burgos in Spain.

BC 1000 - A Celtic chieftain was buried in a cairn at North Uist, Outer Hebrides, Scotland.

BC 1000 - Celtic seafarers reached New England in the United States.

BC 1000-650 - Celtic settlers of the Urnfield culture introduced the potter's wheel into Spain.

BC 1000-500 - Llyn Fawr near Rhigos in Wales was in use as a sacrificial site.

BC 1st millenium - European explorers were buried in North America at Holliston Mills, Tennessee.  Artifacts at Snapp's Bridge had ogham writing using Celtic and Basque words.

BC 10th century - Brahmanism evolved from the Vedic religion in modern-day Pakistan.

BC 10th century - Celts constructed a hillfort outside Viseu, Portugal with rectangular wooden houses.

BC 950-750 - A regional late Bronze Age industry called the Wilburton was established in southern England.

BC 927 - The druidic seminary of Mur Ollavan (center of the learned) was in existance by this time.

BC 900 - Celtic warriors captured the Illyrian silver mines at Oberzeiring in Austria.

BC 900 - Gaelic speakers arrived in Ireland from Britain.

BC 9th century - The Scythians were dislodged from their territory east of the Altai mountains by the Hsiung-nu and Massagetai peoples who were themselves retreating from a Chinese army.

BC 9th century - The island of Sardinia became a center for iron production.

BC 9th century - A Bronze Age farmstead was established on Mainland Island in the Orkneys, Scotland.

BC 9th-7th century - This was the Urnfield-Hallstatt period when many European cultures changed from bronze weapons to iron and adopted the chariot burial.

BC 850-600 - The Hallstatt culture of Czech and Germany had emerged from the Urnfield culture.  This was called the Early Hallstatt Iron Age in Europe.

BC 814 - The Phoenician Dido, daughter of the ruler of Tyre, founded Carthage.

BC 800 - The Phoenicians had already established trade with Britain and Ireland.  They called them the Cassiterides (Tin Isles).

BC 800 - The Phoenicians introduced iron weapons, tools and utensils to North Africa.

BC 800 - Ogham inscriptions found in New England suggest an Iberian origin.

BC 800 - The Ewart Park leaf sword appeared in Britain, most likely made by a local industry.

BC 800 - People of the Urnfield culture had learned how to produce a pure copper.

BC 800-600 - Celtic traders erected temples to Bel {Baal} in Connecticut, Vermont and New Hampshire in the United States.

BC 800-500 - Urnfield-Hallstatt Celts migrated into northern Spain and Portugal where they contributed to the Castro.

BC 8th century - The Scythians began to expand from their territory around the mouth of the Volga river on the Caspian Sea.

BC 8th century - Cimmerians were driven from their territory north of the Black Sea by the Scythians and migrated into Germany, Belgium, France, Switzerland, England and Wales.

BC 8th century - The Illyrian culture began to flourish around present-day Sarajevo.

BC 8th century - The Veneti had established a trade route between the Baltic Sea in the north and the Po river in Italy.

BC 8th century - The climate of Europe began to get colder and wetter, forcing changes in cereal crops.

BC 8th century - A strong trade route existed between Ireland, Wales and Scandinavia.

BC 8th century - The Celtic hillfort at Baiäes, Portugal became a major industrial center.

BC 8th century - The Basques intermingled with Alpine roundheads from the north.

BC 776 - The first Olympic Games were held in Olympia, Greece.

BC 753 - Latin-speaking farmers developed Rome as a city-state.

BC 750 - Homer was a wandering poet who translated the Celtic tales into Greek and notated them under the titles of the Iliad (Fall of Troy) and the Odyssey (Adventures of Odysseus).

BC 714 - The Brehon Law was codified in Ireland.

BC 700 - People at the Bronze Age industrial site at Fort Fiddes in Scotland were using beads from the Rhine region in Germany.

BC 700 - Celts were mining salt at Hallein, Austria.

BC 700 - About 3 million people were living in Britain.

BC 700 - The Etruscan culture was on the decline in Italy.

BC 7th century - Navan Fort (Emain Macha) in county Armagh, Northern Ireland was built by Macha, Ard Righ Eirinn.

BC 7th century - The Picts in Scotland were building timber-laced forts north of the Tay.

BC 7th century - The Thracians and Cimmerians joined together to fight the Scythians.

BC 7th century - Trade routes between Ireland, Britain and Aremorica in France were well-established.

BC 7th century - Hallstatt warriors introduced the iron leaf-swords into Britain.

BC 7th century - Hallstatt Celts captured much of the Ligurian territory in Italy.

BC 680 - Brythonic-speaking Celts of the Pictish culture invaded the province of Ulster in northern Ireland.

BC 654 - The Phoenicians established a trading post on the Spanish side of the Balearic island of Ibiza.

BC 612 - The Medes (Aryan) under Cyaxares, with help from his Babylonian allies, defeated the Assyrians when they captured Kuyunjik (Nineveh) in northern Iraq.

BC 610 - The Phoenicians circumnavigated the continent of Africa.

BC 600 - The Hallstatt Celt Arganthonios was the chieftain of the Tartessian territory that was famous for its silver mines.

BC 600 - The Greeks established Massalia (Marseilles) as a trading post.

BC 600 - Celts built a hillfort with ramparts and circular huts near Lockerbie, Scotland.

BC 600 - The Ligurians had completely left their territory in Switzerland.

BC 600 - 400 - This was the Late Hallstatt period of the European Iron Age.

BC 6th century - Brythonic-speaking Late Hallstatt Celts invaded Scotland and southern Portugal.

BC 6th century - The Scythians invaded the territory of the Hallstatt Celts and the Germani.

BC 6th century - The hilltop sanctuary of Roquepertuse was being used by the Salluvii and Salyes tribes of France.

BC 6th century - Celts in Moravia, Czech were using the Byci Skala caves for religious rites.

BC 6th century - Celtic artisans of northern Spain and Portugal were carving large sculptures of bulls, boars and bears out of stone.

BC 6th century - A Celtic grave at Greater Heuneburg in Germany contained a garment embroidered with Chinese silk.

BC 6th century - The Iberians entered Spain from North Africa.

BC 6th century - The Phoenician city-state of Tyre survived a 13-year siege by the Babylonians.

BC 6th century - Pictish warriors from Gaul began their invasion of England and Ireland.

BC 6th century - Carthaginians established colonies on the southern and eastern coasts of Spain.

BC 6th century - The Pharaoh Amasis of Egypt granted Celtic mercenaries the right to worship their god Bel {Baal} on an island in the mouth of the Nile.

BC 6th century - Travels by the Greek philosopher Pythagoras to Egypt and other countries with advanced cultures helped acquaint the Greeks with the ancient sciences of geometry and mathematics.

BC 550 - The Persians (Aryan) defeated their kindred Medians and founded the Persian Empire.

BC 550 - The Greeks established a trading post in Spain at Ampurias.

BC 550-400 - The La Tène A period was the intermediate period between the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures of Iron Age Europe.

BC 535 - The Carthaginians and their Etruscan allies won a naval battle at Alalia, Corsica against the Phocean Greeks and the Tartessians, fought to determine who would control the Mediterranean trade routes.

BC 500 - The Tartessian culture began to decline when its center near Seville (Tartessus) was destroyed by the Carthaginians.

BC 500 - The Greek adventurer Hecataeus wrote in awe of the Hyperborean (Celtic) megalithic sun temple of Stonehenge.

BC 5th century - The Carn Euny hillfort in Cornwall, England was settled and its inhabitants lived in timber-framed houses.

BC 5th century - Carthage began to develop colonies on the west coast of Africa, trading in slaves, gold and ivory.

BC 5th century - The Iberians settled in Spain and north to the Rhône in southern France, intermingling with Ligurian, Basque and Hallstatt cultures.

BC 5th century - The Amazons noted by Herodotus as being with the Scythians were possibly the famous female warriors of the Sarmatian culture.

BC 480 - The Persian army was using the fire arrow as a weapon of attack.

BC 474 - Celts defeated the Etruscans of northern Italy near the present-day city of Ticino.

BC 450 - The Persian-Greek writer Herodotus showed himself to be an observant man when he proclaimed that the Celts lived beyond the Pillars of Hercules (Strait of Gibraltar).

BC 450 - Around this time the Hallstatt sword was shortened and acquired a pointed tip.

BC 450 - Soldiers of the Persian army used iron fish-scale armor.

BC 436 - Thousands of starving people drowned in the Tiber river when the city-state of Rome experienced a great famine.

BC 404 - Athens, the capital city of the Hellenes, fell under the might of Sparta.

BC 400 - The culture of the Germani came increasingly under the influence of the Celts as they crossed the barrier of the Rhon Mountains and migrated south.

BC 400 - 285 - This was the La Tène I period of the European Iron Age.

BC 4th century - The Greeks, with overwhelming insight and in a fit of generosity, reckoned that the Celts along with the Scythians, Indians, and Ethiopians were the four peripheral nations of the known world.

BC 4th century - Chromite swords were manufactured in the eastern Mediterranean.  Chromium is a hard metal found in abundance around present-day Greece and when added to iron it produces a superior sword.

BC 4th century - Belgae tribes from around the Rhine and Main rivers were settling in western Gaul and had pushed their southern border to the Seine.

BC 4th century - The Greek geographer Pytheas sailed through the Pillars of Hercules to present-day Cornwall for tin, then on to the North Sea to collect amber from the Teutons.  He observed that the Celts had large herds of cattle.

BC 4th century - Brythonic-speaking Picts founded settlements in Ulster.

BC 4th century - Brythonic-speaking Celts moved eastward from the Danube valley.

BC 4th century - The Celtic chieftain Segovesus led a large force of male and female warriors from Gaul and settled between the Alps and Carpathian mountains, forming a Celtic territory called Noricum.

BC 4th century - The Celtic chieftain Bellovesus led a large force of male and female warriors from Gaul to settle in northern Italy after defeating the resident Etruscans.

BC 4th century - The Veneti of Italy intermingled with the invading La Tène I culture from Gaul.

BC 4th century - Elico, a Celtic blacksmith, guided Celtic warriors on three separate attacks on Rome.

BC 391 - Celtic warriors allied themselves with Rome to fight the Etruscans.  During the battle for Clusium (Chiusi), the Celts recognized Romans fighting alongside their enemy. The Celts demanded an explanation from Rome, and when they received none they withdrew their forces and marched on Rome.

BC 390 - On July 18, the Celts annihilated the Roman army near the river Allia.  After a terrifying year, the Roman senate finally admitted their treachery and paid 1000 pounds of gold as compensation.

BC 386 - The Celtic chieftain Catumandus abandoned his attack on the Greek trading post of Marseilles because of bad omens.

BC 379 - Dionysius the Elder (Tyrant of Syracuse) hired Celtic mercenaries to fight in Greece.

BC 370 - Labraid Loingsech led a troop of Galian mercenaries to conquer Dinn Rig, the center of the old province of Leinster in southern Ireland.

BC 369 - Celtic mercenaries fought in the Peloponnese.

BC 367 - Celtic warriors attacked Rome again.

BC 366 - Celtic mercenaries fought for Sparta against Athens.

BC 361 - 360 - Celtic warriors attacked Rome again.

BC 360 - Weapons called "Fire Pots" were becoming fashionable in naval warfare of the Mediterranean.  Clay pots were filled with a burning mixture of pine shavings, pitch, sulphur and resin, then were flung onto an enemy ship by catapults.

BC 352-347 - Philip II of Macedonia conquered Thracian territory and plundered the gold mines to support his territorial expansion in the Balkan Peninsula.

BC 350-349 - Celtic warriors attacked Rome again.

BC 350 - The Scythians invaded the Balkan Peninsula and mingled with the Thracians.

BC 350 - The Celtic sword of this time was short with a steel edge and an iron core.  The point was rounded and it was used for slashing only.

BC 349 - The Celts of Italy penetrated as far south as Apulia in Campania.

BC 345 - The inhabitants of the Phoenician city of Sidon committed mass suicide rather than face domination by the Persians.

BC 338 - The city-state of Rome took control of the Latin League of Cities.

BC 336 - Alexander became the high chieftain of the Macedonian tribes after the death of his father Philip II.  He immediately reminded the Greeks that they were his subjects.

BC 335 - The Celts on the Balkan Peninsula made a treaty with Alexander of Macedonia.

BC 334-323 - This was the time of Alexander of Macedonia's 11-year empire.

BC 332 - The Phoenician city of Tyre fell to Alexander of Macedonia after a heroic struggle, marking the end of the Phoenician sea power.

BC 330 - The great Amazonian chieftain Thalestris, with 300 fully-armored female warriors, rode into the camp of Alexander of Macedonia and proposed a sexual liaison.

BC 326 - Alexander of Macedonia expanded his empire to make the Indus valley the eastern boundary.

BC 325-323 - Pytheas of Massilia (Marseilles), a geographer and astronomer, used the name Pretanic Islands to refer to both present-day Ireland and Britain, the people being called the Pretani or Priteni.  In Irish literature the name Preteni is used.

BC 323 - Alexander of Macedonia died of dysentry in present-day Pakistan.

BC 310 - The Celtic chieftain Molistomos led a large body of warriors on a raid into Illyria (former Yugoslavia) and caused panic among the Antariatae tribe.

BC 307 - Agathocles (Tyrant of Syracuse) led Celtic mercenaries into North Africa to destroy his enemies and become king of all Sicily.

BC 300 - Celtic warriors plundered Macedonia.

BC 300 - Celtic warriors in Bohemia, Czech, sacrificed a large cauldron of iron jewelry to the Giant's Spring.

BC 300 - A Celtic settlement with good natural defences was established at Carn Ingli in Dyfed, Wales.

BC 3rd century - The Iberians formed an elite corp of the Carthaginian army to fight Rome.

BC 3rd century - The Belgae carried the La Tène II culture to England, Ireland, Italy, Illyria, Spain and Portugal.

BC 3rd century - The Celtic chieftain Bathanattos established Singidunum (Belgrade) in former Yugoslavia as the center for the Scordisci tribe.

BC 298 - The Celtic chieftain Cambaules fought his way into Thrace after the first band of Celts were beaten by the Macedonian leader Cassander on the slopes of Haemos.

BC 284-100 - This was the La Tène II period of the Iron Age in Europe.

BC 283 - The Celtic Senones tribe was defeated by the Romans in northern Italy.

BC 283 - An army of Boii invaded the Etruscans in Etruria but were themselves beaten by Romans at Lake Vadimo.

BC 280 - A Celtic chieftain named Camantori founded a territory in Thrace, making Tyle the center.

BC 279 - The Celtic chieftains Brennus and Acichorius led a large army to sack the Phocean Greek shrine at Delphi.

BC 279 - The Celtic chieftain Bolgios and his warriors defeated the Macedonians in a battle near Monastir.

BC 278 - Nicomedes, King of Bithynia, invited 20,000 Celtic and Illyrian warriors of mixed sex to work as his mercenaries in Turkey.  They eventually became the Galatians and settled in the area of present-day Ankara.

BC 277-276 - Celtic warriors fought for Ptolemy II in Egypt and then tried unsuccessfully to capture the country for themselves.

BC 263 - Celtic mercenaries rebelled against their Carthaginian employers while they were fighting in Sicily.

BC 262-241 - The first Punic War was fought between the Carthaginians and the Romans over control of Sicily. Carthage lost the war and her Spanish colonies.

BC 240 - The Parthians, of nomadic Scythian origins, became known as breeders of large strong horses.  They exported them along with alfalfa seeds for forage.

BC 225 - A large body of warriors led by the three Celtic chieftains Concolitanos, Aneroestus and Britomartus arrived on the plain of the Po river.  They lost the battle of Telamon against an army of Gauls, Etruscans and Romans.

BC 224 - After the first major defeat of a Celtic army, the Romans devastated the territory of the Boii tribe.

BC 223 - The Romans attacked the Celtic Insubres tribe but were beaten.  They attacked again with the help of the Celtic Cenomani tribe and drove them to Mediolanum (Milan).

BC 222 - The Insubres received fresh troops from across the Alps under a chieftain named Viridomar but were finally defeated at Clastidium on the Po river.  The Romans then confiscated part of the Insubres territory.

BC 222 - The battle of Clastidium, southwest of Comillomagus, was the end of Celtic domination of northern Italy and the beginning of Roman control.

BC 221 - Hannibal conquered the Celtiberians in southeastern Spain.

BC 218-201 - The second Punic War between the Carthaginians and Romans was fought to determine who would control the rich lands of Spain.

BC 218-201 - The Lusitani confederation was mentioned for the first time as fighting for Hannibal of the Carthaginians during the second Punic War.

BC 218 - Hannibal defeated the Celtic Volcae and Tectosages tribes of Gaul.

BC 218 - The Celtic Boii tribe fought for the Carthaginians during the second Punic War.

BC 214 - During the Battle of Jean, Hasdrubal the Carthaginian employed a large body of Celtic mercenaries whom he recruited in Aquitanica, Gaul.

BC 203 - The Romans defeated the Carthaginians at Utica.

BC 2nd century - Celtic heroes in Ireland were still studying combat with Amazon warriors.

BC 2nd century - Celtiberians were using the ogham alphabet to inscribe their coins.

BC 2nd century - The sacrificial site at Llyn Cerrig Bach in Anglesey, Wales was in use.

BC 193 - The Celtic center of Tyle in Thrace fell to the Romans.

BC 192 - The Boii tribe in Italy was defeated by the Romans at Bologna.  The Roman consul made a sport of torturing the chieftain and his family.

BC 190 - Celtic warriors defeated a Roman army in Spain.

BC 183 - The great Carthaginian commander Hannibal committed suicide.

BC 178 - The Romans sold 3000 Celtic families into slavery.

BC 154 - Celtiberians of Spain fought against invading Romans.

BC 150 - Liquor was being distilled at Charsada, Pakistan in ceramic stills called "Elephant Trunks".

BC 149-146 - The third Punic War was initiated by the Romans against Carthage because they still feared their power and influence.  By the end of the war, Carthage was destroyed and made into a Roman province.

BC 139 - The Celtic chieftain Viriato had been leading such a successful guerrilla war in Spain and Portugal for nine years that Rome hired three traitors to murder him.  This ended the Lusitanian struggle against Rome.

BC 137 - During the siege of Numantia, the Arevaci tribe defeated an entire Roman army.

BC 137 - The Romans began their war of conquest of Galicia, Spain.

BC 136 - The Celtic tribe who was under siege at the hill-fort of Pallantia in Spain broke their siege and attacked the Romans.

BC 134 - The Roman commander Scipio ordered that 400 male and female warriors of the Lutia tribe in Spain were to have their sword hands cut off to dissuade anyone from helping the besieged inhabitants of Numantia.

BC 134-133 - The Romans sieged the fortified village of Numantia (Numancia) in Spain for 15 months.  In the end 20,000 men, women and and children of the Arevaci tribe committed suicide rather than submit to Rome.

BC 125 - The Romans annexed a strip of land between Italy and Spain to give them a safe corridor through Gaul.  They named it the province of Gallia Narbonensis.

BC 122 - The Allobroges chieftain Bituitus and his son Congentiatus were made prisoners at Alba by the Romans, when Bituitus tried to treat with the Romans on behalf of the Arverni and the Allobroges tribes.

BC 113 - The Cimbri took the Gundestrup Cauldron from the territory of the Scordisci tribe to Denmark, where it was sacrificed to the goddess of the lake.

BC 110 - Celts and Thracians from the Balkan peninsula raided the shrine of Delphi again.

BC 109 - The Germani Cimbri tribe and their allies destroyed a Roman army in Gaul.

BC 109 - The Romans conquered Romania from the Celts.

BC 105 - The Cimbri and their allies destroyed two Roman armies in Gaul.

BC 103 - The Cimbri and the Teutoni were defeated by the Romans in two different battles and the survivors sold into slavery.

BC 1st century - The Celtic chieftain Bran invaded Ireland and fought a major battle near Dublin against the high chieftain of Ireland.

BC 1st century - The Celtic fortress of Caer-y-Twr was constructed on the highest point of Anglesey.

BC 1st century - Celtic warriors settled in Bratislava, Slovakia.

BC 1st century - The Celtic industrial site of Bibracte at Mont Beuvray, France was flourishing with activity as the Romans invaded Gaul.

BC 99-1 - This was the La Tène III period of the Iron Age in Europe.

BC 96 - The Roman senate prohibited the sacrifice of humans.

BC 90 - The Arevaci tribe of Gaul rebelled against Rome.

BC 82 - Cisalpine Gaul was declared a Roman province.

BC 81-73 - The Celtiberian Sertorius led rebel warriors against Rome in a fight for independence.

BC 74 - Spartacos, a Celto-Thracian herder, led 100,000 escaped slaves against Rome for two years before he was killed in battle.

BC 70-19 - An Italian Celtic writer named Virgil wrote of the Roman expropriation of tribal lands from the Celtic people.

BC 68 - A Celtic peasant named Mariccus, from the territory of the Boii, was accepted as a prophet and champion when he led a revolt against Rome.

BC 63-AD 14 - The Roman conquest of Asturias and the Cantabrian mountain area of Spain did little to disturb the Celtic way of life there.

BC 61 - The Celtic center of Brigantium (A Corunna) in Spain fell to Rome.

BC 60 - The Romans annexed Galicia, Spain as a province of Rome.

BC 58 - In March/April at Bibracte (Mont Beauvray) in Burgundy, Caesar murdered 258,000 Celtic men, women and children who were travelling to their promised land.

BC 58 - The territory of the Belgae was invaded by Caesar.

BC 56 - The Veneti fleet was destroyed by the Romans when it was becalmed in the Gulf of Morbihan in France.

BC 54 - Caesar led an expeditionary force to southern England and was subjected to "lightning strikes" by the chariot of the Celtic chieftain Cassubellaunos.  Caesar was satisfied to leave the country with a truce.

BC 52 - Caesar massacred 40,000 Celtic warriors of the Bituriges tribe, then sold the rest into slavery.

BC 52 - The hope of a Celtic Gaul faded when the Celtic freedom fighter Vercingetorix surrendered to Caesar after the fall of Alesia.  He was sent to a prison in Rome.

BC 51 - The Cadurci fortress of Uxellodunum in France was destroyed by Rome.

BC 51 - The Atrebates tribe rebelled against Caesar and migrated to England.

BC 50 - Caesar finally conquered Gaul after numerous acts of horrific brutality, treachery and tribal genocide.

BC 46 - The Celtic hero Vercingetorix was executed in Rome.

BC 44 - Caesar was assassinated in Rome.

BC 38 - The high chieftain of Ireland fought a major battle against pirates from Britain at Da Derga's Hostel near present-day Dublin.

BC 30 - The Celtic town of Carnuntium in Austria was lost to the Romans.

BC 30 - Strabo described the Celts of Galicia, Spain as enjoying beer-drinking, eating cured ham, dancing to the flute and horn, and using a small round shield in battle.

BC 27 - Rome became an empire under Augustus.

BC 25 - The Celtic territory of Gaul was made a province of Rome.

AD 8 - The Celtic Danube region became a Roman province.

AD 15 - The Romans destroyed the Celtic industrial site of Manching in Germany in order to stop the production and distribution of the high-quality sophisticated weapons and tools.

AD 40-50 - Paul converted many Celtic Galatians to his unique blend of paganism and the teachings of Christ.  This led to many quarrels with Peter whom Jesus had asked to lead his followers.

AD 42 - Egypt suffered a great famine.

AD 43 - Romans used the plea for help of the Atrebates chieftain Verica as an excuse invade Britain.

AD 43 - The Roman commander Sabinus ordered the massacre of all the men, women and children at Maiden Castle in Dorset, England.  Exhumed remains show that their bodies were hacked into pieces after they were killed.

AD 47 - The Celtic chieftain Caratacus organized a number of tribes in an attempt to drive the Roman invaders from England.

AD 51 - The Brigantes chieftain Cartimandua betrayed Caratacus to the Romans.  The treacherous act started a civil war within her tribe and destroyed it as a major power in England.

AD 60 - The Iceni chieftain Boudicca led a revolt against the Roman invaders, causing considerable death and destruction.

AD 61 - The Romans destroyed the sacred Celtic site of Mona in Wales in an attempt to demoralize the Celtic warriors fighting under the chieftain Boudicca.

AD 71 - The Brigantes chieftain Venutios lost a decisive battle against the Romans at present-day York in England.

AD 78 - The Silures tribe in Wales was defeated by the Romans.

AD 79 - Mount Vesuvius in Italy erupted and buried the Roman centers of Pompeii and Herculaneum.

AD 84 - The Caledonian chieftain Calgacus fought the Romans near Stonehaven at the Battle of Mons Graupius and stopped the invaders from advancing into present-day Scotland.

AD 98-117 - Under the soldier-emperor Trajan, Rome reached its maximum expansion.

AD 1st century - The late La Tène period extended from year 1 to the Roman conquest in each individual country.

AD 100-410 - The commerce of England and Wales was under the control of the Roman Empire.

AD 106 - The Romans destroyed the culture and language of the Dacian culture.

AD 121 - The Romans built Hadrian's Wall from Solway to Tyne in England, in an attempt to protect themselves from the fierce Celtic tribes of the north.  The wall was a failure.

AD 141 - The Romans built the Antonine Wall between the Clyde and the Forth in Scotland, in an attempt to protect themselves from the incessant attacks of the northern Celts.  The wall was a failure and was abandoned.

AD 150 - A deadly epidemic swept through the Roman Empire.

AD 159 - A killer epidemic, thought to be measles, swept through the Roman Empire after coming from China along the silk route.

AD 2nd century - The Boramha or Boru Tribute (cattle counting) was levied against the coiced of Leinster in Ireland.

AD 200 - Julius Solinus mentioned that there were no snakes in Ireland.

AD 210 - The Pictish chieftain Argentocoxos made a treaty with Rome.

AD 250 - Lugaidh mac Conn attacked Ireland with an army of Britons.

AD 250-300 - A portion of the Desi tribe left Ireland and settled in Dyfed, Wales.

AD 275 - Invading Huns arrived in Luxembourg.

AD 283 - The great Fianna chieftain Fionn mac Cumhaill died.

AD 284 - The Battle of Gabhra brought about the end of the Fianna as a political influence in old Ireland.

AD 286 - The Romans experienced a Celtic rebellion in northern Gaul.

AD 3rd century - A famine caused many of the Dal Riada to migrate from Munster to Ulster in Ireland, then on to Argyll in Scotland.

AD 3rd century - The Battle of Crinna was the end of Ulster as a political power in old Ireland.

AD 355 - Emain Macha was destroyed by warriors loyal to the high chieftain of Ireland.

AD 395 - The Christian religion became a political force in Gaul.

AD 4th century - Large numbers of Celts from Ireland settled along the west coast of Cornwall, Wales, northern England and Scotland.

AD 4th century - The Battle of Dubchomar was fought between Fiacha Sreabhtuinne, the high chieftain of Ireland, and his nephews the three Collas.

AD 4th century - The new Roman religion of Christianity was forced upon the Celts of Iberia.

AD 4th century - Carbon-dated skeletons excavated from a disk barrow in New England from this time have been shown to match those of a type of early Irish.

AD 4th century - Tribes of Picts, Scots, Irish, Angles, Jutes and Saxons raided Roman-controlled Britain.

AD 400 - Celtic tribes from Leinster settled on the Llyn Peninsula of Wales.

AD 400 - About 40,000 people were living in Cornwall.

AD 400 - Tribes of Goths invaded Roman-controlled Gaul.

AD 405 - Niall of the Nine Hostages was killed by a chieftain from Leinster while he was fighting in Roman Gaul.

AD 407 - Emperor Constantine III pulled his Roman troops out of Britain and into Gaul.

AD 449 - The Celtic chieftain Vortigern invited warriors of the Germani to settle in England and help drive out the invading Picts from the North.

AD 451 - The Germani stopped the invasion by Attila and his Huns at the battle of Châlons.

AD 470 - Fergus mac Eirc established the Dal Riada at Argyll and had the Lia Fail stone brought to Scotland so that he could be crowned head chieftain.

AD 471 - A Celt travelling through Colorado, USA carved a prayer to the sun god Bel {Baal} using the ogham alphabet.

AD 476 - The Germani Alamanni confederation finally ended the tyranny of Rome.

AD 483 - In Ireland, Connacht stopped being ruled by Tara when it defeated the army of the Ard Righ at the Battle of Ocha.

AD 490-499 - Vortigern and his army of Germans fought against Ambrosius Aurelianus and his Britons.

AD 496 - The last Roman emperor was pensioned off by the Germani chieftain Odoacer.

AD 5th century - Christian missionaries set up in Kent and began to spread their dogma to the Celts throughout Britain.

AD 5th century - During the latter half of the century, the Cymry (tribes that fight side by side) was formed to repel invaders from all sides of Britain.

AD 5th century - The coming of Christianity to Ireland meant the end of the Celtic way of life.

AD 5th century - The German-speaking Angles, Jutes and Saxons began to mix with the Latin-speaking Celts of England and eventually produced the English language.

AD 547 - The Celtic chieftain Maelgwyn recovered Dyfed, Wales from the control of the Irish.

AD 557 - Germani warriors of the Saxon tribe settled in the area of the Severn river in Britain, separating the Celts of Wales from the Celts of Cornwall.

AD 6th century - Diarmuid mac Cearbail, the last Ard Righ to rule Ireland from Tara, died.

AD 6th century - The noted bard Taliesin (maybe the same person as Merlin) lived in Wales.

AD 613 - The northern Britons were isolated in Northumberland by invading Angles of the Germani culture.

AD 618 - The council of Nantes representing the Christian church condemmed the practices of Druidism.

AD 630 - Angles captured Edinburgh, and a Celto-Germani speech became dominant in the lowlands.

AD 637 - The battle of Moyraith was fought between Domhnall Brec, the head chieftain of the Dal Riada of Scotland, and Domhnall mac Aedh, the high chieftain of Ireland.

AD 7th century - A sculpture was made of a kilted highlander wearing his sporran.

AD 750-1050 - Norse explorers left a petroglyph of the Celtic gods Mabon and Lugh at Castle Gardens site in Wyoming, U.S.A.

AD 835 - The Danes initiated a short-lived invasion of Britain.

AD 842 - Pictish rule in Scotland came to an end when Cinaeth mac Ailpin became Ard-righ Albainn, joining the Picts and Scotti (Goidel).

AD 843 - Cinaeth mac Ailpin died.

AD 845 - On November 22, the Celts of Brittany defeated the French at the battle of Ballon, saving their language, religion and lifestyle.

AD 894 - In Scotland, Caithness, Sutherland, Inverness and part of Ross fell to the Norsemen.

AD 1066 - The Normans invaded England.

AD 12th century - Celts speaking Old Irish built burial mounds in North America which were dedicated to the Earth Mother.

AD 12th century - The weather of Europe again turned colder, destroying thousands of vineyards in England belonging to William the Conqueror.

AD 1398 - Henry Sinclair, head chieftain of Orkney, and his admiral Antonio Zeno of Venice sailed westward and landed at Nova Scotia in Canada.  They were drawn to Stellarton in the county of Pictou by the black smoke from the natural fires of stellar coal.

AD 16th century - Francisco de Orellana of Spain mentioned that he had encountered blond warrior women in what is now referred to as the Amazon region of Brazil.

AD 17th century - The Brahan Seer (Kenneth MacKenzie) was born at Baile-na-Cille on the Isle of Lewis.  He had a ring of stone which helped his second sight and divination.

AD 18th century - The ethnic cleansing of the predominantly Pictish people of the Scottish Highlands was begun by the English with the help of lowland lackeys.