Chapter 2

 

 

CULTURES

 

 

 

 

NAME         Amazon

ALTERNATIVE  Amazos

EVOLVED FROM Neolithic hunter-fishers

COUNTRY      Armenia / Georgia / Azerbaijan / Russia / Syria

             / Iraq / Ireland / England / Brazil

LANDMARKS    Mount Hermon / Mediterranean / Atlantic /

             Caucasus / Black Sea / Caspian Sea / Ares Island

             / Don River / Amazon River / Wash

SITES        Troy / Okeano / Island of Women / Briar Hill,

             Bottisham

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 21st c / BC 13th c / BC 330 / BC 3rd c /

             AD 16th c

DEITIES      male fertility god / Ev-ah

LEADERS      Cessair / Albina / Penthesileia / Hippolyta /

             Thalestris

SIGNATURE    Nordic-Alpine female horse warriors / archers /

             antlered animals / two-handed swords / javelins

             / composite bows / scale armor trousers / horse

             armor / iron plated half-circle shields / barrow

             grave

SEE ALSO     Fomorii / Gallic / Greek / Neolithic

REMARKS      The Amazons were a society of female warriors

  who seem to have their roots in the very early eastern

  Bronze Age and it was the search for tin and copper,

  ingredients of bronze, that help spread their culture

  around the world.

       From the earliest Bronze Age and into the Iron Age,

  the Amazons developed into keen sailors and fierce horse

  warriors who were experts with composite bows, swords,

  javelins, axes, clubs and shields.  Some of their two-

  handed swords were known to be 4 feet (1.2 m) long.  They

  wore leather tunics with iron scales and used oval and

  half-circle shields covered with iron plates.  It was said

  that the Amazons sometimes rode animals with antlers,

  possibly horses with antlered armor or reindeer.  They

  practiced horse sacrifice on the island of Ares.

       Tanaitis was the name given to Amazon warriors who

  lived on the shores of the Tanais (Don) river in southern

  Russia.  The Amazon warriors buried their dead with their

  weapons.  There are grave sites of female warriors in

  Russia near the Don river that have yielded grave goods of

  scaled trousers, horse armor and composite bows.  These may

  have been been the graves of Amazons or female Sarmatian

  warriors.

       Amazon society would not permit their warriors to

  marry until they had three kills to their credit.  When

  they bore children, the mothers stunted the right breast of

  the females by cauterising it.  For this they received the

  Greek name Amazos (without a breast).  They were described

  as being very tall, white-skinned and wearing their blond

  hair long and twisted over their heads.

       Amazons were also reputed to lived on an island in the

  Atlantic called Okeano (Ocean) where they venerated a male

  love god.  Every year they performed a sacrifice that

  revolved around rethatching the roof of the love god's

  temple.  The ritual demanded that the roof be thatched in a

  single day.  The speed of work ensured that sooner or later

  one of the women would drop her bundle of straw, thereby

  being chosen for sacrifice to the love god.  The sacrifice

  was literally torn to pieces by the other women who had

  worked themselves into a frenzy (Bacclitterly).  Each

  carried a part of the sacrifice around the temple while

  chanting EV-AH. (This term may be related to Evia (Eve) the

  female serpent, symbol of the lunar phases).  When the fury

  passed, they would finish the roof.

       Because no man was allowed into the territory of the

  Amazons, they would leave to search out suitable male

  warriors to sire their children and then return to the

  island.  Those children born female were kept and those

  born male were returned to their fathers or sacrificed.

       In BC 21st century, Cessair landed in Ireland with

  fifty warrior women and three men, 40 days before the

  Deluge which supposedly drowned all.  This account was an

  attempt by the scribes to fit the Amazons into the Judaeo-

  Christian mythology.  Nevertheless it seems evident that

  her followers did survive and that their descendants became

  known as the Fomorii, a predominantly female society that

  lived, among other places, on an island in the Atlantic

  called Tor Innis.

       Albina, another Amazon chieftain, landed on the shores

  of England with a boatload of female warriors.  Six other

  known Amazon warrior chieftains were Marpesia, Lampeto,

  Sinope, Orithyia, Antiope and Penthesileia.

       In BC 13th century Penthesileia led her warriors in

  the Trojan War which Wilkens places around the Wash in

  England.  Penthesileia was killed in combat by Achilles.

  Amazons also fought for the Mycenaeans (Achaeans) during

  the Trojan War and helped in the defeat of Troy.  The

  Amazons of Britain must predate the Trojan War because

  mentioned in Homer's tales is the Mound of Batieia, also

  known as the Barrow of Myrine (Light of Step) the Amazon,

  at the site of Briar Hill in present-day Bottisham.  The

  ancient Celtic war god Ares sired Hippolyta, who became an

  Amazon chieftain.  She was killed by Hercules who then

  stole her girdle.

       Amazon is an Armenian word meaning moon women.  There

  were Amazon tribes south of the Caucasus Mountains between

  the Black and Caspian Seas.  In BC 330 the great chieftain

  Thalestris visited Alexander of Macedonia when he was on

  his campaign to Persia.  She entered his camp with 300

  fully-armored female horse warriors and announced that as

  she was the greatest of female warriors and she had heard

  that he was the greatest of male warriors, she wanted a

  child by him.

       In BC 3rd century, when the Gallic warriors from

  France were invading Turkey, their force contained large

  numbers of female warriors.  The ancient stories of Ireland

  make many references to female super-warriors and combat

  instructors who lived in Scotland and the surrounding

  islands.  Irish mythology also refers to places like the

  Island of Women or the Land of the Women.  As late as AD

  16th century, records mention Francisco de Orellana of

  Spain encountering blonde warrior women in Brazil at the

  mouth of the Amazon river.

       Greek, Roman and Christian writers have tried their

  hardest to relegate the Amazons to a position of mere

  fiction, but there has been enough solid evidence that has

  surived the ages to show that they were indeed a real

  society: a society without men.

 

 

NAME         Aquitani

ALTERNATIVE  Acquitani

EVOLVED FROM Ligurian / Tartessian / Urnfield / Hallstatt /

             Iberian / Belgae

COUNTRY      France

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aquitanica

LANDMARKS    Bay of Biscay / Garonne / Pyrenees

AGE          Neolithic / Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 2nd mill / BC 12th c / BC 11th-8th c / BC 6th

             c / BC 5th c / BC 3rd c / BC 1st c / BC 56 / BC

             27-AD 14

SIGNATURE    multi-cultural / soldurii / miners

SEE ALSO     Aremorican / Belgae / Celtic / Cimmerian /

             Gallic / Hallstatt / Iberian / Ligurian /

             Tartessian / Urnfield

REMARKS      It is believed that Aquitanica means "the land

  by the water" and the name derives from the Aquitani tribe

  who were most likely Tartessian.  The predominantly-Celtic

  Aquitani culture evolved from a fusion of people who

  settled the area: Ligurian (BC 2nd millenium), Tartessian

  (BC 12th century), late Urnfield and Cimmerian (BC 11th-8th

  century), early Hallstatt (BC 6th century), Iberian (BC 5th

  century) and Belgae (BC 3rd century).

       The territory of Aquitanica was separated from the

  Gallic tribes by the Garonne river and bounded by the Bay

  of Biscay on the west and the Pyrenees to the south.  There

  were numerous copper mines in the territory and the

  Aquitani were known to be skilful miners, a trait that was

  common with Tartessian, Urnfield and Hallstatt cultures.

       The Aquitani had a system whereby a group of warriors

  called soldurii would pledge their lives to a leader.  They

  would then share the fate of that warrior.  When the leader

  went into battle the soldurii would follow, and if they won

  they all shared in the spoils of battle.  But if their

  leader died they would share that fate as well, either

  fighting to the death in the combat or committing suicide.

       When Caesar arrived in Gaul during BC 1st century

  there were four main cultural groups living there: the

  Aquitani, the Aremorican, the Gallic and the Belgae.  In BC

  56 Caesar invaded the territory of Aquitanica.  The tribes

  of this area had beaten off a sizable Roman army a number

  of years earlier and let the upcoming battle rest entirely

  on the shoulders of the Sontiates tribe.  After 6 years of

  unorganized fighting, the Aquitani along with the other

  three cultures of Gaul were totally defeated.  By the time

  of Augustus (BC 27 - AD 14), the Roman territory of Greater

  Aquitania had expanded northeast to the Loire and the

  Rhône.

 

 

NAME         Aremorican

ALTERNATIVE  Armorican / Armorican Barrow

EVOLVED FROM Bell Beaker / Kurgan / Battle Axe / Goidel /

             Ligurian / Unetice / Tumulus / Pictish /

             Urnfield / Hallstatt / La Tène

COUNTRY      France

REGION       Normandy / Brittany

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aremorica

LANDMARKS    Seine / Garonne / lower Loire

SITES        Ballon

AGE          Neolithic / Chalcolithic / Bronze

DATES        BC 3400 / BC 2300 / BC 2200 / BC 2nd mill /

             BC 1800-1200 / BC 15th-13th c / BC 1100 / BC

             11th-8th c / BC 9th c / BC 6th c / BC 4th c / BC

             1st c / BC 57 / AD 5th c / AD 845

SIGNATURE    multi-cultural / round barrows / standing stones

             / shipping

SEE ALSO     Aquitani / Battle Axe / Belgae / Bell Beaker /

             Celtic / Cimmerian / Goidel / Hallstatt / Kurgan

             / La Tène / Ligurian / Neolithic / Pictish /

             Unetice / Urnfield / Tumulus / Wessex

REMARKS      The name Aremorica is a Celtic word which means

  "country by the sea".  The Neolithic Bell Beaker People

  were established in Aremorican by BC 3400, followed by an

  influx of people of the Chalcolithic Kurgan and Battle Axe

  cultures who were well established in western Europe by BC

  2300.

       It is thought that some of the standing stones erected

  by the early Bronze Age Aremoricans were used to mark their

  tin deposits.  They buried their dead with their wealth in

  round barrows (tumuli) similar to those of the Wessex,

  Unetice and Goidel cultures.

       Aremorica was then settled and influenced by even more

  people as the Goidel searched for suitable cattle country

  sometime after BC 2200 on their way south.  The Ligurian

  tribes began to move into the area by BC 2nd millenium and

  the Unetice-Tumulus warriors arrived between BC 1800 and BC

  1200; Pictish tribes began to arrive around BC 15th-13th

  century.  The Urnfield culture influenced Aremorica around

  BC 1100 as warriors passed through on their southern

  expansion, the Cimmerian culture sometime between BC 11th-

  8th century, the Hallstatt culture arriving by BC 9th

  century, and the La Tène culture in BC 6th century.

       In BC 6th century warriors of the Pictish tribes, the

  predominant people of Aremorica, left for England taking

  the La Tène A culture with them.  By BC 4th century,

  incoming tribes of Germani into western Gaul pushed the

  southern border of Belgica to the Seine which became the

  northern border of Aremorica.

       When Caesar arrived in Gaul during BC 1st century

  there were four main cultural groups living there: the

  Aremorican, Belgae, Gallic, and Aquitani.  Aremorican

  tribes held a territory roughly defined by the Loire and

  Seine rivers and the Atlantic.

       In the spring of BC 57, Caesar invaded the territory

  of Aremorica because he was very concerned about their

  fleets of ocean-going ships.  The Veneti tribe of Aremorica

  controlled the trade between Gaul and Britain, moving

  people and goods between the two territories.  The Romans

  destroyed their fleet of 220 ships, which ended the threat

  of the Aremoricans for a while.

       The Aremoricans were never subdued by the Romans and

  they continued their trade with Ireland, Britain, the

  Channel Islands and the rest of Gaul.  After the collapse

  of the Roman Empire in AD 5th century Celts from Britain

  settled among the local inhabitants and this area

  eventually became known as Brittany.

       The Celts of Brittany managed to retain their culture

  and freedom when they defeated the French during the battle

  of Ballon on Nov 22nd in AD 845.  The language of the

  Bretons is Brythonic and is similar to modern Cornish and

  Welsh.

 

 

NAME         Argaric

EVOLVED FROM Ligurian

COUNTRY      Spain

REGION       Catalonia / Andulucía / Almeria

LANDMARKS    Antas river / Mediterranean

CENTERS      El Argar

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 2000 / BC 1700 / BC 1400 / BC 1200

SIGNATURE    metal-working / single-grave tumulus / tattoos /

             traders / ochre / black-fire ceramics / urns /

             halberds / diadems / spiral motif / bronze leaf

             sword

SEE ALSO     Ligurian / Unetice

REMARKS      The grave goods of the Argaric people have much

  in common with those of the Unetice culture of Bohemia.

  Both cultures were influenced by people of the Ligurian

  culture around the same time.

       The site of El Argar sat on a plateau 1000 x 330 ft

  (300x90 m) on the Rio Antas in southeastern Spain, 7 mi

  (12 km) from the sea.  The site, already known for its gold

  and silver, developed a bronze industry around BC 2000.  El

  Argar was the largest and most important of some forty

  other fortified villages that were within a 50 mi (75 km)

  length along the coast.  By BC 1700, the community was a

  well-defended hillfort.

       Argaric women wore silver diadems, spirals and rolled

  silver wire necklaces.  The diadem was a band which fit

  around the head with a pallette shape that hung down or

  pointed up, possibly to indicate married status, similar to

  the practice in some present-day tribes in different parts

  of the world.  The women's grave goods also contained

  copper tools and little awls for sewing or tattooing.

       Argaric warriors carried large bronze leaf-shaped

  thrusting swords rivetted to their handles.  They used the

  very popular Bronze Age weapon the halberd, some of which

  were highly decorated with gold.  Later, the halberd was

  replaced with the spear.  Tools such as axes and chisels

  were also made from bronze.

       The people of El Argar produced elegant pottery that

  was exceedingly well fired.  They designed pedestalled

  goblets, chalices, vases, bowls and vats, often finished

  with a polished black fire.

       The Argaric culture buried their dead in a number of

  different ways.  The grave sites were situated nearby or

  underneath their own dwellings.  They used single grave

  cists with the body in a contracted position, 2 urns

  positioned mouth-to-mouth, double graves with a male and

  female or a mother and child.  The most popular style of

  the burial was to put the body head first into a 28-inch-

  high (70 cm) clay vessel; sometimes the bodies were

  defleshed first.  Another style of burial was to cover the

  body with powdered ochre and bury it in a small chest or

  33-inch (85 cm) grave marked with a tumulus.  This style

  was also found in the Unetice culture of Bohemia but it was

  used mostly in the Near East during the early Bronze Age.

  The variety of burial styles suggests the coexistence of

  people from more than one culture.

       From the over 1000 burials that have been excavated,

  the contents suggest that the Argaric culture had trade

  with Malta, Sardinia and the Balearic Islands.  Other goods

  suggest trade with Brittany, other parts of France and

  northern Italy.  Burial goods included flint and polished

  stone, copper, bronze, gold, blue glass from the east and,

  most typically, silver objects.  By BC 1400 El Argar was in

  decline and by BC 1200 the community no longer existed.

 

 

NAME         Babylonian

ALTERNATIVE  Neo Babylonia / Chaldaean Babylonia

EVOLVED FROM Akkad / Sumer

COUNTRY      Iraq

TERRITORY    Babylonia

LANDMARKS    Euphrates / Tigris

SITES        Tower of Babel (Gates of God)

CENTERS      Babylon (Babili/Babilani)

AGE          early Bronze

DATES        BC 3rd mill / BC 2600-2500 / BC 2320 / BC 21st-

             20th c / BC 1900 / BC 1600 / BC 1100 / BC 625 /

             BC 586 / BC 538

DEITIES      Bel {Baal} (Beel/Belenos) / Belit

SIGNATURE    city-state / cuneiform writing / ziggurat

SEE ALSO     Goidel / Phoenician

REMARKS      The city of Babylon was south of modern-day

  Bagdad in Iraq.  Babylon was a planned city of good

  streets, temples, palaces and fine homes.  It was built on

  both sides of the Euphrates and was named for its chief

  deity Bel {Baal} (possessor or lord).  In honor of their

  god a ziggurat, The Tower of Babel (Gates of God), was

  constructed in BC 21-20th century.  Bel's consort was Nin-

  har-sag, also known as Belit, probably a fish goddess.

       This was the tower that Rifath Scot, father of the

  Scotic (Gaelic) language, helped build.  From him came the

  Goidels.

       The territory was defined by the Tigris and Euphrates

  rivers which flowed from the Armenian mountains.  The

  country was flat farmland criss-crossed by canals and

  drainage systems.  Flooding was an annual occurrence, so

  the construction and repair of the canals system was a

  constant occupation.

       In BC 3rd millennium, Semetic people began to migrate

  into the territory of present-day Iraq and Syria from the

  Persian Gulf because of disintegrating climatic conditions.

  Some headed to the coast of the Mediterranean and evolved

  into the Phoenicians, while others settled in the area

  between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.  Here they built

  many city-states such as Ebla which was established by BC

  2600-2500.  The city-states spent much of their time

  warring and taking turns trying to rule the others.

       In BC 2320 the Sumerian city-state of Erech (Ur/Uruk)

  boasted an empire but this was destroyed by the Semites of

  the city-state of Akkad.  This was overthrown by the city

  of Guti, then Ur then Isan, back to Ur, then to Larsa until

  around BC 1900 the first Babylonian dynasty developed when

  the city of Babylon became the center for the surrounding

  tribes, making it the dominant city-state.

       The Babylonian empire evolved from the Akkadian

  culture in the north who were Semitic people and the

  Sumerian culture in the south who were a non-Semitic people

  from Arbria.

       By BC 1600, Assyria began to dominate Babylonia and by

  BC 1100, Babylon was a dependent of Assyria.  In BC 625,

  Babylon became known as Chaldaean Babylonia when a

  Chaldaean king took over the rule.  In BC 586 Babylon

  conquered Jerusalem after destroying the temple but by BC

  538 Babylon fell to the Persians, never to rise again.

 

 

NAME         Basque

ALTERNATIVE  Euskadi

EVOLVED FROM Neolithic / Urnfield / Iberian

COUNTRY      France / Spain

REGION       Pais Vasco (Euskadi)

TERRITORY    Navarra / Gipuzkoa / Biskaia / Araba

LANDMARKS    Pyrenees

AGE          Paleolithic / Neolithic / Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 15000 / BC 8th c / BC 5th c

SIGNATURE    Mediterranean-Alpine stock / communal ownership

             / highland / pastoral / animism / miners

SEE ALSO     Berber / Cimmerian / Hallstatt / Iberian /

             Neolithic / Urnfield

REMARKS      The Basques believe their ancestors came to

  Spain sometime around BC 15,000 as Cro-Magnon Man, and

  settled in the area where they are today.  Their language

  is unrelated to other European languages, and seems to be

  outside the Indo-European family group.

       The Basques intermingled with Alpine round-heads

  (Urnfield) from the north around BC 8th century and

  Mediterranean long-heads of the south (Iberian) around BC

  5th century but were strong enough to retain their own

  language.

       The tribes promoted communal ownership within the

  family, and the head passed to the oldest offspring,

  whether male or female.  They practiced animism, which was

  revealed in their dances and offerings to the dead.  Their

  religious guides were both male and female and did not

  observe celibacy.  They were a highland people who spilled

  over into the lowlands around the Pyrenees.  They were most

  likely miners, herders or fishers living a pastoral life.

       The Basques of today still hold competitions in stone-

  dragging (oxen pull), tree-chopping, pole-throwing and

  weight-lifting as well as the eloquent art of poetry-

  reading.  Their games resemble those of the highland Celts

  which are still enjoyed in Scotland and Canada.

       The modern-day archetype of a Basque is a medium head,

  wide at the temples with pointed chin and a medium height

  of 5½ feet (1.7 m).  They have the highest percentage of

  Rh- blood (25-35 %) of any people in the world as well as a

  high level of O type, as do the Berbers.

 

 

NAME         Battle Axe

ALTERNATIVE  Stone Battle Axe / Corded Ware / Single-Grave /

             Globular Amphora / Boat-axe

EVOLVED FROM Neolithic hunter / Danubian / Kurgan

COUNTRY      Ukraine / Russia / Poland / Germany / Denmark /

             Norway / Sweden / Netherlands / Belgium / France

             / England

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Baltic Sea / Rhine / North Sea

AGE          Neolithic / Chalcolithic

DATES        BC 4th mill / BC 3500 / BC 2300 / BC 2200

SIGNATURE    Nordic-Mediterranean stock / stone battle axe /

             communal grave / single grave / corded ware /

             horse / wagons / Aryan language

SEE ALSO     Bell Beaker / Danubian / Goidel / Kurgan /

             Neolithic

REMARKS      During BC 4th millenium, the Neolithic hunters

  of northeastern Europe were influenced by the incoming

  Neolithic farmers of the Danubian culture.  In contrast

  with the larger houses and communities of the Danubians the

  people of the newly evolved culture had a preference for

  small square houses in small villages.  The new culture

  retained their stone battle axe as a weapon and a symbol,

  and practiced communal burial.

       After BC 3500, tribes of the Chalcolithic Kurgan

  culture from the Ukraine Steppes migrated across the

  northern European lowlands.  The Kurgan culture brought in

  the concept of individuality, indicated by the single grave

  with its reference to wealth and position.  They also

  brought the Aryan language and the use of the horse and

  wagon.  The fusion produced the Battle Axe culture which

  quickly spread throughout northern Europe.  By BC 2300,

  they had already established themselves in Aremorica.

       The Battle Axe people imprinted the image of ropes on

  their ceramic wear as a form of decoration and were

  therefore sometimes referred to as the Corded Ware people.

  They developed a well-armed warrior with the mobility given

  by horses and wagons.  A number of the wagons have been

  excavated in the Netherlands.

       Around BC 2200 the cultures of the Battle Axe and Bell

  Beaker met in the Rhine Valley.  These two cultures had a

  profound influence on the people who were to become known

  as the Goidel.

 

 

NAME         Belgae

EVOLVED FROM Neolithic hunters / Battle Axe / Kurgan / Goidel

             Unetice-Tumulus / Pictish / Urnfield /

             Hallstatt / Cimmerian / La Tène / Germani

COUNTRY      Netherlands / Belgium / France / Germany / Spain

             / Portugal / England

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica

LANDMARKS    Seine / Marne / Channel / Rhine

AGE          Neolithic / Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 3500 / BC 2200 / BC 1800-1200 / BC 15th-13th

             c / BC 1100 / BC 11th-8th / BC 9th c / BC 6th c

             / BC 400 / BC 4th c / BC 3rd c / BC 1st c / BC

             57

DEITIES      Bolga

SIGNATURE    Nordic-Alpine stock / trousers / horse warriors

             / chariot warriors / farmers / iron plow /

             decorated articles / minting of coins / thrown

             pottery

SEE ALSO     Aquitani / Aremorican / Battle Axe / Celtic /

             Cimmerian / Galatian / Gallic / Germani /

             Goidel / Hallstatt / Kurgan / La Tène /

             Neolithic / Pictish / Tumulus / Urnfield /

             Unetice

REMARKS      The Belgae culture of Caesar's time was similar

  in many ways to that of the Germani to the northeast but

  their language was Brythonic Celt, the same as that of the

  other cultures living in Gaul.  They are thought to have

  been in their territory during the end of the Neolithic age

  and probably mixed with the Battle Axe and/or Kurgan

  cultures sometime after BC 3500.  Later cultures influenced

  or mixed with them as they passed through or settled in the

  area, especially those of the Goidel who settled in the

  Rhine valley around BC 2200,  Unetice-Tumulus who came in

  BC 1800-1200 with their horses and cattle, the Pictish

  warriors, another horse-riding cattle people, around BC

  15th-13th century, Urnfield (BC 1100), Cimmerian (BC 11th-

  8th century), Hallstatt (BC 9th century), La Tène (BC 6th

  century) and Germani (BC 400).

       The Belgae were predominantly Nordic and described as

  tall, fair-skinned, horse-riding people with blond hair and

  blue eyes.  Both sexes wore cloaks and trousers.  One style

  of trousers had wide flapping legs, while the others were

  tight-fitting and reached only to the upper calf.  The

  Belgae made use of the war chariot as well as having horse

  warriors who used heavy iron slashing swords.  They

  believed that wine and other luxuries made warriors weak,

  and had very little trade with the Greeks and Romans. Their

  eponymous goddess was named Bolga, which could link them

  with the early Firbolg or both with the river Volga.

       In BC 4th century, the Belgae controlled territory on

  both sides of the Rhine and as far south as the Seine.

  During BC 3rd century, they were carrying the La Tène II

  culture into Illyria, Italy, Portugal, Spain and England as

  they searched for new land and adventure.  The La Tène II

  culture was known for its well-tempered swords with

  engraved scabbards, beautiful jewelry and other items.

       When the Belgae headed for Spain and Portugal, they

  had to fight their way through the territory north of the

  Pyrenees which had been isolating the Iberian peninsula

  from the rest of the continent for two hundred years

  because of the Iberians and others who had settled there.

  The Belgae settled in many areas of the peninsula, settling

  on their own or mixing with Iberians or Hallstatt Celts.

  Although small in number, they were young, looking for land

  to settle and carrying superior weapons.

       The Belgae also settled in southeast England, mixing

  with the local tribes who had similar ancestors and

  developing a society of farmsteads, hillforts and open

  villages based on grain farming.  They brought with them

  coin-making, thrown pottery, the iron plow and their war

  chariot.

       When Caesar arrived in Gaul during BC 1st century

  there were four main cultural groups established: Belgae,

  Gallic,  Aremorican, and Aquitani.  Gaul itself was a large

  territory bounded by the sea coast, Rhine river, Alps,

  Mediterranean and Pyrenees.  It consisted of part of

  present-day Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, and all of

  Belgium, Luxembourg and France.

       Caesar confused the Belgae and the Germani and did not

  realize that the greater number of tribes on the right bank

  of the Rhine were actually Belgae, and that the Germani

  Gaesatae were also Belgae.  In the spring of BC 57, Caesar

  invaded the territory of Belgica.  After 7 years of

  unorganized resistance, the Belgae and the three other

  cultures of Gaul were totally defeated.

 

 

NAME         Bell Beaker

ALTERNATIVE  Beaker People / Megalithic

EVOLVED FROM Neolithic hunter (Mediterranean)

COUNTRY      Portugal / Netherlands / Scotland / England /

             Ireland / Spain / France / Belgium / Denmark /

             Germany / Czech / Morocco / Algeria

REGION       Bohemia / Grampian / Strathclyde / Sicily /

             Sardinia

TERRITORY    Aremorica

LANDMARKS    Tagus / Rhine

SITES        Stonehenge / Nether Largie / Loanhead

CENTERS      Vila Nova de São Pedro

AGE          Neolithic / Copper / Bronze

DATES        BC 3400 / BC 3200 / BC 3100 / BC 3000 / BC 2300

             / BC 19th c

SIGNATURE    Mediterranean stock / megaliths / goldsmiths /

             zoned beakers / flint & copper arrowheads /

             wrist guards / collective burials / round barrow

             single graves / urns / buttons / copper daggers

             and javelin heads / exporters & traders

SEE ALSO     Battle Axe / Goidel / Megalithic / Neolithic /

             Unetice / Yamnaya

REMARKS      The Bell Beaker culture was named after the

  shape of the clay drinking vessels they made.  The early

  Bell Beaker People were Neolithic hunters who used the bow

  and flint-tipped arrows.

       Evidence has shown that Neolithic Bell Beaker culture

  was in Aremorica by BC 3400 and the Netherlands by BC 3200.

  They were well established in Scotland and England by BC

  3100 and north of the Tagus in Portugal before BC 3000.

  Bell Beaker pottery has been found at the stone calendars

  of Nether Largie and Loanhead Stone Circle in Scotland and

  Stonehenge in England.  The direction of settlement in

  Britain was in an east-to-west and south-to-north

  direction.  It is believed that the oldest Bell Beaker

  settlement was north of Lisboa, Portugal and that they

  spread their culture by land and boat.

       The Bell Beaker people were associated with the

  builders of the megalithic monuments (megalithic collective

  burials) in Europe, placing them in Ireland at an early

  date as well.  There is enough evidence to suggest that

  they constructed the first phase of Stonehenge in England

  around BC 3100.  The builders of this monument had

  knowledge of applied geometry from which they derived their

  measuring unit of 23.8 feet (7.25 m).

       The Bell Beaker People were accomplished potters and

  goldsmiths, producing utilitarian objects as well as

  jewelry.  Their pottery had an S-shaped silhouette and was

  decorated with alternating bands of smooth and incised

  decorations.  They made buttons of stone, bone and amber

  for their clothing.  Wrist guards for archery were

  initially made from perforated schist stone.  From gold

  they made spiral jewelry and necklaces of large gold cords

  and beads of a type still worn in festivals of the northern

  regions of Portugal.

       In Portugal, the Bell Beaker people were established

  around the mouth of the Tagus river where they came in

  contact with the Almerian culture.  The Almerians were

  copper-smelting people from the eastern Mediterranean who

  set up industrial sites at Vila Nova de São Pedro

  (Portugal) and Los Millares (Spain) around BC 3000.

       By BC 2300, the industrial colonists had disappeared

  and the gold-smithing Bell Beaker People were evolving a

  copper age of their own, using the simpler open mold form

  of casting rather than the closed mold of their

  predecessors.  They hardened their copper by using 2%

  arsenic in the mixture and by a process of hammering the

  metal.  By BC 19th century they were adding 10% tin to make

  a high quality bronze.

       The addition of copper to their metallurgical industry

  gave the Bell Beaker People better weapons to export to

  other non-copper-producing areas.  They made copper-tanged

  arrow heads, wrist guards, daggers, axes and javelin heads.

  The knowledge of copper-working quickly spread through

  their network of communities in Europe as they searched for

  metal and distributed their goods and expertise.

       Within 100 years, the Copper Age Bell Beaker culture

  had spread into various parts of Spain, the Rhône and Rhine

  valleys, Bohemia, Algeria, Sicily, Sardinia, Ireland and as

  far north as Denmark.  In the Rhine Valley, their culture

  mixed with that of the Battle Axe people and the Q-Celtic

  Goidel culture was born.  The Bell Beaker people who

  travelled into Czech mixed with the culture of the Yamnaya

  and from this fusion the Unetice culture was born.

       The study of sites of the Bell Beaker culture in

  Portugal indicate that they ate a varied diet of wild boar,

  deer, aurochs, fish, shellfish, snails and partridge as

  well as domesticated cow, horse and goat.  They also ate

  acorns gathered from the oak and cork oak, pine-nuts,

  olives, grapes and beans, and made bread from wheat, barley

  and acorn flour.

       Grave excavations have shown that the earlier

  Neolithic people were longhead Mediterranean type buried in

  community long barrows and were probably the Bell Beaker

  People.  When they mixed with the Battle Axe people they

  were introduced to the concept of single grave which they

  adopted and topped with a round barrow (tumulus).  The

  Bronze Age that was to follow produced a hybrid warrior

  with superior weapons, horses and wheeled wagons.  The new

  culture produced weapons and tools of bronze which included

  daggers and swords rivetted to wooden or bone handles,

  halberds, palstaves and sickles.

       In France, passage and gallery grave goods included

  bell beakers, small copper daggers, copper and gold jewelry

  and polished stone axes reminiscent of the Battle Axe

  People.  The Bell Beaker culture were the "giants" of

  Europe and their accomplishments of the Stone Age are still

  awe-inspiring.

 

 

NAME         Berber

ALTERNATIVE  Barbar / Tuareg / Zouawa

EVOLVED FROM Libyan (Mediterranean)

COUNTRY      Morocco / Algeria / Tunisia / Libya

TERRITORY    Libia

LANDMARKS    Mediterranean / Atlas Mountains / Sahara

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 12th c / BC 2nd c

SIGNATURE    herder-warriors / matriarchal

SEE ALSO     Basque / Libyan / Phoenician / Roman

REMARKS      The Berbers are of the Mediterranean Caucasian

  group and have settled in north Africa from the

  Mediterranean through the Atlas mountains and into the

  northern Sahara.  They were a warrior-herder people,

  speaking a Indo-European language and living in a

  matriarchal society where succession went to the sister's

  son.

       The plains Berbers are typically of medium height

  5'4½" (1.6 m), with a long head, narrow nose, dark eyes and

  wavy black hair.  The blood type of the Berbers is high in

  Rh- (18-30%) and in some tribes as high as 50%, and type O

  is also very high, suggesting a link with the Basques.  The

  mountain tribes have a high percentage of people with fair

  skin, blue eyes and light-colored hair.

       Music and mobility were and still are important to the

  Berbers.  Berber women adorned themselves with multiple

  gold necklaces covering the front of their bodies, similar

  to women in northern Portugal and northwestern Spain.

       The Berbers were in North Africa (Libya) when the

  Phoenicians arrived in BC 12th century and when the Romans

  conquered it in BC 2nd century and began the deforestation

  of the land.  The Berbers controlled the trading between

  the north and the south.  They often sought to trade for

  metal, as there was little metal in the soil north of the

  mountains.  The Berbers of today are mostly of the Muslim

  faith but still retain their language.

 

 

NAME         Briton

ALTERNATIVE  Bretani / Brettania / Pretani / Prettania /

             Pritani / Priteni

EVOLVED FROM Tumulus-Urnfield (Pictish) / Hallstatt /

             La Tène A

COUNTRY      Turkey / France / England / Wales

REGION       Brittany / Cornwall

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aremorica / Llydaw / Lloegr

LANDMARKS    Black Sea / Irish Sea

SITES        Istanbul

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 15th-12th c / BC 13th c / BC 6th c

LEADERS      Hu Gardarn / Prydain

SIGNATURE    Alpine stock / cattle herders / matrilineal /

             tattoos / horse warriors / chariot warriors /

             leather ivy-shaped shields / timber-laced forts

             / bagpipes

SEE ALSO     Celtic / Cimmerian / Hallstatt / La Tène /

             Pictish / Tumulus / Urnfield

REMARKS      The mythology of the Briton culture claims that

  they crossed Asia Minor to "The Land of Hav" (Land of

  Summer) on the shore of the Black Sea around present-day

  Istanbul.  They were most likely a mixed group of warriors

  from the Tumulus-Urnfield culture who raided in the Near

  East and into Egypt over a period of 300 years from BC 15th

  to BC 12th century.

       Around Istanbul, Hu Gardarn divided the people into

  tribes (Defrobani - awakening of the banners) and led them

  across the continent of Europe, most likely, by way of the

  Danube to the Rhine.  Here they split into two groups when

  a portion of the tribes travelled south and settled in

  Gaul, from the Bodensee in Switzerland to the Loire river

  in Llydaw (Brittany).  In BC 13th century a large number of

  the warriors who settled in the north went to Britain and

  the island became known as "Ynys Prydain" (Pretani Island)

  or Island of the Picts.

       The Picts were matrilineal Alpine cattle-herders.  The

  warriors of both sexes tattooed their bodies with beasts,

  symbols, patterns and interlocking rings around their eyes.

  The Irish word "cruth" and the Welsh word "pryd" both mean

  form.  They carried long spears and ivy-leaf-shaped shields

  made of white oxhide.  The warriors rode horses and used

  chariots as forms of transportation.  They built timber-

  laced forts, a technique which they probably brought back

  from the Aegean.  They may also have been responsible for

  bringing the bagpipes, which then spread throughout Europe.

       Over the next seven hundred years the Picts were

  exposed to the Cimmerian, Urnfield, Hallstatt and La Tène

  cultures.  As each new group arrived, Gaul became more

  crowded.

       In BC 6th century a Pictish chieftain named Prydain

  (Pretani) led warriors of the Picts from Brittany (Llydaw)

  to England (Lloegr), where they landed in Cornwall.  They

  were carrying the superior weapons of the La Tène A period

  and quickly conquered the warring tribes of the area,

  becoming the dominant culture.  They were more involved in

  agriculture than their earlier cousins, using some of the

  pastures for grain growing and doing their threshing inside

  of barns as opposed to out in the fields.  In England the

  people became known as the Britons.  They were Brythonic-

  speaking P-Celts and some warriors travelled on to Ireland

  and settled in the southeast along the Irish Sea, where

  they became subjects of the Goidel.

 

 

NAME         Carthaginian

ALTERNATIVE  Poeni

EVOLVED FROM Phoenician

COUNTRY      Lebanon / Tunisia / Spain

LANDMARKS    Mediterranean

SITES        Alalia

CENTERS      Carthage / Cartagena (Nova Carthago)

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 814 / BC 535 / BC 509 / BC 480 / BC 450 /

             BC 4th c / BC 262-241 / BC 242 / BC 218-201 /

             BC 217 / BC 183 / BC 149-146

DEITIES      Baal (Belenos) / Astarte

LEADERS      Dido / Hamilcar / Hasdrubal / Hannibal

SIGNATURE    ships / urban / standing army / traders / war

             elephants

SEE ALSO     Etruscan / Roman / Phoenician / Tartessian

REMARKS      Carthage was founded around BC 814 by Dido

  (Elissa), daughter of the Phoenician ruler of Tyre.  She

  used her inheritance to purchase land from the inhabitants

  of Tunisia.  As they would sell her only the amount of land

  that could be covered by an ox hide, she cunningly cut the

  hide into thin strips and surrounded a large piece of land

  with two harbors.

       The Carthaginians practiced sacrifice and venerated

  the deities Baal and Astarte.  Carthage became a prosperous

  trading center after she and her Etruscan allies defeated

  the Tartessians and the Greek Phoceans in the naval battle

  of Alalia at Corsica in BC 535.  In BC 509 Carthage made a

  treaty with the city-state of Rome.  In BC 480 they tried

  to conquer Sicily but were beaten by an army of Celtic

  mercenaries led by Gelon of Syracuse.  In BC 450 they

  founded colonies on the west coast of Africa and traded in

  slaves, ivory and gold.  By the time Tyre fell in BC 4th

  century, Carthage controlled much of the Mediterranean

  trade.

       From BC 262 to BC 241 the Carthaginians fought the

  first Punic War with Rome in Sicily.  The army was led by

  Hamilcar Barca who eventually lost to Rome.  Hasdrubal

  conquered land in Spain from the Bastetani tribe of the

  Thracian Tartessians and in BC 242 he captured their city

  Mastia and changed the name to Nova Carthago (Cartagena).

  In the second Punic War (BC 218-201) the Carthaginians, led

  by Hasdrubal, won a war in Spain against the Romans.

       Hasdrubal's brother Hannibal, who had sworn in

  childhood to defeat Rome, led his troops and war elephants

  from Spain across the Alps into Italy so he could fight the

  Romans on their own territory.  In BC 217 he annihilated a

  superior force of Romans under General Flaminius and for

  the next 10 years remained a thorn in the side of Rome as

  he led his army around Italy, causing chaos but sadly not

  reaching his objective.

       Hasdrubal was sent to help out his brother but was

  defeated in the north of Italy before making contact.

  Hannibal escaped back to Carthage which was under siege

  from Rome.  Carthage eventually lost to Rome who then

  forced them to a treaty in which they lost their dominant

  position in Spain.  In BC 183 Hannibal committed suicide.

       The third Punic War (BC 149-146) was initiated by the

  Romans.  They ruthlessly destroyed Carthage and made it

  into a Roman province.

 

 

NAME         Celtic

ALTERNATIVE  Celtae / Celtic {Keltic} / Keltai, Keltoi

             (Greek)

EVOLVED FROM Goidel

COUNTRY      Austria / Belgium / Bulgaria / Czech / England /

             France / Germany / Hungary / Ireland / Italy /

             Luxembourg / Moldova / Netherlands / Poland /

             Portugal / Romania / Scotland / Slovakia / Spain

             / Switzerland / Turkey / former Yugoslavia /

             Wales

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 3rd mill / BC 2200 / BC 2nd mill

SIGNATURE    multi-cultural / Q-Celt / P-Celt / head-hunters

             / single grave / herders or farmers / male and

             female warriors / hillforts / horse-warriors /

             chariots / druids / metempsychosis / torcs /

             ornamentation

SEE ALSO     Aquitani / Aremorican / Argaric / Battle Axe /

             Belgae / Bell Beaker / Briton / Cymry / Galatian

             / Gallic / Goidel / Greek / Hallstatt / La Tène

             / Pictish / Roman / Tumulus / Unetice / Urnfield

             / Wessex

REMARKS      The name Celtic referred to certain Gallic

  tribes in France, Switzerland and Spain.  Although the

  Greeks called them Keltai and the Romans called them

  Gallic, in their own language they called themselves Celtae

  (Celts).  The term Celtic {Keltic} has survived and is used

  by scholars and researchers to denote certain groups and

  cultures that evolved in Europe and formed a particular

  type of society.

       These people shared a common ancestry, language,

  religion, social structure and way of life.  They also

  shared similar burial practices during different stages of

  cultural evolution revolving around the concept of the

  single grave using either inhumation or cremation.  It is

  accepted that the Celts were not a unified racial stock,

  but rather a mixture of various types of Caucasian.  They

  were a warrior society of highland pastoral herders and

  lowland agricultural ranchers, they spoke either a Q-Celt

  or the later P-Celt language base, and practiced both

  matriarchal and patriachal types of lineage.

       Celtic society was divided into 3 groups: nobles,

  freeholders and slaves.  The nobles were eligible to become

  the chieftains, druids or warriors and spent their time

  studying, practicing, hunting, warring and feasting.

       Freeholders rented land from the nobles and herded,

  raised crops, made crafts etc. and in time of war were the

  battle-line soldiers.  Slaves were the walking dead and

  looked after the drudgeries of life until they were

  sacrificed.

       Men and women had equal status within Celtic society.

  Women were not condemned to the role of breeders because

  they had a knowledge of medicinal contraception and a

  system of fosterage.  Women were also not condemned to

  dependency on the male because they had the knowledge of

  the sword.  Men and women wore similar clothing, jewelry,

  etc. depending on the tribal customs.

       Goidel mythology defines the Goidels as a true Celtic

  people and archaeology places them in the Rhine valley

  around BC 2200.  This places the origins of the Celts at

  the beginning of the true European Bronze Age.  Around the

  same time the Unetice culture was developing in Czech.

       Some insist that the Celtic people did not evolve

  until the Urnfield culture, while others are reluctant to

  place them prior to Iron Age Hallstatt.  A few researchers

  refuse to call any of these people Celtic and reserve the

  term for the La Tène cultures only.  Some English have

  tried to eliminate the name altogether, finding it a hard

  word to pronounce.  Government policy seems to decree that

  whenever possible sites, objects and people are to be

  referred to by the archaeological terms of Bronze Age or

  Iron Age, or the misleading term "British".

       A solution to some of these differences has been

  sought by the scholars who refer to certain of these

  stages, such as Tumulus and Urnfield, as Proto-Celtic.  For

  everyday use, the term Celtic has become accepted in

  reference to any of the cultures suspected of speaking the

  Gaelic or Brythonic languages such as the Aquitani,

  Aremorican, Argaric, Belgae, Briton, Cymry, Danann,

  Firbolg, Galatian, Gallic, Goidel, Hallstatt, La Tène,

  Pictish, Tumulus, Unetice, Urnfield and Wessex.

       After thorough research, Stuart Piggott asserts

  (Ancient Europe, p. 91) that the roots of the Celtic

  culture reached back to the beginning of BC 2nd millenium.

  Nora Chadwick believed that "the foundations of the Celtic

  culture" were laid at the close of BC 3rd millenium (The

  Celts, p.24).  Henri Hubert believed that the Celts began

  to evolve around the beginning of the European Bronze Age

  (The Rise of the Celts, p.186).

 

 

NAME         Cimmerian

ALTERNATIVE  Cimmerii / Kymmerioi / Gimmerai

EVOLVED FROM Goidel

COUNTRY      Moldavia / Ukraine / Russia / Turkey / Germany /

             France / Belgium / Switzerland / England / Wales

LANDMARKS    Black Sea / Azov Sea / Caucasus / Channel

SITES        Gordium

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 15th-12th c / BC 11th-8th c / BC 9th c / BC

             8th c  / BC 696 / BC 626

SIGNATURE    timber graves / horse-riding nomads / horse

             trappings / bridle bits / horse harnesses

SEE ALSO     Celtic / Hallstatt / Illyrian / Scythian /

             Thracian / Tumulus / Urnfield

REMARKS      The origins of the Cimmerian culture are not

  known with certainty.  Goidel mythology suggests they were

  the children of Gomer, son of Iafeth, which would mean that

  the Cimmerians evolved out of the Goidel culture.

       It is quite possible that they mixed with the Tumulus-

  Urnfield fusion when they raided through Asia Minor and

  south to Egypt between BC 15th and 12th centuries.  Between

  BC 11th-8th centuries, Cimmerian horse warriors travelled

  across Europe to England and Wales.

       By BC 9th century, the Cimmerians were known to be

  well established on the Ukraine steppes north of the Azov

  Sea.  When engaged in combat, the Cimmerians dismounted

  from their horses and fought on foot with swords.  In BC

  8th century they were dislodged from their homeland by

  incoming Scythians who fought from their horses using bows

  and arrows as well as swords.

       The fleeing Cimmerians travelled in two different

  directions.  One group crossed the Caucasus to Turkey where

  they fought against the Assyrians, killing their leader.

  Next, they sacked the Phrygian city of Gordium in BC 696.

  They then settled into a nomadic life in western Turkey

  until they were joined by Thracian warriors from Europe. By

  BC 626 the Cimmerian-Thracian warriors were destroyed by a

  combined force of Assyrians and Scythians.

       By BC 8th century the other group of Cimmerians had

  travelled westward through the Balkan Penninsula and into

  Germany, Belgium, France, Switzerland and across the

  channel to England and Wales.  They were the fast-moving

  horse warriors who influenced the Hallstatt Celts with

  their horses, art forms and burial practices of timber

  graves.  Their bridle bits and horse harnesses were quickly

  adopted as they were assimilated into other cultures.

 

 

NAME         Cymry

ALTERNATIVE  Combroges / Kymry

EVOLVED FROM Goidel / Pictish / Briton / Belgae

COUNTRY      Wales / England

TERRITORY    Combrog / Cambria

AGE          Iron

DATES        AD 407 / AD 449 / AD 6th c / AD 7th c

SIGNATURE    foot-warriors / Gwledig / confederation

SEE ALSO     Celtic / Germani / Roman / Pictish

REMARKS      The name Cymry is a Brythonic word that means

  "those who fight side by side".  The name was taken by the

  different tribes of Celtic people of England and Wales when

  they began to organize in AD 5th century to fight against

  the increasingly frequent intrusions by tribes of Celts

  from Ireland and Scotland and by tribes of Jutes, Angles

  and Saxons of the Germani culture from the Continent.

       The Cymry war leader was called a Gwledig and the

  purpose of the organization was to protect their territory

  (Combrog / Cambria) and their Celtic culture.  Around AD

  407, after 300 years of Roman occupation, the Imperial army

  evacuated from England and Wales, leaving the people at the

  mercy of the invading tribes.  The lowland Celts of England

  and Wales had become domesticated, their tribal system had

  been destroyed and they had not been allowed to bear arms

  during the Roman occupation.  The wealthier Celts of

  England and Wales had been educated by the Romans and were

  therefore Latin-speaking.  The rural people, especially

  those in the non-farming areas, were of little interest to

  the Romans and had retained their Brythonic language and

  much of their culture.

       The invading Irish Celts were establishing themselves

  in pockets along the west coast of Britain while the

  Pictish Celts of Scotland were fighting to re-establish

  their culture in the north of England.  In AD 449, a Celtic

  chieftain named Vortigern invited warriors of the Germani

  from the Cimbrian Peninsula to settle in England and help

  him drive out the Picts.  Because of the high quality of

  farmland and lack of warriors, the Germani invited more of

  their own people to settle.  Soon, farmers of the Angles

  tribe were settling in East Anglia, Saxons were moving into

  the Thames area and southeast England, and Jutes were

  settling in the southwest.

       The Cymry were organizing to hold what territory they

  could, but by AD 6th century they were overpowered in all

  of the lowlands (chalklands) and held only the highland

  areas of Wales and England as well as Cornwall and a part

  of Brittany in France.

       Another major factor in their struggle revolved around

  religion.  In much of England and Wales, the ruling class

  of Celtic people had fallen for the new monotheistic

  religion of the Romans, whereas the incoming Celtic and

  Germanic tribes were of the polytheistic religion.  Not all

  Celts were openly embracing the new Roman religion and many

  of the rural areas sided with the invaders, who were

  farmers like themselves and held similar pagan beliefs.

       By AD 7th century, the Celto-Germanic population was

  Christianized and had become the dominant power in England.

  The language of the Celtic upper class and the church was

  Latin and it mixed with the language of the German

  invaders.  Brythonic Celtic words were kept from the rural

  communities and before long the Old English language was

  being spoken.

       The dominant influence of the Cymry was then limited

  to Wales and Cornwall where, to this day, many are still

  fighting for survival.  Their religion and culture have

  nearly disappeared but the fight to retain their language

  has gained allies as more people become aware of the

  importance of their ancestry.  The modern warriors are

  gaining the respect of other Celtic populations whose

  embers are still glowing.  Musical and dance influences

  from Brythonic Brittany, Gaelic Ireland, Scotland and

  Canada and the renewed interest in the old Celtic culture

  of England, Portugal, Spain, northern Italy and other

  European countries have added fuel to the fires that burn

  for those who fight side by side (Cymry).

 

 

NAME         Dacian-Getae

ALTERNATIVE  Daci / Getae / Getate

EVOLVED FROM Danubian / Kurgan

COUNTRY      Bulgaria / Hungary / Romania / Yugoslavia

LANDMARKS    Hercynian Forest / Hungarian Plains / Balkan

             Peninsula / Isker / Yantra / Danube / Theiss

CENTERS      Sarmizegethusa

AGE          Neolithic / Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 3rd mill / BC 15th-12th c / BC 4th c / BC 335

             / BC 300 / BC 3rd c / BC 1st c / BC 53 /

             AD 1st c / AD 106

DEITIES      Zamolxix

SIGNATURE    farmers / miners / smiths / villagers / horse

             warriors / hillforts / wheeled vehicles / tumuli

             / archers / military democracy / immortality of

             the soul

SEE ALSO     Danubian / Kurgan / La Tène / Roman / Scythian /

             Thracian / Tumulus / Urnfield

REMARKS      The proto-Dacian culture began to form during BC

  3rd millenium on the Balkan Peninsula when the indigenous

  people (Danubian farmers) were influenced by invading

  Kurgan warrior-herders from the Ukraine-Russian steppes.

       The eastern branch who were settled between the Isker,

  Yantra and Danube rivers in Bulgaria were called the Getae

  and the western group of the culture became known as the

  Dacian.  They all spoke a Thracian dialect (Indo-European)

  and were mainly sedentary grain farmers who also worked

  mines of gold, silver and later iron.

       The tribes were headed by chieftains with religious

  responsibilities and practices similar to the brahmins of

  India, the magi of the Persians and the druids of Ireland.

  The immortality of the soul was central to their beliefs.

       The Dacians lived in small villages, built hillforts

  for protection, excelled with horses, used horse-pulled

  wagons and had the bow and arrow as part of their arsenal.

       Between BC 15th-12th century, the Dacian-Getae culture

  was influenced by the Bronze Age Tumulus-Urnfield warriors

  who were on their way through the Balkans to Anatolia and

  many of their young warriors would have gone with them.

       When the La Tène Celts arrived in BC 4th century, the

  Dacians were under the influence of the Scythians.

  Alexander of Macedonia attacked the Getae in BC 335 on the

  lower Danube but by BC 300 they had formed a state, founded

  on a military democracy, and began a period of conquest.

  More Celts arrived during BC 3rd century, and in BC 1st

  century the fearsome Boii made the mistake of trying to

  take away some of the Dacians' territory on the eastern

  side of the Theiss river.  The Dacians drove the Boii south

  across the Danube and out of their territory, at which

  point the Boii gave up and went away.

       In BC 53 Caesar stated that the Dacian territory was

  on the eastern border of the Hercynian Forest.  Late in AD

  1st century, a Dacian chieftain forced the Romans to

  retreat from their territory but in AD 106 their capital,

  Sarmizegethusa, fell to the Roman war machine.  Rome was

  quick to destroy their language and subject them to their

  yoke.

 

 

NAME         Danann

EPITHET      Tuatha Dea (The tribes of the Goddess)

ALTERNATIVE  Aeacean / Achaean (Allies) / Argives / Danaan /

             Danand / Mycenaean / Tuatha De Danann {Tootha

             Day Dah-nan} / Aes Sidhe (Race of the Mounds)

EVOLVED FROM Nemedian of the Yamnaya

COUNTRY      Ireland / Scotland / England / France / Wales

REGION       Mayo / Sligo / Kerry / Meath / Donegal

TERRITORY    Albainn

LANDMARKS    Lough Corrib / Ballysadare

SITES        Troy / Plain of Towers (Magh Turieadh) /

             Taillcenn / Mag Mell (Fields of Happiness) / Tir

             na nOg (Land of Youth / Beauty) / Hi-Brasil

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 19th c / BC 16th c / BC 13th c

DEITIES      Danu

LEADERS      Iarbonel / Ibath / Danaus

SIGNATURE    matriarchal / tumuli / warriors / rulers

SEE ALSO     Celtic / Firbolg / Fomorii / Goidel / Mycenaean

             / Tumulus / Unetice / Urnfield / Yamnaya

REMARKS      The Danann were the descendants of the Nemedian

  followers of Ibath, son of Iarbonel.  He had led his people

  to Great Lochlann (Scandinavia) in the north-east where

  they studied the arts of druidism.

       The Danann were involved with the Mycenaean culture

  who were by BC 19th century transporting trade goods

  between the North Sea and the Balkan Peninsula.  It is

  feasible that the Danann also ventured to Thrace

  (Turkey/Bulgaria/Greece) on the Balkan Peninsula before

  they returned to Ireland with their powerful druids.

  Wherever they went they acquired their knowledge from the 4

  centers of Failias (fal=hedge), Goirias (gor=fire), Finnias

  (fin=white) and Muirias (muir=sea) or maybe from the four

  elements of earth, fire, air and water.

       The Danann then voyaged to Dobar and Urdobar

  (Hebrides?) in Albainn (Scotland/northern England) where

  the 3 sons of Beoan had led their group of Nemedians after

  they left Ireland.  Here the Danann stayed for 7 years

  while visiting Ireland in the spirit form, travelling

  through the air to the mountain of Conmaicne Rein in

  Connacht.  On a Beltainn of BC 16th century, they invaded

  Ireland by ship.  They landed in Connacht and tried to

  negotiate with their kin, the Firbolg.  The Firbolg were

  descendents of Semeon the Nemedian who had also left

  Ireland and returned.

       After a failed negotiation, the two groups of Celts

  went to war at summer solstice.  The battle is now known as

  the first battle of Magh Tuireadh (South Moytura) and was

  fought near Cong by Lough Corrib in county Mayo.  The

  Firbolg lost the battle and retreated to nearby islands.

       When the battle was over, the Danann described

  themselves as delightful golden-haired people of the most

  handsome and fairest of form.  Their artisans were the best

  and their equipment and apparel were the most

  distinguished.  They used lances of blue light and shields

  of pure white.  Their warriors excelled in the arts more

  than anyone else.  They were the bravest and inspired the

  most horror, fear and dread.

       Twenty-seven years later, the Danann fought the second

  battle of Magh Turieadh (North Moytura) against the Fomorii

  on another summer solstice.  The battle was fought in the

  north of County Sligo near Ballysadare.  The Danann were

  victorious again and now had total control of Ireland.  The

  Danann tribal organization was matriarchal and they divided

  Ireland into 3 provinces (coiceda).

       Just as the Danann were settling in, the Sons of Mil

  (Warriors of Spain) of the Goidel culture invaded.  The

  Danann fought the battles of Sliabh Mish in Kerry,

  Taillcenn at Tailltinn (Teltown) in Meath and Druim Lighean

  (Drumleene) in Donegal against the Goidel and lost.  When

  the peace negotiations were over, it was agreed that the

  Goidel would control all that was above the surface and the

  Danann would control what was under.

       Groups of the Danann retreated to the western isles of

  Magh Mell (Field of Happiness), Tir na nOg (Land of Youth /

  Beauty), and Hi-Brasil.  Those Danann who remained in

  Ireland settled in the Sidhes (tumuli) and became known as

  the Aes Sidhe (Race of the Mounds).  They were revered by

  the Goidel for their great knowledge, and in time their

  dead heroes were treated as gods.  The Danann were

  considered to be people of the day, light and sun.

       The Danann were supposed to have received their name

  from Danaus, who was a head chieftain of Argos (central

  France).  They fought with the Achaeans (allies) in the

  great war of Troy during BC 13th century.  Iman Wilkens,

  after intensive research (Where Troy Once Stood), places

  Troy outside Cambridge in England.

       The Danann managed to keep their blood line in the

  controlling force of Ireland through intermarriage. Members

  of the Danann also settled on the west coast of Wales and

  were major players in the history of that country.

 

 

NAME         Danubian

ALTERNATIVE  Neolithic farmers

COUNTRY      Turkey / Romania / Ukraine / Poland / Germany /

             Netherlands / Belgium / France / Spain /

             Portugal / England / Wales / Ireland

LANDMARKS    Black Sea / Aegean / Balkan Peninsula / Danube

AGE          Neolithic

DATES        BC 5th mill / BC 4500 / BC 4th mill / BC 3500

SIGNATURE    Mediterranean / farmers / villagers / communal

             graves / fetal position burial / spirals /

             ornamented pottery / lack of religious objects

SEE ALSO     Ertebolle-Ellerbek / Neolithic

REMARKS      Danubian farmers were a slash-and-burn grain-

  growing culture that developed in Neolithic Turkey.  They

  would burn an area of forest, then plant grain between the

  dead trees with the help of digging sticks and hoes.  The

  farmers migrated through the Balkans and into the Danube

  valley during BC 5th millennium.  They were a slight people

  with dark hair, dark skin and blue eyes.

       Because of their crude farming methods, the Danubians

  had to move to new land when the soil became depeleted.

  They lived in villages of long rectangular wooden

  farmhouses with attached barns.  They worked timber with

  polished stone adzes and made clay pottery ornamented with

  parallel lines, spirals and scrolls.

       Artifacts of the Danubian culture disclose an absence

  of religious buildings or idols.  Their dead were inhumed

  in the fetal position in communal graves and were adorned

  with jewelry made from the shells of the Mediterranean

  mussel (Spondylus Gaederopus).

       By BC 4500 the Danubian culture extended from the

  Black Sea across northern Europe to northern France, and by

  BC 3500 they were farming in Wales.  During BC 4th

  millennium the Danubian farmers influenced the Ertebolle-

  Ellerbek, a Neolithic hunter-fisher people of the north

  European plain.

 

 

NAME         Ertebolle-Ellerbek

EVOLVED FROM Neolithic hunter-fisher / Danubian

COUNTRY      Poland / Germany / Netherlands / Denmark /

             Norway / Sweden

LANDMARKS    North Sea / Baltic Sea

AGE          Neolithic

DATES        BC 4th mill / BC 3rd mill / BC 2nd mill

SIGNATURE    funnel-necked beaker / fisher-hunters

SEE ALSO     Battle Axe / Danubian / Neolithic

REMARKS      During BC 4th millennium, Neolithic hunter-

  fisher people of the north European plain were influenced

  by incoming Danubian farmers.  This mixing of the two

  cultures was to produce a third called the Ertebolle-

  Ellerbek culture.  The signature of the culture was a

  funnel-necked beaker.

       By the beginning of BC 3rd millennium, their culture

  spread along the north from Poland through Germany to the

  Netherlands and north into Denmark, southern Norway and

  Sweden.  By BC 2nd millenium, the culture was being

  strongly influenced by the Battle Axe people.

 

 

NAME         Etruscan

ALTERNATIVE  Tusci / Etrusci / Rasenae

EVOLVED FROM Tumulus-Urnfield / Villanovan

COUNTRY      Italy

REGION       Bologna / Tuscany

TERRITORY    Etruria

LANDMARKS    Alps / Po / Mediterranean / Euganean Hills /

             Ticino

SITES        Alalia / Ticino

CENTERS      Bologna / Verona

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 15th-12th c / BC 1100 / BC 1000 / BC 7th c /

             BC 614-576 / BC 535 / BC 474 / BC 4th c /

             BC 3rd c

LEADERS      Tarquin / Raetus

SIGNATURE    herders / traders / urban / drystone walls /

             tumuli / male & female warriors / funeral urns

SEE ALSO     Carthaginian / Celtic / Greek / Hallstatt /

             La Tène / Phoenician / Rhaeti / Tartessian /

             Tumulus / Urnfield

REMARKS      Mythology claims that the Etruscans came from

  Lydia in present-day Turkey.  It is possible that they

  evolved from the Tumulus-Urnfield warriors who between BC

  15th-12th raided Asia Minor.  The proto-Etruscan warriors

  pushed the Italic Umbrian tribes south as they conquered

  land in the Po Valley and along the west coast of Italy

  which they named Tuscany (Etruria).  There, around BC 1100

  they mixed with the Urnfield people who were known as the

  Villanovans.  The fusion of cultures became known as the

  Etruscan.

       The Villanovans were herders, miners, amber traders,

  lived in organized villages and had male and female horse

  warriors.  Their burials were in funeral urns often covered

  with clay helmets.

       The Etruscans evolved into an urban people, with

  twelve principal cities joined in a confederation.  They

  were known for their art and music and by BC 1000 were

  influencing other cultures including those of their

  homeland and the developing Hallstatt culture in Austria.

  They built drystone walls from large rough-hewn stones and

  buried their dead in tumuli or, when conditions permitted,

  cut chambers into solid rock.  The first part of their

  culture was connected with the Phoenicians, who were noted

  traders.

       By BC 7th century the Etruscan culture was in decline

  as they began to copy Corinthian and Attic imports.  During

  the time when the Etruscan Tarquin (BC 614-576) was the

  leader of the city of Rome, the Iron Age Hallstatt Celts

  invaded Italy.

       In BC 535 at Alalia in Corsica, the Etruscans fought

  beside the Carthaginians against the Phocean Greeks and

  their allies the Tartessians.  The Etruscans and

  Carthaginians were victorious and thereby gained control of

  the Mediterranean trade routes.

       In BC 474 the Etruscans lost a battle to Celtic

  warriors near the present-day city of Ticino.  During BC

  4th century, the Etruscans were invaded by the Gallic La

  Tène culture led by Bellovesus and were defeated near the

  Ticino River.  Some Etruscans, such as those near Bologna,

  remained where they were while others, like the followers

  of Raetus, fled to the Euganean Hills near Verona and

  became known as the Rhaeti.  The incoming Celts caused an

  increasing erosion of their territory and by BC 3rd century

  the Etruscans were conquered by the armies of the expanding

  Roman agriculturists.

 

 

NAME         Firbolg

EPITHET      Men in Trousers / Men with Bags / Men with

             Bellies

ALTERNATIVE  Fir Bolg / Fir Bholg / Fir Bold

EVOLVED FROM Nemedian of the Yamnaya

COUNTRY      Ireland

TERRITORY    Gaul / Belgica / Ulster / Connacht / Leinster

             / East Munster / West Munster

LANDMARKS    Lough Corrib / Aran / Islay / Man / Rathlin /

             Hebrides

SITES        Plain of Towers (Magh Turieadh)

CENTERS      Dun Aonghusa on Inishmore

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 17th c

LEADERS      Semion

SIGNATURE    highland herders

SEE ALSO     Belgae / Celtic / Danann / Fomorii / Tumulus

             / Unetice / Urnfield / Yamnaya

REMARKS      The Firbolg invaded Ireland on the eve of Bron

  Tro Gain (Lughnasadh) sometime during BC 17th century. They

  were the descendants of the Nemedian who had left Ireland

  and under the chieftain Semeon, son of Starn, sailed to

  Thrace.  During the Bronze Age there were territories in

  Britain, France and the European side of present-day Turkey

  called Thrace.  In Thrace the Nemedian became a subject

  people and the ancestors of the Firbolg.

       The Firbolg invasion was led by the five sons of Dela.

  They divided the island into the five coiceda (provinces)

  of Ulster, Connacht, Leinster, East Munster, and West

  Munster.  The provinces met in the center of Ireland on the

  hill of Uisnech where the stone of divisions lay.  Connacht

  became their main province of settlement.

       There is a good deal of confusion as to what their

  name meant.  The epithet (men with bags) could mean they

  were miners or metal workers who used the bags to carry ore

  or as bellows to smelt the ore.  They may have been

  bagpipers but most likely they were a horse-riding cattle

  culture and the name referred to the wearing of trousers

  (people who dressed in leather).  The term "fir" (or

  "fear") in old Irish may have referred to the family and

  not just men.

       After the Firbolg had ruled Ireland for only 37 years,

  warriors of the Danann arrived.  They were also descendants

  of the Nemedians who had fled Ireland under the leadership

  of Ibath.  The Firbolg and Danann tried to negotiate a

  peace, but the attempt failed and the two groups of Celts

  fought a battle on summer solstice near Loch Corrib in Co.

  Mayo.  The battle has since been referred to as the First

  Battle of Magh Tuireadh (South Moytura).  The battle raged

  northward and 1100 warriors of the Firbolg died before they

  reached Traig Eothaili.

       The Firbolg lost the battle and retreated to Connacht

  and the islands around Ireland and Scotland such as Arran

  (Ara), Islay (Ile), Isle of Man (Man), Rathlin (Rachra) and

  the Hebrides.  It is thought by some that the Firbolg led

  the Fomorii during the Second Battle of Magh Tuireadh:

  another battle that was also lost to the Danann.

       In BC 1st century Firbolg, sons of Umor from the

  islands of Scotland, were being harassed by the Picts and

  began to return to Ireland.  Carbre Niafer, head chieftain

  of Leinster, agreed to allow them to settle in Leinster but

  did not want them to return in great numbers so he imposed

  a heavy tax on them.

       The Firbolg went to Medhb for permission to settle in

  Connacht.  She agreed to this and Oengus constructed the

  fortress of Dun Aonghusa on the island of Aran Mor in

  Galway Bay, Cimme 4-heads settled at Loch Cimme (Loch

  Hacket), Cutra settled on Loch Cuthra, Mil established his

  people on Murbech, Dalach settle upon Dail, Bera on the

  headlands (Kinvarra), Mod settled his people on Modlind

  (Clew Bay), Irgus took the area of Cend Boirne, Cing took

  the territory of Aigle, Bairneach settled Laiglinne,

  Concraide settled his people on Inis Medoin, Lathrach

  settled Tulach Tend, Taman took  Rind Tamain (Towan Point)

  and Conall, son of Oengus son of Umor, settled Aidne.

       When Carbre Niafer heard that the Firbolg had up and

  moved to Connacht he was angry and called for his 4

  sureties and told them to bring the heads of the nomad sons

  of Umor.  The wife of mac Magach asked for a delay until

  Oengus could take counsel.  Oengus decided to send 3

  champions and his son Conall against the 4 sureties of

  Carbre Niafer rather than moving again.  Oengus sent Cing

  of Aigle against Ros mac Dedaid, Cimme four-heads against

  Conall Cernacht, Irgus Many Battles against Cet mac Magach

  and his son Conall The Great against Cu Chulainn.

       The Firbolg champions lost to the 4 sureties of Carbre

  Niafer but they were now allowed to settled permanently in

  Connacht.  They became loyal to Medbh and helped her defend

  the province of Connacht in many battles such as the famous

  Cualnge Cattle Raid.

 

 

NAME         Fomorii

EPITHET      Demons of the Sea / Demons of the Minor Sea /

             Sea People / Female Demons

ALTERNATIVE  Domorchaib / Fo-Moir (undersea) / Fomhorchaibh /

             Fomoire / Fomoraig (sea raiders) / Fomohire /

             Fomoire / Fomori / Fomorii / Fomorach /

             Fomorchaibh

EVOLVED FROM Amazons

COUNTRY      Syria / Ireland

SITES        Plain of Towers (Magh Tuireadh)

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 21st c / BC 16th c

LEADERS      Cichol / Lot

SIGNATURE    female warriors / fishers / hunting birds /

             goatherders / 1 eye / 1 arm / 1 leg

SEE ALSO     Amazon / Danann / Firbolg / Mycenaean /

             Neolithic

REMARKS      The Fomorii seem to have been a society with a

  high percentage of female warriors, and their name relates

  them to being a people of the sea.  They may have been the

  decendants of the followers of Cessair who landed in

  Ireland during BC 21st century.  They venerated the deities

  of the night, dark and moon.

       The Fomorii lived on the islands of northwest Ireland

  and won their livelihood from fishing, hunting birds and

  herding goats.  They were accused of being goat-headed

  which may mean that the animal was a totem of theirs.

  During the Bronze Age invasions they were described as

  having one eye, one arm and one leg which associates them

  with magic and/or metal-working.

       The mythology of the Fomorii said they came from Mount

  Hermon in Syria where there was a temple to Baal. Cessair's

  foster-father Saball son of Nionall (Nenua) was also

  connected to the tower of Baal as well.  Towers, temples,

  zigguarats and pyramids were places used by the educated to

  study the heavens.

       The Fomorii are treated as an indigenous people of

  Ireland who were powerful enough to keep the invading

  tribes of the Partholean, Nemedian and Firbolg in control

  and it was not until the coming of the Danann in BC 16th

  century that the Fomorii were subdued by the second Battle

  of Magh Tuireadh (north Moytura).  After the battle, which

  was fought on summer solstice, the Fomorii did not

  disappear completely but as a people they did not have any

  further major involvements in the history of Ireland.

       If the Fomorii were of the Amazons, the battle with

  the Danann may have been one of the many battles fought for

  control of trade between the different sea powers of the

  Bronze Age.  The old manuscripts suggest an early alliance

  with the Danann while they were settled in Albainn.  A

  number of families intermarried and many Danann fought on

  the side of the Fomorii during the battle of north Moytura.

 

 

NAME         Galatian

ALTERNATIVE  Galatae

EVOLVED FROM Gallic / Illyrian

COUNTRY      Turkey

TERRITORY    Galatia

LANDMARKS    Balkan Peninsula / Bosporus / Plateau of Phrygia

             / Black Sea / Aegean Sea / Kizil Irmak /

             Sangarius / Mameanderes

SITES        Istanbul (Byzantion) / Drunemeton

CENTERS      Eccobriga / Pitobriga / Tolistothora

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 3rd c / BC 278 / BC 277-276 / BC 230 / BC 27-

             AD 14 / AD 40-50

LEADERS      Brennus / Leonnorios / Lutarios / Deiotarus

SIGNATURE    Alpine stock / mercenaries / horse-riding /

             trousers / coins / tetrarchy / round-heads /

             light curly hair / Trimarkisia

SEE ALSO     Celtic / Illyrian / Gallic / Germani

REMARKS      In BC 3rd century Gallic warriors from the

  Balkan Peninsula, descendants of the followers of

  Segovesus, teamed up with Illyrian warriors and under the

  leadership of Brennus descended into Greece.  An army under

  the leadership of two chieftains named Leonnorios and

  Lutarios separated from the main army before they marched

  into Greece and headed toward Byzantion (Istanbul).

       In BC 278 they were invited to cross the Bosporus and

  serve as mercenaries for Nicomedes, king of Bithynia.  They

  numbered around 20,000 male and female warriors and after

  fifty years of rampage they finally settled down on the

  Plateau of Phrygia.  This was the beginning of the Celtic

  Galatian culture.

       The Galatians were described as high-browed round-

  heads with high faces, straight foreheads and coarse curly

  light hair.  They were horse-riding cattle herders who

  fought with spears and swords, and both men and women wore

  trousers and capes.  They utilized a system, similar to

  Germani horse warriors, which was called a Trimarkisia. The

  mounted warrior had two helpers who ran alongside.  The

  warriors were also followed by their children, non-

  combatants, and baggage.  The Galatians produced a coin

  with a woman's head on one side and a helmeted warrior on

  the other; other coins had a portrait on one side and a

  seated figure of the Hercules type on the other.

       Their territory, Galatia, gave them access to the

  Black Sea by the rivers Kizil Irmak and Sangarius (Sakarya)

  and the Aegean Sea through the river Mameanderes (Buyuk

  Menderes).  The Galatians had a sanctuary that was

  dedicated by their high chieftain Deiotarus.  The sanctuary

  was called Drunemeton and was southeast of present-day

  Ancyra in the approximate center of their territory.  The

  Celts merged with some of the local people and accepted the

  local goddesses who in turn accepted them.

       They developed a Tetrarchy system of rule by dividing

  the warriors into 3 tribes with 4 clans each.  The clans

  each had a chieftain and they elected a head chieftain as

  leader of the tribe.  The three head chieftains then

  elected a high chieftain as ruler of the Galatians.  They

  named the three tribes the Trogmi, Tectosages and

  Tolistoboii.  The Romans referred to their system as the

  Commonwealth of the Galatians.

       In BC 277-276 Nicomedes loaned Galatian mercenaries to

  fight for Ptolemy II in a war against his brother.  After

  the 4000 Galatians defeated him, they tried to seize Egypt

  but were cornered on an island in the Nile where they all

  died from starvation or by suicide.  There are fragments of

  their monument in a museum in Cairo.

       By BC 230, the Galatians were defeated by the armies

  of Seleucos II led by Attalos because they backed Antiochos

  Hierax over the succession to the throne of Bithynia.

  During the Roman rule of Augustus (BC 27-AD 14), Galatia

  became a Roman province.

       In AD 40-50, the Galatians were the first converts to

  St. Paul's unique blend of paganism and the teachings of

  Christ.  This act led to a series of arguments between Paul

  and Peter.  Peter remained as the head of the followers of

  Jesus and Paul developed a saviour cult based on a system

  of conversion which eventually spread throughout the Roman

  Empire.

 

 

NAME         Gallic

ALTERNATIVE  Celtae / Gailion / Galatae / Galatian / Galian /

             Galli / Galladagdae / Gallograeci

EVOLVED FROM Goidel / Ligurian / Unetice / Tumulus / Urnfield

             / Pictish / Cimmerian / Hallstatt / La Tène

COUNTRY      France / Switzerland

TERRITORY    Gaul

LANDMARKS    Marne / Seine / Channel / Atlantic / Rhine /

             Alps / Garonne

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 2200 / BC 2nd mill / BC 1800-1200 / BC 15th-

             13th c / BC 1100 / BC 11th-8th / BC 9th c / BC

             6th c / BC 5th c / BC 4th c / BC 300 / BC 3rd c

             / BC 1st c / BC 58

LEADERS      Bellovesus / Segovesus

SIGNATURE    immortality / funeral pyres / horse warriors /

             chariot warriors / battle-line soldiers

SEE ALSO     Aquitani / Aremorican / Belgae / Celtic /

             Cimmerian / Galatian / Germani / Goidel /

             Hallstatt / Iberian / Ligurian / La Tène /

             Pictish / Tumulus / Roman / Unetice / Urnfield

REMARKS      The name Gallic (Galli) came into use with the

  Romans as a general term for tribes who invaded Italy from

  Gaul after BC 4th century.  The people called themselves

  Celtae (Celts) and evolved from the tribes of different

  cultures who moved into the territory looking for empty

  space in which to grow.

       Sometime after BC 2200 tribes of the newly arrived

  Goidel culture crossed the Rhine and settled in eastern

  France and Switzerland.  This was the base culture of the

  Gallic people.  They were influenced by numerous sub-

  cultures which passed through their territory, some

  settling around them, others among them.

       The Ligurian migration out from Switzerland in BC 2nd

  millenium spread over Europe.  The Unetice-Tumulus culture

  appeared in Gaul between BC 1800-1200.  The Picts began to

  arrive around BC 15th-13th century, the Urnfield culture

  influenced Gaul in BC 1100, the Cimmerians between BC 11th

  and 8th centuries, the Hallstatt tribes (highest

  percentage) began to arrive around BC 9th century, the La

  Tène culture in BC 6th century, the Iberian culture from

  Spain migrated north into Gaul by BC 5th century and the

  Belgae culture was an influence in BC 3rd century.

       The meeting halls of the Gallic warriors were circular

  with the chieftain's position in the center and the

  champions around him or her like the rim of a wheel.  The

  remainder of the people were situated to the outer circle

  and, depending on their position in the clan or tribe,

  stood or sat down.

       When the Gallic chieftains called their warriors to

  arms, the last warrior to arrive was tortured to death in

  front of the others.  The Gallic culture on every level was

  divided into rival factions to ensure that all people were

  protected.  The leaders of the different factions had to

  protect their supporters or lose authority over them.  As

  in any democracy, every free person had a say.  Their

  society was divided into three areas with the free herders,

  farmers and crafts people at the bottom, the aristocratic

  warriors next and then the druids advising the chieftains.

       The druids looked after the sciences, laws, history,

  and the relationships of the people with the many gods and

  goddesses they must contend with in everyday life.  In

  calculating their time, light followed night for the day,

  month, and year.  The spoils of combat were dedicated to

  the gods and anyone who went against this or was caught

  stealing from a sacred site was killed by torture.

       When a man and woman married, they both contributed an

  equal amount of wealth to the joint account and the profits

  were set aside and went to the survivor.  The husband had

  the power of life and death over his wives and if he died a

  mysterious death, his wives were questioned by torture if

  necessary and if any were found guilty they were burned to

  death.  Funeral pyres of warriors were similar to those of

  the ancient Hindus and contained everything the warrior

  treasured including animals, wives or husbands, dependents

  and slaves.  They believed they would all be born again at

  the same time in the next life.  The Gallic men did not

  allow their sons to approach them in public until they were

  old enough to be considered warriors.

       When the population density of the Gallic territory in

  central France became too high in BC 4th century, the high

  chieftain of the Bituriges confederation sent out his two

  heirs, sons of his sister, to find new lands for

  settlement.  This resulted in mass migrations and the

  reorganization and redistribution of European populations.

       One nephew, Bellovesus, spearheaded an invasion into

  the Po Valley in Italy while his brother Segovesus led his

  followers into the Hercynian Forest in the eastern Alps and

  the Carpathian Mountains where they named their territory

  Noricum.  Some established themselves farther east, in

  Pannonia, while others around BC 300 moved on to the Balkan

  Peninsula to search for land.  Later, descendants of these

  warriors formed the bulk of an army of mercenaries who

  became the Galatians.

       When Caesar arrived in Gaul during BC 1st century

  there were four main cultural groups living there: Gallic,

  Belgae, Aremorican and Aquitani.  Gaul itself was a large

  territory bounded by the sea coast, Rhine River, Alps,

  Mediterranean and Pyrenees.  It consisted of present-day

  Belgium, Luxembourg, France and part of the Netherlands,

  Germany and Switzerland.

       The Gallic territory was bounded by the middle Seine

  and the Marne rivers to the north which separated them from

  the Belgae.  The lower Loire and the Loir rivers separated

  them from the Aremoricans, and their territory touched the

  Bay of Biscay on the west.  The Garonne river separated

  them from the Aquitani in the south, the Alps separated

  them from the Ligurians, and the Rhine to the east was

  their border with the Germani tribes.

       In March of BC 58, Caesar used the excuse of the

  Helvetii migration to invade Gaul against the wishes of the

  Senate in Rome.  He massacred approximately 258,000 men,

  women and children to stop the migration.  In the next

  eight years, he and his legion were to slaughter many

  hundreds of thousands more before he could break the Gallic

  people to the Roman yoke.  But never once in his writings

  to the senate of Rome did he mention that his armies were

  fighting female warriors as well as male.

       The Celts of Gaul became a subject people, and most

  gave up their own language for the popular form of Latin

  spoken by the Roman soldiers, merchants and colonists.  As

  the Roman Empire crumpled, the Franks (Germani) settled in

  France and added some Teutonic words to the vocabulary and

  in time the French language developed.

 

 

NAME         Germani

ALTERNATIVE  German / Teutonic

EVOLVED FROM Neolithic hunters / Kurgan

COUNTRY      Denmark / Germany / Sweden / Netherlands

LANDMARKS    Thuringer Wald / Wesser / Saale / Rhine /

             Rhon Mountains / Bodensee

SITES        Chalons

AGE          Neolithic / Chalcolithic / Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 2300 / BC 1700 / BC 1050-750 / BC 750-500 /

             BC 6th c / BC 400 / BC 300 / BC 109 / BC 58 /

             AD 3rd-4th c / AD 451 / AD 5th c / AD 476

DEITIES      fire / sun / moon / stars

SIGNATURE    Nordic stock / fierce warriors / horse warriors

             / herder-hunters / cremation / urnfields / hide

             & fur clothing / throwing axes / matriarchal /

             no druids / virgin warriors / wilderness

SEE ALSO     Belgae / Celtic / Kurgan / Neolithic / Pictish /

             Roman / Scythian

REMARKS      The Germani evolved when the Chalcolithic Kurgan

  tribes mixed with the local Neolithic community around BC

  2300.  From the end of the Neolithic period to the La Tène

  period, the homeland of the Germani was to the east of the

  Thuringer Wald between the Wesser and Saale.  Their

  territory extended north into Denmark and southern Sweden.

       Linguists believe that the Germani were not originally

  an Indo-European-speaking people but at some time in the

  distant past adopted the Indo-European language base and

  developed their own form now known as German.  Recent

  research at the University of Pennsylvania has shown that

  proto-German had some of its roots in the Balto-Slavic

  language base before moving westward.

       The Bronze Age came late to northern Europe and

  Scandinavia because of its lack of copper.  There are

  records in stone that show that the Nordic Bronze Age had

  connections for procuring copper from native tribes in

  Ontario, Canada around BC 1700.

       During their Bronze Age (BC 1050-750) and their Iron

  Age (BC 750-500), the Germani practiced cremation and

  buried their dead in urnfields.  During the middle Bronze

  Age, the Germani used a sword with a tang and handles

  rivetted to the sides.  During BC 6th century, the Germani

  culture was influenced by invading Scythians.

       The Rhon Mountains on the west separated the Germani

  from the Celtic homeland, and by BC 400 the Germani had

  established themselves westward to the right bank of the

  lower Rhine across from the Belgae.  Although the languages

  of the two cultures were different, the Germani adopted

  many Celtic names and loan words.  From BC 300 onward, the

  Germani were heavily influenced by the Celtic culture. They

  adopted their manners, style of clothing and weapons such

  as the cateia, a Celtic throwing axe which they renamed the

  teutonus.

       The Germani moved south on the heels of the Celts: as

  the Celts depopulated an area the Germani moved in and

  mixed with the remaining Celts.  A number of mixed tribes

  appeared after the Helvetii left the area of the Main river

  with the Cimbri and Teutoni in BC 109.

       By the time of Caesar's invasion into Gaul in BC 58,

  the Germani were in control of the territory on the right

  bank of the Rhine from Lake Bodensee (Brigantius) to its

  mouth where they intermingled with the Belgae on the right

  bank.  As the Romans invaded Gaul, Celts fled to the other

  side of the Rhine and settled with their Nordic cousins.

  This mixing brought more of the Alpine-type people and a

  heavier influence of Brythonic P-Celt.  The fusion of these

  two people produced Celto-Germani and Germano-Celtic

  tribes.

       The Germani tribes had no druids and their

  relationship with the gods was simpler than that of the

  Celts.  They dealt only with those things that could be

  seen, such as the sun and moon, and did not involve

  themselves with sacrifices.  Guests were sacred people and

  had a special protection about them.  Tacitus noticed that

  the Germani, like the Picts, were a matriarchal society.

       Like their cousins the Celts, the Germani passed their

  days by hunting and fighting.  They prided themselves on

  staying virgins as long as possible, believing that this

  would develop their muscle and character.  Although

  engagement in sexual activity before the age of 20 was

  frowned upon, the Germani had no other sexual taboos.

  Nudity was of no concern, males and females bathed together

  and wore only limited amounts of clothing.  The Germani

  dressed in furs and hides from their cattle but even in

  winter they wore little extra protection from the cold.

       The Germani helped keep themselves in fighting trim by

  robbing other tribes.  They ate mainly meat, cheese and

  milk and believe that farming only weakened a person.  The

  tribe owned the land and remained nomadic in their

  territory so that individuals would not become attached to

  a certain place or develop a strong desire for material

  wealth.  They were very concerned about the dangers of

  becoming lazy, greedy or letting one person become much

  richer than another.

       The greatest achievement for a tribe of the Germani

  was to lay waste to as much land as possible around its own

  territory and keep it uninhabitated by humans.  A tribe

  judged its wealth by the amount of wilderness it controlled

  and enjoyed eliminating farmers so as to give the land back

  to nature.

       Caesar was afraid of the Germani and after a few

  brushes with them he stayed out of their territory.  The

  Romans hired Germani horse warriors who were probably their

  most effective weapon against the Celts in Gaul and in

  Britain.  In AD 2nd-4th centuries, the Germani became

  allies with the Sarmatians and raided the Dacian tribes in

  Romania.  During AD 3rd-4th centuries, the Germani, who

  were still a young and forward-moving culture, made life

  miserable for the Romans.  In AD 451, the Germani stopped

  the invasion by Attila and his Huns at the battle of

  Châlons.

       During AD 5th century, the Alemanni confederation of

  Germani tribes carried the fight against Rome onto Roman

  soil and in AD 476 they finally brought about the

  destruction of the Empire that had forcefully subjected and

  destroyed so many cultures during its reign of terror.

 

 

NAME         Goidel

EPITHET      Atecotti (The Very Old Ones)

ALTERNATIVE  Goidel [pl], Goidil [si] (Irish Gaelic) /

             Attacotti, Attecotti, Gaedel, Gwyddell (Welsh) /

             Scotti (Pictish) / Gaidhlig (Scottish Gaelic) /

             Milesians, Mil Espaine (Miles Hispaniae), Maic,

             Miled, Mile {Mee-leh} (Latin)

EVOLVED FROM Kurgan / Yamnaya

COUNTRY      Russia / Ukraine / Turkey / Netherlands /

             Germany / Czech / France / Switzerland / Spain /

             Portugal / England / Ireland / Scotland / Wales

             / Isle of Man

REGION       Asia Minor / Lothian / Fife / Yorkshire /

             Wiltshire / Anglesey / Gwynedd / Kerry / Meath /

             Donegal

TERRITORY    Scythia / Phrygia / Aremorica / Gaul / Connacht

             / Ulster / Munster / Leinster / Mide

LANDMARKS    Black Sea / Plateau of Phrygia / Alma Dagh /

             Taurus Mountains / Caucasus / Caspian sea /

             Volga / Black Sea / Don / Crimean Peninsula /

             Mediterranean / Alps / Rhine / Elbe / North Sea

             / Firth of Forth / Downs / Salisbury Plain /

             Loire Sliabh Mish / Teltown / Drumleene

SITES        Stonehenge / Tailltinn / Anglesey / Rabat

             (Clythera)

CENTERS      York / Salisbury

AGE          Copper / Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 2200 / BC 21st c / BC 2000 / BC 19th-18th c /

             BC 16th c / BC 15th / BC 13th c / BC 800 /

             BC 6th c / AD 3rd c / AD 5th c / AD 842

LEADERS      Gomer / Magog / Rifath Scot / Brath / Golamh /

             Eremon

SIGNATURE    Alpine stock / Q-Celt / single graves / round

             barrow tumuli / fetal position / inhumation /

             cremation / zoned beakers / ranchers / chariots

             / copper daggers / arrowheads / bright-colored

             clothing / kilts / bone buttons

SEE ALSO     Battle Axe / Bell Beaker / Briton / Celtic /

             Cimmerian / Danann / Kurgan / Pictish / Yamnaya

REMARKS      The mythology of the Goidel claims that they

  were born of Gomer and Magog, 2 sons of Iafeth.  Iafeth's

  territory covered most of northern Asia Minor (Plateau of

  Phrygia) from the Alma Dagh (Mai/Amanus) and Taurus

  Mountains of southeastern Turkey northward through old

  Armenia and the Caucasus.  North of the Caucasus, the

  territory streched east around the Caspian Sea to the Volga

  and west around the Black Sea across the Don river to the

  Crimean Peninsula.

       The northern part of the territory was often referred

  to as Scythia at different times, although this was long

  before the Scythians of history.  During BC 21st century,

  Gomer led warrior-herders from the shores of the Black Sea

  through Europe and as far west as Britain.  They either

  crossed the northern flatlands of Europe or followed the

  ancient trade route up the Danube to the Rhine.

       Some researchers believe that the Goidel culture was

  not born until the Kurgan culture (Battle Axe) and the Bell

  Beaker People met in the Rhine valley around BC 2200,

  although archaeological evidence seems to suggest that

  Alpines replaced the Mediterraneans as the dominant people

  as they arrived in the different areas.

       The Goidel of western Europe were an early Bronze Age

  warrior culture of lowland or upper plateau cattle herders.

  The Goidel constructed their buildings in the center of

  their land and denoted special areas for meeting places.

  This type of design is found in Germany, England and

  Ireland where the Goidel were thought to live and is very

  different from the plan used by the later farming Celts who

  preferred to arrange their homes in villages.  The Goidel

  design is a style which is used by people breeding horned

  cattle and/or pigs and is similar to the cattle ranches of

  North America or the sheep ranches of Australia.

       The early Goidel settled in the lowlands of Germany

  and the Netherlands between the Elbe and Rhine rivers and

  the North Sea.  This is called the Goidel Homeland and is

  the lowland portion of an area referred to as "The Celtic

  Cradle".  The "Celtic Cradle" was the land mass between the

  Elbe and the Rhine rivers stretching from the North Sea

  lowlands into the highland surrounding the Danube of

  Germany and Czech.

       Tribes of Goidels migrated across the North Sea and

  settled around the Firth of Forth in Scotland, York in

  northern England and Salisbury in southern England.  They

  were so densely settled in southern England that they left

  over 2000 tumuli in Wiltshire alone.  Around this time,

  Stonehenge was updated and the builders left objects around

  the site with ogham inscriptions which are believed to be

  in a Celtic language.

       Grave excavations in the area have shown that the

  earlier Neolithic people were longhead Mediterranean type

  buried in long barrows and were probably the Bell Beaker

  People.  The later group from about BC 2000 buried their

  dead in round barrows (tumuli) with the body in a fetal

  position.  They were predominantly of the Alpine type, tall

  roundheads with sandy hair, receding brow, prominent eye

  ridge, massive jaw and highly developed cheekbones.

       Grave goods revealed a new type of beaker called the

  zoned beaker which had a neck that was clearly

  distinguished from the body.  From this new type of beaker

  evolved the funeral urns which they used to bury the ashes

  of their dead after they switched from inhumation to

  cremation.

       The Alpine types dressed in brightly-colored clothes

  of goat hair and linen with bone buttons.  They used flint

  and copper daggers and arrowheads, as well as wrist guards

  of schist used to protect the arm from the rebound of the

  bow-string.  These new people must have been of the Goidel

  culture who represented the beginning of the Gaelic

  (Gaeilge/Gaidhlig/Goielic) language.  The term Q-Celt is

  used to designate the Gaelic-speaking people.

       The children of Magog are known as the Partholean and

  Nemedian and were two tribes who voyages through the

  Mediterranean and reached Ireland by BC 19th-18th century.

  It is possible that they should also be considered Goidels.

  If so, this would mean that the Firbolg, Fir Domnann and

  the Danann were also descendants of the Goidel.

       The descendants of Gomer's son, Rifath Scot, stayed in

  the home territory of Scythia until they were led from the

  Crimean Peninsula to Spain by Brath son of Death in BC 16th

  century.  Here they became known as the Milesian and a

  chieftain named Golamh led his warriors to Scythia and

  Egypt before landing in Spain via an overland route.

       A number of sites in the east make references to early

  Milesian settlers such as Milas (Miletus) near the mouth of

  the Menderes (Meander) in Turkey.  Another site that

  claimed Milesian settlers was Constanta (Tomi) in southern

  Romania at the mouth of the Danube on the Black Sea.  The

  Crimean Peninsula was also settled by the Milesians of

  ancient times.

       The descendents of Rifath Scot who had settled in

  northern Spain invaded Ireland in BC 15th century.  These

  Goidel were called Milesians Espain (warriors of Spain) in

  Irish mythology and were considered to be the fifth and

  final group of invaders.  The Goidel landed in Ireland on

  Beltainn and beat the Danann in a war that was highlighted

  by the battles of Sliabh Mish in Kerry, Taillcenn at

  Tailltinn (Teltown) in Meath and Druim Lighean (Drumleene)

  in Donegal.

       At this time a group of Pictish warriors arrived in

  southern Ireland.  They were made welcome by the head

  chieftain of Leinster because they had an antidote for the

  poison used on the weapons of a tribe called the Tuath

  Fidga.  When the Picts became a threat, the Goidel

  chieftain Eremon banished them from Ireland and sent them

  to Albainn (Scotland/northern England).  He allowed them to

  take Goidel women, widowed by the war, as brides because

  successions was through the female line.

       The Goidel, being lowland cattle herders, cleared

  plains for their settlements in Ireland.  They wore kilts

  rather than trousers, and introduced the chariot to their

  new territory.  After the war with the Danann, the

  Milesians divided Ireland into two halves, but this only

  lasted a short time and then it was divided into the five

  provinces (coiceda) of Connacht, Ulster, Munster, Leinster

  and Mide.  Mide was the province of the the high chieftain

  of Ireland (Ard Righ Eirinn) and included a sacred areas of

  the other territories.

       Although they controlled all of Ireland, the heaviest

  settlements were in the provinces of Connacht and Ulster.

  The Goidel of Connacht used the moon calendar and those in

  Ulster used the sun calendar.  The two groups were to

  battle for many years until finally the Ulster group was

  destroyed in AD 3rd century.

       In BC 13th century, the Goidel became involved in a

  war which lasted for 10 years and ended in a defeat for the

  Trojans (Goidel) in England.  After the war, northern

  tribes of the culture migrated with their cattle over the

  nearly empty lowlands of western Europe until they reached

  the Alps in Switzerland and France and the southern

  boundary of the Pyrenees.

       Between the two groups of Goidel there were colonies

  settled along the Atlantic coast of the continent from the

  North Sea to southern Portugal and also along the Atlantic

  of Morroco as far south as Clythera (Rabat) where there was

  a druidic religious center.

       The Goidel controlled the western tin mines in BC 800

  until they lost them to the incoming Britons in BC 6th

  century.  Irish Goidel also settled in Wales, at Anglesey

  and in most of Gwynedd (Gerrig y Gwyddell or Rock of the

  Goidel).

       In AD 3rd century, the Goidel (Attacotti) began

  sending military expeditions to Britain and Gaul.  They

  landed at the mouth of the Loire in France and raided

  throughout the country.  At this time the Celts of Gaul

  were domesticated and had many treasures to attract the

  interest of their wilder cousins.

       In AD 5th century Irish Goidel warriors of the Dal

  Riada tribe had conquered a territory in the western

  islands of Scotland and were making inroads into the

  Pictish territory.  They became known as the Scotti and in

  AD 842 Cinaeth mac Ailpin, whose father was Goidel and

  whose mother was Pictish, joined the two great cultures

  together when he became Ard-righ Albainn (high chieftain of

  Scotland).

 

 

NAME         Greek

ALTERNATIVE  Hellenes

EVOLVED FROM Aeolians / Dorians / Ionians

COUNTRY      Greece / Turkey / Macedonia

LANDMARKS    Aegean Sea / Ionian Sea / Balkan Peninsula

SITES        Alalia / Delphi

CENTERS      Marseilles / Athens / Plataea / Sparta / Phocaea

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 1900 / BC 1160 / BC 7th c / BC 6th c / BC 600

             / BC 535 / BC 513 / BC 431-404 / BC 359 / BC 336

             / BC 323 / BC 3rd c / BC 279 / BC 2nd c

DEITIES      Hellen

LEADERS      Philip / Alexander

SIGNATURE    city-states / urban farmers / traders /

             manufacturers

SEE ALSO     Celtic / Ligurian / Mycenaean / Phoenician /

             Roman / Tartessian

REMARKS      Around BC 1900, tribes of tall Indo-European

  warriors with fair complexions forged their way into the

  lower Balkan Peninsula where they pushed out the

  Mediterranean Pelasgians and established control of the

  overland trade from the North Sea to the southern Balkans

  and the surrounding Aegean.  In time these people became

  known as the Mycenaeans, and during the Trojan war they

  fought against Troy.

       After the fall of Troy, Dorians (Trojans) descended on

  the lower Balkans and conquered the Mycenaean who were

  settled there and established themselves as the rulers of

  the lower Balkans, western Turkey and the islands of the

  Aegean.  Thucydides (BC 5th c) puts this date at 80 years

  after the fall of Troy which would place the invasion

  around BC 1160.

       By BC 7th century, the people of the lower Balkans

  were calling themselves Hellenes and they expanded westward

  into southern Italy and Sicily and by BC 6th century,

  Helles (Greece) was composed of numerous city-states mostly

  ruled by tyrants.  The economy was based on urban farming,

  manufacturing and trade.  In BC 600 the Hellenes opened

  Massilia (Marseilles) in southern France to trade with the

  Celts and Ligurians of the area.  The Hellenes (Greeks)

  traded their elaborate manufactured cauldrons, clay vessels

  and heavy wines in return for iron, tin, copper, amber,

  grains, salted meat, fish, furs, slaves, etc.  The Greeks

  adopted the Phoenician alphabet and wrote many articles on

  the Celts.

       In BC 6th century, the Greek Phoceans, with financial

  support from the Tartessian chieftain Arganthonios, fought

  against Persia in a war on the island of Cyprus.  A further

  collaboration between the Tartessians and the Phocean

  Greeks was less fruitful when they lost the crucial naval

  battle of Alalia in BC 535 in Corsica against the Etruscans

  and the Carthaginians.

       In BC 513, Darius the Persian crossed the Hellespont

  and into the Balkans toward the Danube.  He tried to extort

  taxes from the Hellenes of the Peninsula but was thwarted

  by the city-states of Athens and Plataea.

       From BC 431 to 404, the city-states of Athens

  (Hellenes) and Sparta (Dorians) fought a war for the

  control of Helles.  In BC 359, the Macedonian Philip

  claimed the position of high chieftain of all the tribes of

  Macedonia.  He then organized his warriors into an army and

  claimed authority over all of Helles.  Philip was

  assassinated while warring with Persia in BC 336.  His son

  Alexander concluded the war and conquered the Persian

  Empire.  Alexander died from dysentery in BC 323 and his

  short-lived empire crumbled.

       In BC 3rd century, Helles (Greece) lost its colonies

  in Italy to Rome and suffered a heavy moral defeat when the

  Phocean Greek temple of Delphi was sacked by the Celts in

  BC 279.  By BC 2nd century, Helles was conquered by the

  Romans.

 

 

NAME         Hallstatt

EVOLVED FROM Tumulus-Urnfield (Pictish) / Cimmerian

COUNTRY      Czech / Germany / Austria / Switzerland /

             Belgium / France / Spain / Portugal / England /

             Scotland / Italy / Hungary / Romania /

             Yugoslavia / Ireland

REGION       Bohemia / Bavaria

LANDMARKS    Rhine / Moselle / Rhône / Saône / Danube /

             Carpathian Basin

SITES        Marseilles / Vix

CENTERS      Hallstatt

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 1100 / BC 1000 / BC 9th c / BC 9th-7th c /

             BC 850-600 / BC 700 / BC 7th c / BC 6th c /

             BC 600-400 / BC 500

SIGNATURE    iron weapons / iron tools / inventors / iron-

             rimmed wheels / inhumation / wagon / burials /

             herders / traders / miners / timber graves / D

             symbol on pottery / hillforts / square houses /

             geometric patterns / explorers

SEE ALSO     Celtic / Cimmerian / Pictish / Scythians /

             Tumulus / Urnfield

REMARKS      The Celtic Hallstatt culture received its name

  because of the discovery of an archeological site in 1846

  at Hallstatt in Austria, an important trading center for

  salt.  The culture was born in the Czech-German highlands

  of the "Celtic Cradle".  The "Celtic Cradle" was the land

  mass between the Elbe and the Rhine rivers stretching from

  the North Sea lowlands into the highland surrounding the

  Danube of Germany and Czech.

       In this mountainous region were vast quantities of

  mineral wealth (gold, copper, tin, iron, salt).  This

  allowed not only control of the trade in salt from the

  mountains but also in tin, copper and amber from the Danube

  to the north, west and south, resulting in great

  prosperity.  They later began importing luxury goods such

  as wine and vases from the trading center of Massilia

  (Marseilles) via the Rhône and Saône Rivers to the upper

  Danube.

       The Hallstatt culture evolved in an area where the

  Tumulus-Urnfield (Pictish) had settled.  In BC 9th century

  these people entered the Iron Age and adopted the practice

  of Timber Grave-style burials with inhumation.  The change

  in burial from cremation to inhumation may have been

  influenced by the Cimmerians who passed through their

  territory as early as BC 1100.  Around BC 1000, the

  Hallstatt tribes of Austria were also influenced by the

  Etruscan culture who buried their dead in tumuli.  So far,

  such burials have been found in the area of Bohemia, Czech

  dating only from BC 700.

       The Hallstatt culture has been roughly divided into

  three periods of time.  The dates vary according to the

  distance from the center of the culture's homeland.  The

  Urnfield-Hallstatt period was from BC 9th-7th centuries, a

  time when the culture was changing from cremation to

  inhumed burial and from bronze weapons to iron.  BC 850 to

  600 is referred to as Early Hallstatt and is identified by,

  among other things, the long iron sword with a flanged

  handle and a preference for the throwing spear (javelin)

  over the thrusting spear.  The Late Hallstatt period was

  determined mainly by the use of a smaller sword and dagger

  with an antennae handle and is usually placed around BC

  600-400.

       Hallstatt artisans had very advanced techniques for

  heating bronze and were very quick to adapt to iron.  The

  Cimmerian culture may also have brought the stimulus of

  iron-working knowledge.  It was during the Hallstatt time

  period that iron gained importance over bronze and their

  artisans became known for a variety of metal products. Many

  different styles of weapon were produced, some with rich

  decoration such as amber inlay.  They produced long oval

  shields as well as smaller circular ones.  The development

  of iron tools was a boon to wheel-wrights and carpenters.

  The invention of the two-person saw and the iron adze

  facilitated the building of plank burial chambers and plank

  boats.  Iron chisels allowed them to make better products

  on their lathes.

       Hallstatt tribes used a 4-wheeled wagon with larger

  back.  The wheels were iron-rimmed with wooden axles and

  the wagon box was built with iron nails.  The Hallstatt

  artisans gradually improved the wheel hubs and steering,

  and developed a new double yoke made of wood and covered

  with leather.  They also developed a new 2-link bit for

  their horses.

       At death, chieftains or hero warriors were laid out in

  splendid garments on specially-made burial wagons or on

  couches in a chamber constructed from split logs or rubble-

  filled double walls, reminiscent of the Timber Grave

  culture.  Sometimes the wheels of the wagon were taken off

  and propped against the wall.  The body was surrounded by

  an array of items such as bronze cauldrons, drinking

  vessels, dishes, hunting horns, gold jewelry, razors,

  beautifully worked swords and scabbards, bows and quivers,

  and finely worked bronze mirrors.

       A good example of what may have been in the grave of a

  female chieftain of the Hallstatt aristocracy was uncovered

  in Vix, in the Cote d'Or region of France.  She was laid

  out in her finest on a dismantled four-wheeled wagon.  Her

  grave goods included an elaborate 17-oz (480-gm) torc of 24

  carat gold, a giant bronze imported Greek krater for mixing

  wines, a bronze beaked wine flagon and a bronze dish.  The

  wagon burial practice continurd into La Tène when it was

  replaced by the 2 wheeled chariot.

       The art of the eastern Hallstatt (eastern half of the

  Alps to the Carpathian Basin and southeast to the shores of

  the Adriatic) was mainly of a geometric style.  A more

  figurative art came from the west Hallstatt people of

  southern Germany and eastern France.  Their pottery was

  often decorated with D-shaped half-moon symbols.  Votive

  offerings were a common practice.

       The Cimmerians influenced the warriors of the

  Hallstatt culture with the concept of horse-mounted

  fighters.  The Hallstatt warriors were restless like their

  Urnfield ancestors and with the help of their superior iron

  weapons, they quickly spread across Europe with their herds

  of cattle and goats.  They often travelled as warrior

  bands, spreading the use of iron, constructing hillforts

  for refuge and intermingling with other people, but also

  remaining clannish.  When they did settle, they lived in

  square houses.  They followed similar trails as their

  Urnfield forbears and between BC 9th-7th centuries had

  established themselves in Belgium, France and Italy.  By BC

  6th century there were Hallstatt tribes in Spain, Portugal,

  England, Scotland and Ireland in the west and as far east

  as the Carpathian Basin.  In BC 6th century the Hallstatt

  Celts of the Czech-Germany region were influenced by

  invading Scythians.

       After BC 500, the Hallstatt centre of influence moved

  westward into the mountain areas of the Rhine and then into

  Switzerland.  The sword became shorter and acquired a sharp

  tip.  Hallstatt mercenaries in the East and Mediterranean

  played an important role by supplying settlements with

  superior weapons and products.

 

 

NAME         Harappan

EVOLVED FROM Neolithic farmers

COUNTRY      Pakistan

LANDMARKS    Indus valley

CENTERS      Harappa / Mohenjo-Daro

AGE          Neolithic / Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 3500 / BC 2000 / BC 1600 / BC 1500-1200 /

             BC 10th c

SIGNATURE    urban grain farmers / multi-story buildings

SEE ALSO     Kurgan / Neolithic / Yamnaya

REMARKS      The Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley

  built the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro sometime

  around BC 3500.  It was an agricultural society with an

  early Bronze Age industry.

       The city of Mohenjo-Daro had public baths, five-story

  buildings and a population of 20,000 people.  The site

  covered an area of several hundred hectares with a

  surrounding defensive wall and an effective drainage

  system.  The inhabitance cultivated barley and wheat and

  domesticated animals such as boars, camels, elephants,

  goats and zebus, a type of humped cattle.

       By BC 2000, a disintegrating climate brought crop

  failure.  The society also began to change as Yamnaya

  chariot warriors from across the Pamirs invaded the Indus

  valley.  By BC 1600 they were a subject people of the Iron

  weilding Yamnaya warriors.

       The Yamnaya introduced many hymns from the Rig-Veda to

  the Indus Valley.  The head of each Yamnaya family was also

  the religious leader.  The Vedic scholars developed the

  concept of zero sometime between BC 1500-1200.  The

  Harappan women benefitted from the conquering people

  because the Yamnaya women enjoyed a position of equality

  and esteem.  The mixing of the two peoples brought about

  the evolution of Brahmanism from Vedism around BC 10th

  century.

 

 

NAME         Hittite

ALTERNATIVE  Heth / Kheta / (K)hatti

EVOLVED FROM Neolithic (Mediterranean) / Yamnaya (Alpine)

COUNTRY      Turkey / Syria / Iraq / Lebanon

LANDMARKS    Mediterranean / Anatolian Plain / Halys Plain

CENTERS      Boghaz Keui

AGE          Neolithic / Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 2300 / BC 1800 / BC 1500 / BC 1250 / BC 1235

SIGNATURE    urban farmers / warriors / single grave /

             metalworkers / early iron producers

SEE ALSO     Celtic / Neolithic / Pictish / Tumulus /

             Urnfield / Yamnaya

REMARKS      The Hittite culture evolved when people of the

  Mediterranean stock who had been settled in the area of the

  Halys Plain of Turkey since Neolithic times were conquered

  by Alpine roundheads (Yamnaya) around BC 2300.

       The indigenous society had already developed into

  city-states and were constantly at war.  They had a well-

  established early Bronze Age using the closed-mold lost wax

  process.  They worked with silver, gold, electrum, lead,

  semi-precious stones and ivory.  Their weapons consisted of

  swords, daggers, spears and battle-axes.

       They buried their dead leaders in stone rectangular

  pits with timber roofs.  The burial chamber was filled with

  wooden and bronze furniture as well as weapons for the

  males and jewelry for the females.

       The Yamnaya invaders were tribes of Alpine chariot

  warriors and quickly overpowered the indigenous people. The

  Yamnaya people became the rulers, eventually molding the

  warring states into the Hittite Empire around BC 1800. They

  made their capital at Hattusha (Boghaz Keui) on the

  Anatolian plain and built a 4-mile (6-km) wall around it.

  By BC 1500 the Hittites were major iron producers.

       The empire began to collapse around BC 1250 and by BC

  1235 the Hittites were invaded by the Sea People, which

  finished them as a major power.  The Sea People were most

  likely the Tumulus-Urnfield warriors who raided through the

  Hittite empire and south to Egypt.  The center for iron

  technology then shifted to the territory of the Celts in

  Europe.

 

 

NAME         Iberian

ALTERNATIVE  Tibarenians / Hiberni (Irish Iberians)

EVOLVED FROM Libyan (Mediterranean) or Iranian

COUNTRY      Spain / Portugal / France / Italy

REGION       Castile

TERRITORY    Gaul / Aquitanica

LANDMARKS    Mediterranean / Ebro / Pyrenees

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 5th c / BC 480 / BC 4th c /

             BC 3rd c

SIGNATURE    city-state / urban farmers / falcata / cremation

             / grave goods / mud brick / rectangular houses /

             mural paintings

SEE ALSO     Basque / Belgae / Carthaginian / Celtic / Greece

              / La Tène / Libyan / Ligurian / Phoenician /

             Tartessian / Urnfield

REMARKS      The Lebor Gabála Érenn mentions the Iberians

  (Tibarenians) as descendents of Tubal son of Iafeth  History

  suggests that the Iberians entered the southeastern part of

  Spain from North Africa around BC 6th century.  Some

  believe the Iberians evolved from the Libyan culture of

  North Africa.  It must also be pointed out that in ancient

  times the region which is roughly covered by modern-day

  Georgia was called Iberia.  These people were speakers of

  the Iranian branch of the Indo-European language and were

  physically a mixture of long and round heads.

       As the Iberians moved north through Spain they mixed

  with tribes of other cultures who had been there before

  them such as Tartessian, Ligurian, Basque, Urnfield and

  Hallstatt.  The Iberians were predominantly urban farmers

  but also produced miners, iron workers, herders, fishermen

  and traders.

       The Iberians crossed the Pyrenees and invaded

  Aquitanica in southern France around BC 5th century,

  reaching as far as the Rhône.  For the next two hundred

  years no new information passed through from the north

  (Gaul) to the south (Spain) until the Punic wars opened the

  way for the Belgae of the La Tène II culture, who invaded

  Spain in BC 3rd century.  Around BC 4th century the

  Iberians had established themselves in the upper valley of

  the Ebro and by BC 3rd century they were forming

  settlements in Castile.

       In BC 5th century, the Iberian warriors fought as

  mercenaries in the Carthaginian armies against the Greeks

  of Sicily and during the battle of Himera in BC 480. Later,

  around BC 3rd century they formed elite troops of the

  Carthaginian troops in their war against Rome.  Their

  warriors carried small round shields and used iron falcata

  swords, often decorated in copper or gold.

       The Iberian society was organized within the framework

  of a city-state structure, with a ruler and a council of

  elders for each urban area.  They possessed laws written

  down in verse form.  The Iberians' early system of writing

  was based on Tartessian, and later developed into Iberian

  proper which shows both Greek and Phoenician influences.

       Iberian cities were built on hills, and included

  buildings for public functions as well as rectangular

  houses constructed of mud bricks or stone and rubble with

  thatched roofs.  They cremated their dead and buried them

  with many artifacts.  Temples have been found which contain

  hundreds of well-executed stone sculptures of standing and

  sitting male and female figures, some adorned in gold.

       Iberians also produced large-scale mural paintings and

  decorative pottery with geometric, animal, plant and

  narrative designs.  They initially sculpted imaginary

  animals but by BC 3rd century were executing more realistic

  works.  They used silver and gold to adorn their jewelry,

  weapons and pottery, and minted their own coins.  The

  Iberians were also highly accomplished in music and dance.

       The name Celtiberian refers to people who evolved from

  the settled Celts of the Hallstatt culture and the incoming

  Iberians.  When the Celtic Belgae tribes entered the

  peninsula they also mixed with Iberians and formed more

  tribes of Celtiberians.  The name Iberian causes much

  confusion because some writers, from ancient times onward,

  have used the name to refer to all people of the Iberian

  Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) before and after the

  Iberians arrived.

 

 

NAME         Illyrian

EVOLVED FROM Danubian / Yamnaya

COUNTRY      Albania / Yugoslavia / Romania / Greece / Turkey

REGION       Dalmatia / Bosnia / Hercegovina

TERRITORY    Illyria

LANDMARKS    Adriatic Sea / Balkan Peninsula

SITES        Gmunden / Oberzeiring / Koman

CENTERS      Glasinac / Skodra

AGE          Neolithic / Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 2000 / BC 15th-12th c / BC 1000 / BC 900 /

             BC 8th c / BC 5th c / BC 393 / BC 359 / BC 310 /

             BC 3rd c / AD 168

DEITIES      Galatea

SIGNATURE    tumulus / villages / hillforts / tattoos /

             horse breeders / sea raiders / lembi

SEE ALSO     Celtic / Danubian / Galatian / Gallic /

             Hallstatt / Hittite / La Tène / Neolithic /

             Pictish / Thracian / Tumulus / Urnfield /

             Yamnaya

REMARKS      The Neolithic proto-Illyrian culture began to

  form around BC 2000 when the indigenous people (Danubian

  farmers) were invaded by warrior-herders of the Yamnaya

  culture from the Plateau of Phrygia in Turkey.

       Between BC 15th-12th century, warriors of the Tumulus-

  Urnfield peoples passed through their territory with new

  bronze technology.  It would be easy to believe that many

  young warriors joined their horde as they crossed into

  present-day Turkey and raided the Hittite Empire, then

  south to the Egyptian Empire where the invaders became

  known as the Sea People.  No doubt Illyrian warriors

  travelled with the people later known as Picts as they

  travelled to the west coast of Europe and to the islands of

  Ireland and Britain.

       In Austria, the Illyrians were mining salt at Gmunden

  in BC 1000, but by BC 900 they had lost their silver mines

  at Oberzeiring to the Celts.  In BC 8th century, the

  Illyrian culture began to flourish on the Adriatic side of

  the Balkan Peninsula with a center at Glasinac, near

  present-day Sarajevo.

       The eponymous hero of the Illyrians was Illyrios, son

  of Galatea and father of Antaricos, chieftain of the

  Antariatae.  They were a warrior society of self-governing

  tribes with councils of elders and an elected chieftain.

  The tribes lived in small villages with hillforts as places

  of refuge.  Sometimes a number of tribes banded together

  into a confederation under a strong head chieftain.

       Illyrian trade goods were exported throughout the

  Hallstatt and La Tène time periods and had a heavy

  influence on La Tène art.  They exported asphalt, silver,

  copper, cattle, cheese, grains, wine, oil, fresh-water

  fish, and objects of iron and bronze.  The Illyrians were

  known, above all else, as breeders and exporters of horses.

  The coastal Illyrians were known as pirates and used a

  long, narrow fast vessel called a lembi.  Like the

  Thracians and Picts, the Illyrians tattooed their bodies.

       Herodotus mentioned that the Illyrians were in

  Dalmatia, Bosnia, and Hercegovina in BC 5th century with a

  major center at Shkoder (Skodra).  Numerous tumuli

  containing Illyrian artifacts have been uncovered at

  Glasinac in Bosnia and Koman in Albania.  Some contained

  elaborate chieftain burials.

       In BC 393 the Illyrians conquered the Macedonians and

  forced them to pay tribute, and in BC 359 they destroyed

  the Macedonian army sent against them.  They were driven

  out by Philip when he became head chieftain of the

  Macedonians.

       In BC 310, disaster struck the Illyrians when a Celtic

  swarm from the north drove them back into Macedonia where

  they were finally conquered.  In BC 3rd century Illyrian

  horse warriors were with the Gallic army that invaded

  Greece and supplied horse-warriors to fight as mercenaries

  in Turkey where they became known as the Galatians.  In AD

  168 Illyria was conquered by the Romans and they submitted

  to the Roman yoke.

 

 

NAME         Kurgan

ALTERNATIVE  Pit Grave / Timber Grave / Aryan

EVOLVED FROM Neolithic hunter

COUNTRY      Russia / Ukraine / Romania / Poland / Germany /

             Netherlands / Belgium / France / England /

             Ireland / Denmark / Norway / Sweden / Armenia /

             Turkey / Syria / Pakistan

LANDMARKS    Russian & Ukraine steppes / Black Sea / Caspian

             Sea / Carpathian Mountains / Baltic Sea / Balkan

             Peninsula

SITES        Maykop / Novosvobodnaya

AGES         Neolithic / Chalcolithic / Copper / Bronze

DATES        BC 3500 / BC 3000 / BC 2300

DEITIES      sun god / fire goddess

SIGNATURE    lowland herders / patterned clothing / tumulus /

             timber-grave / shaft graves / fetal position /

             swastika / solid-wheeled wagons

SEE ALSO     Battle Axe / Celtic / Illyrian / Neolithic /

             Yamnaya

REMARKS      The name Kurgan (barrow) has come to designate

  the early culture which evolved in the steppes of Russia

  and the Ukraine, north of the Black and Caspian Seas

  between the Carpathian mountains of Ukraine and the Pamirs

  north of Afghanistan.  The Kurgan tribes belonged to the

  two northern types of Caucasians, the Nordic and the

  Alpine.

       The Kurgan tribes were semi-nomadic herders in the

  Chalcolithic stage of development.  They herded horses,

  cattle, goats, sheep and pigs.  They wove cloth in

  intricate patterns for their clothing.  They used a solid-

  wheeled wagon which is claimed to have been invented in

  Iraq (Sumer).

       The Kurgan culture was also referred to by the

  Sanskrit name Aryan ("noble").  Aryan is more often used to

  refer to the language group that was a parent of the Indo-

  European languages of Sanskrit, Iranian, Armenian,

  Albanian, Balto-Slavonic, German, Celtic, Italic and Greek.

       The Kurgan tribes also spread the Vedic religion which

  formed the religious basis for the Celtic, Illyrian, Hindu

  and many other cultures.  The sun god was represented by a

  swastika with the arms bent to the left and when the arms

  were bent to the right it symbolized the fire goddess. They

  buried their dead in single graves and shaft graves which

  were roofed, and somtimes lined, with timber then covered

  with a tumulus (kurgan).

       At Maykop in southern Russia near the Black Sea, a

  burial tumulus 33 ft (10 m) high was unearthed in 1843.

  Within the mound was a large 3-chambered timber tomb

  surrounded by a sacred stone circle.  Each chamber

  contained the remains of a body.  In the southern chamber

  was a chieftain richly decked out, sprinkled with ochre

  (representing the blood of birth) and laying in a fetal

  position.  He had copper weapons and a diadem with small

  gold rosettes decorating it.  In the chamber were gold and

  silver vases, precious stones, and a large dais made from

  gold and silver tubes with large gold bulls as handles and

  hundreds of little animals attached to its canopy.  The

  vases had engravings of palm trees, mountains, a waterfall

  and a parade of animals including wild boar, goat, sheep,

  bear, panther, bird of prey, a bird riding a lynx and, most

  importantly, the shaggy steppe pony.  The two northern

  chambers contained a male and a female, both more

  moderately clothed which may mean that they were servants.

       Another burial at Novosvobodnaya revealed a tomb made

  from stone slabs divided into compartments.  Among other

  items found was a linen tunic with purple trim, a camel-

  haired coat with black trim and a cloak of black goatskin

  worn with the hair side out.

       By BC 3500 Kurgan tribes began to move out of their

  homeland and spread westward in the European Danube area.

  The next step in their migration spread across the northern

  European lowland.  They had a dramatic influence on the

  cultures of Neolithic hunter-fisher and farmers.  One of

  the major sub-cultures became known as the Battle Axe

  People.  By BC 2300 the Kurgan culture was the dominant

  influence across northern Europe and up into southern

  Scandinavia, south into France and west to Ireland.

       In BC 3000 other Kurgan tribes from the Russian

  steppes who have been referred to as the Yamnaya culture

  passed through the Caucasus, Turkey and into the European

  highlands via the Balkans.

 

 

NAME         La Tène

EVOLVED FROM Tumulus-Urnfield (Pictish) / Hallstatt /

             Scythians ?

COUNTRY      Germany / France / Netherlands / Belgium /

             Luxembourg / Switzerland / England / Wales /

             Ireland / Spain / Portugal / Italy / Austria /

             Czech / Slovakia / Yugoslavia / Romania /

             Hungary / Bulgaria / Turkey

LANDMARKS    Rhine

SITES        La Tène / Marseilles

CENTERS      Manching

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 550-400 / BC 400-285 / BC 4th c

             / BC 3rd c / BC 284-100 / BC 99-1 / AD 1-Roman

             / AD 2nd

SIGNATURE    farmers / villagers / chariot burials / head

             hunters / heavy iron plow / potters wheel /

             zoomorphic art

SEE ALSO     Aremorican / Belgae / Briton / Celtic / Gallic /

             / Greek / Hallstatt / Iberian / Illyrian /

             Ligurian / Pictish / Scythian / Tumulus /

             Urnfield

REMARKS      The Celtic La Tène culture emerged from the

  "Celtic Cradle" in Germany after the center of influence of

  the Hallstatt culture had moved west into the mountain

  areas of the Rhine and Switzerland.  La Tène acquired its

  name from the Swiss site on Lake Neuchâtel where

  archeologists found grave sites in 1858, but this is now

  known to be an uncommon example from late La Tène times.

  The culture probably originated in the middle Rhine area of

  Germany and northeast France in BC 6th century and rapidly

  spread across Europe, extending finally from Turkey in the

  east to Ireland in the west and from Germany in the north

  to Portugal and Spain in the south. The Scythian intrusion

  in BC 6th century may have been the catalyst for the

  development of the La Tène culture.

       The term La Tène generally denotes the second stage of

  the Iron Age in Europe and is sometimes divided into La

  Tène A (BC 550-400), La Tène I (BC 400-285), La Tène II (BC

  284-100), La Tène III (BC 99-1) and La Tène Late (AD 1-

  Roman) in areas of Roman occupation.

       La Tène culture was associated with a much more fixed

  society than that of the Hallstatt.  They were

  predominantly grain farmers and, unlike the highland

  herders of the Hallstatt culture, required a large

  population of workers.  With their introduction of heavy

  wheeled iron plows they increased the efficiency of

  agricultural methods.  This plow allowed them to handle the

  heavier lowland soils and with their superior iron axes

  they began the destruction of the great hardwood forests.

  Settlements became more permanent and grew in size to

  villages and towns (oppida).  They frequently lived in

  hillforts protected by bastioned stone walls which

  surrounded single-room houses, streets and storage pits.

       La Tène people traded more with the Mediterranean

  world than the Hallstatt culture had, especially through

  the Greek trading center at Massalia (Marseilles) near the

  mouth of the Rhône.  They had developed a taste for the

  Mediterranean wines.

       The La Tène culture continued the Hallstatt tradition

  of burials but replaced the 4-wheeled wagon with a 2-

  wheeled chariot.  In Britain and Ireland, chariot warriors

  and chariot burials continued up into AD 2nd century.

       La Tène was known for its excellent weapons and

  abundance of decorative arts that initially developed out

  of the Hallstatt styles but were also influenced by

  Illyrian/Scythian art.  The La Tène art was in a style that

  depicted abstracted images of plants, animals, and gods,

  often woven together and combined with scrollwork and other

  abstract patterning.  Master artisans gained prominence and

  material wealth became more evident as almost everything

  they used seems to have been decorated, including

  themselves.

       La Tène industrial settlements such as Manching in

  Germany were larger and more varied in the type of raw

  materials used (metals, glass, clay, leather, etc.) and in

  the finished products.  The potter's wheel continued to be

  an important tool and the minting of coins became popular.

       Britain and Ireland were influenced by the La Tène A

  culture in BC 6th century when it was carried by the

  Pictish invaders from Aremorica, France.  In BC 3rd century

  La Tène II was brought to the islands by the invading

  Belgae and continued into the La Tène stage III.

       By late BC 4th century, the La Tène culture was

  carried by a swarm of Gallic warriors into northern Italy

  and by another swarm to the Great Hungarian Plain and later

  on to Turkey.

       In BC 3rd century, the Belgae of Gaul pierced the wall

  of Ligurian, Hallstatt and Iberian people who were settled

  north of the Pyrenees, and carried the La Tène II culture

  into Spain and Portugal.  La Tène objects have been found

  as far away from their epicenter as southern Russia,

  Scandinavia and North Africa.

 

 

NAME         Libyan

ALTERNATIVE  Lehabim / Lubims

EVOLVED FROM Neolithic Capsian

COUNTRY      Morocco / Algeria / Tunisia / Libya / Egypt

TERRITORY    Libia

LANDMARKS    Mediterranean

AGE          Neolithic

DATES        BC 9000-5000

SIGNATURE    Mediterranean stock / hunter-herders / tents /

             tattoos

SEE ALSO     Berber / Neolithic

REMARKS      The Libyans of white North Africa (Libia) were

  the parent stock of the Mediterranean type of Caucasian and

  evolved from the Capsian culture who moved north between BC

  9000 and BC 5000.  They were longheads with dark eyes, dark

  complexion and dark wavy hair, of slender build and medium

  height (average 5'5" or 1.65 m).

       The Libyans were hunter-herders roaming the North

  African Mediterranean coastal regions using tents for

  shelter.  Egyptian tomb drawings showed the Libyans as

  tattooing their bodies, ornamenting themselves with bird

  feathers and carrying their babies on their backs.  The

  Berber culture evolved out of the Libyan stock.

 

 

NAME         Ligurian

ALTERNATIVE  Ligures

EVOLVED FROM Neolithic hunter-fisher

COUNTRY      Switzerland / Czech / France / Spain / Portugal

             / Italy

REGION       Bohemia / Almeria / Liguria

LANDMARKS    Alps / Mediterranean / Pyrenees

SITES        Bodensee / El Argar

AGE          Neolithic / Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 3000 / BC 3rd mill / BC 2nd mill / BC 7th c /

             BC 600 / BC 6th c / BC 5th c / BC 1st c

SIGNATURE    Alpine stock / lake dwellers / farmers / scythes

             / mercenaries / linen clothing / horn buttons /

             amber

SEE ALSO     Argaric / Carthaginians / Celtic / Hallstatt /

             Iberian / Neolithic / Unetice

REMARKS      It is thought that the Ligurians were the

  Neolithic lake dwellers of Switzerland who were living in

  settlements such as Bodensee by BC 3000.  They were Alpine

  stock, but of small stature with short broad heads.

       Research has shown that during BC 3rd millenium they

  were cultivating crab-apples, barley, wheat, peas, beans

  and lentils as food sources.  They bred cows, pigs, and

  goats and used oxen, and also fished and hunted for wild

  food sources.  Their clothing was made from linen woven

  from flax and dyed with plant extracts.  They made use of

  bone and horn buttons and later bronze pins were also used

  to fasten clothing.  As the lakes began to dry up, the

  Ligurians started to migrate in all directions and by the

  end of the first Hallstatt period, around BC 600, they had

  completely left their homeland.  They began to trade in

  amber and bronze goods such as scythes.

       By the beginning of BC 2nd millenium, the Ligurians

  were settled to Bohemia in the north, where they influenced

  the Unetice cultures.  They expanded into France in the

  west and through the Alps to the Mediterranean in the

  south.  Their Mediterranean territory stretched from Rome

  to southeastern Spain, with some tribes establishing

  themselves in Portugal.  Ligurians are believed to have

  been Indo-European speakers and their place names are

  common in France and have even been found in Scotland.

       The Ligurian culture may have brought the Bronze Age

  south to the settlement of El Argar around Almeria, Spain.

  They had contacts with the regions of Galicia and Asturias

  as sources of tin.  There are many parallels between the

  Ligurians of the El Argar and the Unetice culture.

       The Italian Ligurians of Liguria lost much of their

  territory to the Hallstatt Celts by BC 7th century, and in

  BC 1st century they were dominated by the Romans.  The name

  is still preserved in the Ligurian Alps between Italy and

  France, the Ligurian Apennines north of Genoa, and the

  Ligurian Sea between the northern tip of Corsica and the

  Italian mainland.

       By BC 6th century the French Ligurian culture survived

  only in the area along the Mediterranean coast of France

  from the Rhône to the Pyrenees.  They were still there when

  the Carthaginians arrived, and supplied mercenaries to

  fight Rome.

       In BC 5th century the Ligurians of Spain and Portugal

  were invaded by the incoming Iberians, who squeezed in

  between them and the Late Hallstatt Celts who had only

  recently arrived.

       The Ligurians, a non-warrior culture, seemed to have

  been absorbed into Celtic society in most places and it is

  thought that they spoke a similar Indo-European language,

  between Celtic and Italic.

 

 

NAME         Megalithic

ALTERNATIVE  Megalith builders / Bell Beaker

EVOLVED FROM Neolithic hunter

COUNTRY      Ireland / Scotland / Wales / England / Sweden /

             Denmark / Germany / Netherlands / France /

             Switzerland / Portugal / Spain / Corsica /

             Sardinia / Italy / Malta / Israel / Lebanon

LANDMARKS    Atlantic / North Sea / Baltic / Mediterranean /

             Balearic Islands

AGE          Neolithic / Copper

DATES        BC 5th mill

SIGNATURE    Mediterranean stock / megaliths / communal

             graves / inhumation / fetal position / menhirs /

             spiral motif / cup and ring marks / sun symbols

             / scientists / seafarers / incised boats /

             copper arrowheads & knives

SEE ALSO     Bell Beaker / Neolithic

REMARKS      In BC 5th millenium, an aberration of the

  Neolithic culture appeared in the Atlantic region of

  Europe.  They were named the Megalithic culture because of

  the gigantic ("mega") stone ("lithic") structures they

  designed and constructed.  They developed one type of

  structure as burial tombs and others as astronomical

  observation sites.  Their constructions demonstrate the

  superior understanding they had of astronomy, engineering

  and applied geometry.

       The reasons for the structures seem to have been an

  exploration into religion and science through the study of

  the sun, moon and constellations and their relationship to

  human life on the earth.

       The tombs were communal inhumed burial sites and were

  used by successive generations.  The bodies were placed in

  a fetal position.  The tombs were built out of massive

  upright rocks with a capstone or corbelled roof.  The

  Megalithic culture decorated many of the huge stones with

  engravings and paintings of spirals, axes, boats, sun

  symbols, animals, cup-and-ring marks, etc.  Arrowheads,

  pottery, copper daggers and other artifacts found at

  numerous megalithic sites have drawn an association between

  the Megalithic culture and that of the early Bell Beaker.

       A simple chamber tomb was made from a number of

  standing stones with one capstone and is called a dolmen.

  When the chamber was enlarged into a rectangle with a

  number of capstones it is called a gallery grave.  Some

  gallery graves have shelves or subchambers, as well as an

  entrance.  A chamber with a narrow passage or entrance is

  called a passage grave.  When any of these tombs are

  covered with earth they are called barrows and when they

  are covered with stones they are called cairns.

       The Megalithic culture also erected individual

  standing stones (menhirs) as markers for graves, mineral

  deposits, boundaries and pathways.  Standing stones

  arranged in circles or in converging or parallel lines are

  thought to have had religious or astronomical purposes.

       The complexity of the construction of Stonehenge and

  its location at the latitude where extreme sun and moon

  positions are at right angles leads one to conclude that

  the designers of the megalithic monuments were not simple

  people.  The distribution of their sites implies that they

  were familiar with the ancient waterways and sailing in the

  treacherous seas of the Atlantic, North Sea and the Baltic.

       There are also megalithic constructions in the

  Mediterranean regions, in the Balearic Islands, Corsica,

  Sardinia, Italy, Malta, Israel and Lebanon.  Recent dating

  of sites has suggested that the spread of the Megalithic

  sites was from west to east, contrary to previous belief.

 

 

NAME         Mycenaean

ALTERNATIVE  Achaeans / Danann / Mykenaean

EVOLVED FROM Kurgan ? Yamnaya ? Goidel ? Unetice ?

COUNTRY      Ireland / England / Scotland / France / Germany

             / Czech / Slovakia / Hungary / Greece / Crete

LANDMARKS    North Sea / Baltic / Balkan Peninsula / Aegean /

             Seine / Carpathian

SITES        Bonn / Brandenburg / Santorini / Troy

CENTERS      Akrotiri / Mycenae

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 1900 / BC 1800-1200 / BC 1600-1100 / BC 15th-

             12th c / BC 1470 / BC 1450 / BC 14th c /

             BC 13th c / BC 1250 / BC 1240 / BC 1235-1190 /

             BC 1200

LEADERS      Agamemnon

SIGNATURE    horse breeders / chariot warriors / shaft,

             timber and bell graves / traders / spiral motif

             / faience beads / amber / precious metals

SEE ALSO     Amazon / Celtic / Danann / Greek / Hittite /

             Kurgan / Phoenician / Tumulus / Unetice /

             Urnfield / Wessex / Yamnaya

REMARKS      The Mycenaeans were a tall, fair-complexioned

  people who spoke an Indo-European language, bred horses and

  rode in war chariots.  Around BC 1900 they raided into the

  lower Balkan Peninsula where they pushed out the

  Pelasgians.  They then commanded the overland trade from

  the North Sea to the southern Balkans and the surrounding

  Aegean.  The distribution of their earliest artifacts are

  heaviest in Scotland and England in the west, and Czech

  (Unetice), Slovakia in the center of Europe and the Aegean

  in the East.  Finds of later artifacts are heaviest in the

  Aegean and in the Ukraine.

       During BC 1800-1200, the Unetice-Tumulus herders were

  expanding to the west and from BC 15th-12th century the

  Tumulus-Urnfield were expanding to the east.  The

  Mycenaeans were clearly involved with these cultural

  movements and may even have been a sub-division of one or

  more of the groups.

       The Mycenaeans had fortresses which were similar in

  floor plan to those used in Anatolia from BC 4th millenium

  on.  They also buried their dead in bell-shaped tombs (bee-

  hive) as well as in stone-lined graves with timber roofs

  (shaft graves), similar to those of the Kurgan culture, but

  the body was laid straight.  The items found in these

  warrior graves suggest that they originated outside the

  Aegean world.

       The burial tombs were also similar to the royal graves

  of Alaca Huyuk in Anatolia.  They depicted bearded

  warriors, and many of their artifacts depicted hunting

  scenes, wars, and hand-to-hand combat.  The Mycenaeans

  spoke an Indo-European language and many of their artifacts

  were found in the territory of the Unetice Culture.

       Between BC 1600-1100 the Mycenaeans became a dominant

  force in the Balkans and subjected the Aeolian and Ionian

  cultures.  First they captured southeastern Greece and in

  BC 1450 they captured Crete and destroyed Knossos.

       Mycenaean bronze double axes dating from BC 13th

  century have been found in Ireland and England.  A

  Mycenaean Middle Bronze Age hoard including daggers and

  spiral-patterned leg guards was found at Seine-et-Marne in

  France.  Mycenaean objects have also been found in Wessex

  and Cornwall in England; Bonn, Brandenburg and Saxony in

  Germany; Danube and the Tisza plain in Hungary; and the

  Carpathians in Slovakia.  The Mycenaeans traded in amber,

  produced numerous objects of gold and silver as well as

  bronze, and knew the technique for producing glass faience

  beads similar to those found in Egypt and Wessex, England.

       In BC 1470 the Mycenaean island of Thera (Santorini)

  in the Cyclades blew up in a volcanic explosion that caused

  massive tidal waves in the Aegean.  The settlement of

  Akrotiri was covered with up to 900 ft (270 m) of ash.  Ash

  from the eruption has been found as far away as Greenland.

       In BC 1250 the Mycenaeans, with the help of Amazon

  mercenaries, attacked the fortresses of Troy and Troad and

  were instrumental in the destruction of Troy in BC 1240.

       The Mycenaean city of Mycenae in the region of Argolis

  on the Peloponnesus had a tomb of the house of Atreus built

  in BC 14th century.  From BC 1235 to 1190 the Mycenaeans,

  Hittites, Phoenicians and Egyptians came under relentless

  attacks from the Sea People.

       The city was destroyed around BC 1200 and was soon

  followed by the collapse of the Mycenaean culture.  The

  destruction may have been a natural disaster or it may have

  been due to incoming Dorians or Tumulus-Urnfield tribes who

  became the dominant force in the southern Balkans.  The

  invading Dorians, fleeing from the Trojan war, were on the

  side of Troy and thus already had enemy status.  Mycenae

  was the capital city of Agamemnon, high chieftain of the

  Achaean warriors who fought against Troy.

       Wilkens places the city named Mycenae as modern-day

  Troyes on the Upper Seine river in France in the center of

  Celtic territory and not the Mycenaean city on the

  Peloponnesus.

 

 

NAME         Neolithic

ALTERNATIVE  New Stone Age

EVOLVED FROM Paleolithic

COUNTRY      Palestine / Afghanistan / Iran / Iraq / Jordan /

             Turkey / Scotland / Ukraine / Bulgaria / Romania

             / former Yugoslavia / Russia / Wales

LANDMARKS    Strait of Bosporus

CENTERS      Jericho / Hacilar / Catal Huyuk /

AGE          Neolithic

DATES        BC 9000 / BC 9th mill / BC 8600 / BC 7000 /

             BC 6000 / BC 7th-6th mill / BC 6800 /

             BC 6th mill / BC 5th mill / BC 4500 / BC 3800 /

             BC 3rd mill

DEITIES      snake goddess / bird goddess / mother goddess

SIGNATURE    polished stone tools and weapons / fishing /

             herding / farming / domesticated animals /

             weaving / clay pottery & art objects / communal

             graves / urban communities / wall murals

SEE ALSO     Danubian / Kurgan / Megalithic / Yamnaya

REMARKS      The Neolithic cultures of hunter/herder/fisher/

  /farmer began to evolve from the Paleolithic cultures of

  hunter/fisher/gatherer around BC 9000.  The hunters of the

  New Stone Age began to finish their tools and weapons by

  grinding and polishing.

       Choice of life styles also began to diversify as the

  science of husbandry and horticulture began to evolve.  The

  increasing use of navigation and better boat-building

  helped the development of fishing and trade as industries.

       With the domestication of herd animals, people could

  explore areas where hunting was not so viable.  Increased

  contacts with other groups of people enabled the exchange

  of ideas, skills and goods.  Evidence has shown that the

  Neolithic people had already developed the ability to weave

  cloth and make clay pottery and sculpture.

       In BC 9th millenium, Proto-Neolithic gazelle hunters

  from Palestine were living in oval and circular huts

  measuring approximately 25 ft (8 m) in diameter.  The

  walls, which started below ground level, were plastered and

  painted.  At this time in Afghanistan, Iran and Iraq,

  hunters began to domesticate goats and sheep.

       Around BC 8600, proto-Neolithic gardeners built an

  urban site at Jericho in Jordan with a population of 2000.

  The communities had dwellings and defensive walls built of

  sun-dried mud brick.  The inside walls and floor of the

  homes were plastered, painted and burnished.  In BC 7000

  Proto-Neolithic gardeners also built an urban center at

  Hacilar in Turkey and by BC 6000 their artisans began to

  decorate their pottery with paint.

       In BC 7000 Neolithic hunters constructed a 25 ft (8 m)

  circular dwelling at Grampian, Scotland and in BC 7000 a

  Neolithic settlement of wooden dwellings was built at

  Mountsandel in Ireland.

       The true Neolithic farming culture seems to have

  originated in modern-day Turkey (Anatolia) between BC 7th

  and 6th millenium.  Catal Huyuk is the oldest known

  Neolithic site there and it covers 32 acres (13 hectares)

  and is believed to have had 5000 inhabitants.  They entered

  the Chalcolithic stage when they began to cold-hammer

  copper.  They also used iron-ore pigment to enhance the

  color of their pottery.  The farming communities demanded a

  larger population to work the fields, so the people had to

  adjust to living in densely-packed urban centers.  Their

  buildings were made of sun-dried brick (adobe) and the

  interior walls were painted in a manner resembling the

  Paleolithic cave paintings.  Animal horns and heads, as

  well as representations carved or molded from plaster,

  decorated some of the buildings.  Sculptures of humans and

  animals have been found carved or modelled from clay.

       Archeological finds have included carved bone tools,

  polished stone arrowheads, maces, and lances with tanged

  obsidian heads.  Other finds have included wooden vessels,

  plain pottery, woven cloth, seashells for decorations and

  indications of basket-weaving.  Bones and murals show that

  hunting was still being practiced.

       Around BC 6800, Neolithic herders from Turkey drove

  their cattle across the Strait of Bosporus and into Europe.

  During BC 6th millenium, the world began to experience long

  hot summers and short mild winters.  The meltwater from the

  retreating glaciers eventually brought the sea level up to

  65 ft (20 m) below present-day levels.  Large areas of land

  were flooded while others sank without a trace.  When the

  weight of the glaciers was reduced, the land experienced

  rebound effects which caused earthquakes.  These

  disruptions caused movement and change of lifestyle among

  the Neolithic people.

       In Moldavia and western Ukraine, archeological

  evidence from BC 6th millenium has uncovered sculptures of

  deities including a snake goddess, bird goddess and the

  great mother.  Also found were sculptures of a bear, bee,

  bird, butterfly, deer, dog and toad.  The people were

  accomplished weavers and potters.  One style of bowl was of

  a hemispherical shape painted in red and white decorations

  and highly burnished.  Infants who died were buried in egg-

  shaped clay vessels.

       Artisans in Bulgaria, Romania and former Yugoslavia

  entered the Chalcolithic Age when they began to cold-hammer

  surface copper into shapes.  During this time period,

  Neolithic farmers from Turkey crossed the strait of

  Bosporus and settled in the lower Balkans.  Early traces of

  Neolithic farming have also been found in Scotland where

  the temperature was warm and the soil was fertile.

       During Neolithic times, the dead were usually buried

  in communal graves under mounds of earth, but during BC 5th

  millenium an aberration called the Megalithic culture

  developed in the Atlantic region of Europe.  The burial

  tombs and astronomical observation sites of this culture

  showed that they had a superior understanding of applied

  geometry, astronomy and engineering.

       In BC 5th millenium, the Neolithic people of Bulgaria

  were working gold.  Neolithic people also began to farm the

  Danube valley where they developed the Danubian slash-and-

  burn farming method.  They spread this concept across

  Europe.

       In BC 4500 Neolithic herders of the Ukraine and

  Russian steppes were taming wild horses and Neolithic dairy

  herders from present-day Iraq drove their herds into Europe

  and North Africa.  In BC 3800 Neolithic cattle herders

  built their dwellings on an extinct volcano in Wales.

       By BC 3rd millenium the incoming herders of the Kurgan

  culture from the north, the Yamnaya culture from the east

  and the Bell Beaker hunters from the south quickly brought

  the Neolithic population of Europe into the Bronze Age.

 

 

NAME         Phoenician

ALTERNATIVE  Canaanite / Kenaani / Kinahna

EVOLVED FROM Semite

COUNTRY      Syria / Lebanon / Israel / Egypt / Morocco /

             Spain / Tunisia / Portugal / Balearic Islands /

             Malta / Sicily / Cyprus

CENTERS      Baalbek / Ruad / Beirut / Jebeil / Sidon / Ras

             Shamra / Tyre / Lixus / Cadiz / Tartessus /

             Utica / Lisbon / Carthage / Nora / Culcis /

             Ibiza

TERRITORY    Phoenicia

LANDMARKS    Orontes river / Persian Gulf / Mediterranean /

             Atlantic / Baltic Sea / Africa / America

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 3000 / BC 1400 / BC 1235-1190 / BC 1230 /

             BC 1210 / BC 12th century / BC 1100 / BC 814 /

             BC 800 / BC 654 / BC 610 / BC 6th c / BC 345 /

             BC 332

DEITIES      Bel {Baal} (Beel/Belenos) / Astarte

SIGNATURE    Semitic language / Caucasian / seafaring traders

             / city-states / trading centers / alphabet /

             purple dye / glass objects / precious metals /

             musical pipes / sun/moon worship

SEE ALSO     Celtic / Carthaginian / Hittites / Mycenaean /

             Tartessian / Torc Bearers

REMARKS      The Phoenicians were Caucasian of the Canaanite

  branch of the northern Semites.  They were described as

  long-headed, medium height, with tawny-white skin color,

  black curly hair and a straight or aquiline nose on an

  oval-shaped face.

       The proto-Phoenicians migrated from the Persian Gulf

  around BC 3000 because of disintergrating climatic

  conditions.  Some resettled along the Mediterranean coast

  of present-day Syria, Lebanon and Israel.  Here they

  conquered the indigenous seafaring people and evolved into

  the Phoenicians.  It is believed that they navigated by

  using the Pole Star.  They jealously guarded the secrets of

  the trade winds, ocean currents and their trade routes.

       The Phoenicians spoke a Semitic language (non-Indo-

  European) and by BC 1400 they were using a cuneiform

  version of the Canaanite 22-letter alphabet which was a

  link between Egyptian and modern writing.  The method was

  much later adopted by the Greeks and became the format for

  the proto-Roman alphabet.  The Phoenicians themselves

  credited the Celtic alphabet as the source of all Western

  alphabets.

       The Phoenician religion revolved around Bel {Baal} the

  sun god and Astarte the moon goddess.  Bel was portrayed as

  a young warrior wearing a helmet with bull's horns.  Their

  religion involved the practice of human (adult/infant)

  sacrifice and the participation of temple priestesses

  (prostitutes).  Baalbek (City of Bel) in Syria was located

  at the headwaters of Orontes river and became a major

  center for the worship of Bel {Baal}.  The river flowed to

  Tyre and was an early trade route of the Phoenician.  The

  Syrian city of Ugarit (Ras Shamra) was a famous trading

  center with another temple to Astare and Bel {Baal}.  The

  city had early connections with the Torc Bearers, Hittites

  and Mycenaeans before it was destroyed by the Sea People in

  BC 1200.

       Phoenician society was structured around trade rather

  than conquest and they developed a enormous sphere of

  influence by opening many trading centers in foreign lands

  as well as keeping a home base of city-states.  The most

  important of these were Arvad (Ruad), Berot (Beirut),

  Byblos (Jebeil), Sidon, and the island fortress of Tyre. By

  the end of BC 27th century Byblos was carring on intensive

  trade with Egypt.

       The Phoenicians exported wood of cedar and pine,

  purple dye made from the murex snail, linen cloth,

  embroideries, glass, glazed faience, metal items, salt,

  dried fish and wine.  They would trade these and other

  product for papyrus, amber, precious stones, jewels,

  silver, gold, ebony, ivory, silk, furs, copper, tin,

  ostrich eggs, spices, incense, horses, salted animals and

  fish etc.

       During the time of the Trojan wars, the Phoenicians

  expanded their trading centers through the Mediterranean

  and out into the Atlantic, but between from BC 1235 to BC

  1190 they were under attack by the Sea People.

       In BC 1230 they established a trading center at Lixus

  in Morocco, and in BC 1210 at Gades (Cadiz) in Spain.  Also

  around this time the Phoenicians of Tyre founded a colony

  in Spain near present-day Huelva (Tartessus).  The city was

  named after its founder Tartessos and the people became

  known as the Tartessians.

       During BC 12th century the Phoenicians had frequent

  battles with the Egyptians, and with the demise of the

  Mycenaeans, the Phoenicians captured most of the trade from

  the eastern Mediterranean and Cyprus.  In BC 1100 trading

  centers were established at Utica in Tunisia and Alis Llppo

  (Lisbon) in present-day Portugal.  In BC 814 Dido, the

  daughter of the ruler of Tyre, founded Carthage.

       By BC 800 the Phoenicians were trading iron weapons,

  tools and utensils into North Africa and they already had

  long-established trade routes from the Mediterranean into

  the Atlantic as far north as the Baltic Sea and west to

  America.  They called Britain and Ireland the Cassiterides

  (Tin Isles).  By BC 7th century the Phoenicians had trading

  posts on Malta and at Nora and Culcis in Sicily.  In BC

  654, a trading center was established on the Balearic

  island of Ibiza in the Mediterranean near the east coast of

  Spain.

       In BC 610, Phoenician sailors circumnavigated Africa

  and knew of the Azores, Cape Verde, Madagascar and the

  Spice Islands.  The vastness of their commercial ties gave

  them the opportunity to unite different ideas and to refine

  artistic styles and techniques.  The Phoenicians used a

  purple dye they made from a shellfish called Murex.  They

  were known for their glasswork, engraved and embossed gold

  and silver sheet metal work, and ivory carvings.  They also

  spread the use of musical pipes through their trading

  centers.

       Because of the expansion of the Babylonian and Persian

  empires, the Phoenician homeland cities were put under

  increasing strain to retain their independence.  During BC

  6th century, the island fortress of Tyre held out for 13

  years against Babylonian rule.  In BC 345 the 40,000

  inhabitants of Sidon committed mass suicide rather than

  face domination by the Persians.  Finally in BC 332, Tyre

  fell to the army of Alexander of Macedonia, spelling the

  end of the Phoenicians' supremacy of the seas.  The trading

  center at Carthage in Tunisia subsequently became a major

  influence in Mediterranean affairs.

 

 

NAME         Pictish

ALTERNATIVE  Agathyrsi / Picti (Latin) / Pretani, Prettania,

             Pritani, Priteni (Greek) / Pictillus, Pictilus,

             Pistillus (Gallic) / Peithwyr, Prydein, Prydyn,

             (Brythonic) / Gwyddl Ffichti (Welsh) /

             Cruithnig, Crutihnigh, Cruithine, Cruithne,

             Cruittne, Gaedel Ficht (Irish) / Qurteni,

             Qartani, Qretani, Quruithnii (Scottish)

EVOLVED FROM Tumulus-Urnfield / Illyrian / Thracian

COUNTRY      Turkey / Czech / Germany / France / England /

             Wales / Ireland / Scotland

REGION       Meath / Donegal

TERRITORY    Thrace / Pretani Island / Aremorica

LANDMARKS    Balkan Peninsula / Strait of Bosporus / Black

             Sea / North Sea / Mediterranean

SITES        Istanbul / York / Wexford Bay /

             Knockfarrel

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 15th-12th c / BC 15th c / BC 13th c /

             BC 7th c / BC 6th c / BC 4th c / BC 210 /

             BC 1st c / AD 296 / AD 297 / AD 4th c / AD 306

             / AD 386 / AD 4th c / AD 5th c / AD 842 /

             AD 1763-1775

LEADERS      Hu Gardarn / Cruithnechan / Cineath mac Ailpin

SIGNATURE    Alpine stock / matrilineal / cattle herders /

             tattoos / timber-laced forts / horse warriors /

             chariot warriors / Q/P-Celts / milk bath / hide

             ivy-leaf shields / bagpipes

SEE ALSO     Aremorican / Briton / Celtic / Danann / Goidel /

             Hittite / Illyrian / Thracian / Tumulus /

             Urnfield

REMARKS      Around BC 15th-12th centuries, Tumulus-Urnfield

  warriors adventured westward toward the Atlantic and

  eastward to Thrace and Illyria.  The warriors then crossed

  the Strait of Bosporus through Asia Minor and wreaked havoc

  throughout Syria, Palestine, and as far south as Egypt

  where they became a part of the Sea People.

       The story of the return by some of the groups of these

  multi-cultural warriors to the west coast of Europe is

  preserved in Welsh mythology.  The warriors travelled from

  the Near East to The Land of Hav (Land of Summer) on the

  shore of the Black Sea around Istanbul.  From there, Hu

  Gardarn divided the people into tribes (Defrobani -

  awakening of the banners) and led them across the continent

  of Europe until they reached the North Sea "Mor Tawch"

  (Ocean of Fog).  Most likely they travelled the well-used

  route up the Danube to the Rhine.

       In Germany they divided into two groups with one

  travelling south into Gaul where the heaviest concentration

  settled in Aremorica and to the south.  The second group

  settled between the Danube, Rhine and Main in what has been

  referred to as the "Celtic Cradle".  The "Celtic Cradle"

  was the land mass between the Elbe and the Rhine rivers

  stretching from the North Sea lowlands into the highland

  surrounding the Danube of Germany and Czech.  Celtic tribes

  continued to pour forth from this cradle into the La Tène

  period.

       In BC 13th century warriors of these tribes travelled

  to England where they became known as the Pretani (Picts).

  Here they became involved in a war and helped in the defeat

  of Troy.  Some established themselves around present-day

  York in England while others settled in Scotland.  The

  island became known as "Ynys Prydain" (Pretani Island) or

  the Island of the Picts.

       The Picts were a matrilineal Alpine cattle-people who

  liked the thinner forests which grew on the poorer soils.

  Their warriors of both sexes used warpaint and carried long

  spears and ivy-leaf-shaped shields made from white ox-

  hides.  They used both horses and horse-drawn chariots to

  move about.  Like the Illyrians and the Thracians, Picts

  tattooed their bodies with images of beasts, symbols and

  patterns.  One particularly characteristic type of tattoo

  was that of interlocking rings around the eyes.  The Irish

  word "cruth" and the Welsh word "pryd" both mean form.  The

  Picts practiced totemism and performed ritual sexual acts

  under the scrutiny of the tribe.  It seems quite possible

  that the Pictish culture spread the use of the bagpipes

  which they adopted from the Hittites while in the east.

  This was also a likely time for their language to go

  through the process of changing from Q-Celt to P-Celt.

       Goidel mythology mentions another group of Tumulus-

  Urnfield who in BC 15th century came from Thrace.  They

  were led by 6 chieftains; Solen, Upla, Nechtan, Drostan,

  Oengus and Lethend who were brothers.  They settled at

  Poitiers in Gaul but left after the death of Lethend and

  voyaged to Ireland.  Their sister died in route before they

  landed at Wexford Bay in the ancient province of Leinster.

  This group of warriors called themselves Agathyrsi and

  claimed descent from Gelonus, son of Hercules.  In Ireland

  they were called Cruithne.

       The Picts were made welcome in Ireland by Crimthann

  Sciathbel of the Fir Domnann who had been appointed head

  chieftain of Leinster by Eremon.  Drostan the Druid had the

  knowledge to revive those wounded by the poisoned weapons

  of the Tuath Fidga, another group who were settled on the

  Island.  He used the milk from 140 white hornless kine to

  make a magic healing bath.

       During the battle of Lemnachta with the Tuath Fidga

  Drostan, Solen, Upla and Nechtan were killed as well as

  their head chieftain Domnall mac Ailpin.  Cathluan son of

  Gub became the new head chieftain of the Picts and his sons

  Catanolodar and Catanlachan were their two champions.  Cing

  and Imm were the two sages, Uaisnem was their poet, Crus

  and Ciric were their two warriors and Cruithnechan was the

  artificer.

       The Picts began to become a threat to the Goidel so

  Eremon banished them from Ireland and sent them to Albainn

  (Scotland/northern England).  Goidel mythology said that he

  allowed them to take Goidel women widowed by their war with

  the Danann because successions with the Picts were through

  the female line.

       The Picts were small in number but they may have been

  carrying iron weapons or at least superior bronze.

  Cruithnechan's 7 sons sailed with their people to Scotland

  where they divided the followers into 7 tribes.  There they

  were called the Quruithnii.  Many of the Pictish leaders

  had Welsh (Brythonic) names, and the Cornavii of the

  Caithness region of Scotland were related to the Cornavii

  of England.

       By BC 7th century the northwest of Ireland was settled

  by Picts who had returned to Ireland or had never left.  At

  the same time, other Picts were building timber-laced forts

  north of the Tay and at Knockfarrel near Dingwall.

       In BC 6th century, Pictish warriors from Brittany

  (Llydaw) in Gaul were led by a chieftain named Prydain to

  England (Lloegr), where they became known as the Britons.

  They brought the La Tène A culture with them.  In BC 4th

  century, more Picts arrived in Ireland and settled in

  Ulster.  In BC 210 the Pictish chieftain Argentocoxos

  formed a treaty with Rome on behalf of the Caledonii of

  Scotland.

       In BC 1st century, Caesar called the Picts of England

  "aborigines" because they had been there long before the

  Belgae.  He reported that the people in the interior did

  not grow grain but lived on milk and meat, and wore skins.

  All Britons used woad on their bodies to draw blue designs.

  They wore their hair long and shaved all their body except

  their upper lip.  Women had mating rites with a group of

  males, especially the husband's brothers and his sons by

  another woman.  The children were credited to the first

  husband.

       The name "Pict" was first used in AD 296 by the Romans

  to describe the local Celts of Britain.  The name was used

  again in AD 297 to differentiate local tribes from the

  Hiberni and Briton, and in AD 306 used in reference to the

  Caledonii and other tribes in Scotland.  In AD 386, the

  Dicalydonas and Verturiones are described as being Pictish

  tribes who were creating great havoc.   All through AD 4th

  century, Pictish tribes of Scotland and Ireland were

  attacking Wales and England.

       During AD 5th century, the Dal Riada of the Goidel

  culture of Ireland began to invade the west coast of

  Scotland (Pictavia) and take land away from the Picts.

  These Goidel became known as the Scotti (Irish).  Pictish

  dominance in Scotland came to an end when Cineath mac

  Ailpin became the Ard-Righ Albainn in AD 842.  During the

  Dark Ages, the Picts of the west coast of Scotland were Q-

  Celts and referred to as Gwyddl Ffichti (Goidel Picts) by

  the Welsh and Gaedel Ficht (Goidel Picts) to the Irish.  On

  the east coast were the P-Celt Picts and were referred to

  as Peithwyr (Children of the Pine) by the Welsh.  The pine

  tree represents the letter P in the Celtic alphabet.

       The biggest and final blow to the Picts of Albainn

  came between 1763-1775 AD when the English herded them into

  ships and sent them to colonies in Nova Scotia, Canada and

  the eastern USA.  Over the next one hundred years the

  attempt at ethnic cleansing sent the Pictish highlanders to

  Australia and New Zealand as well.

 

 

NAME         Roman

EVOLVED FROM Latini

COUNTRY      Italy / France / Spain / Tunisia / Lybia /

             Morroco / Luxembourg / Belgium / Greece /

             Algeria / Bulgaria / Turkey / Syria / Lebanon /

             Israel / Egypt / Britain / Wales / Yugoslavia /

             Cyprus / Switzerland / Portugal / Austria /

             Hungary / Romania / Germany

TERRITORY    Latium

LANDMARKS    Tiber / Apennines / Mediterranean

CENTERS      Rome

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 753 / BC 6th c / BC 390 / BC 338 / BC 3rd c /

             BC 2nd c / BC 1st c / AD 98-117 / AD 476

DEITIES      Romulus / Mars / Rhea Silvia

LEADERS      Caesar / Trajan

SIGNATURE    urban farmers / military state / imperialists /

             male-oriented society

SEE ALSO     Carthaginian / Celtic / Etruscan / Gallic /

             Germani / Greek / Ligurian

REMARKS      In BC 753, Rome was established as an outpost

  for the confederation of Latini tribes who were land-hungry

  farmers.  Roman mythology indicates that Rome was founded

  by Romulus, son of Mars (the war god) and Rhea Silvia (the

  virgin).  By BC 6th century it was a union of settlements

  on top of seven hills surrounded by a defensive wall.

  During this time it was ruled by the Etruscans.  In the

  following centuries, a political system developed in which

  the head of state was a commander-in-chief of the army with

  authority in all civil and religious affairs.  The leaders

  of Rome began to dominate the surrounding regions, but in

  BC 390 Celtic warriors under the leadership of Brennius

  devastated the center and held it for ransom.

       Rome rebuilt its walls and continued warring with its

  neighbors until by BC 338 it was in control of all the

  other city-states of the Latin League.  Soldiers of Rome

  then conquered the Greek cities of southwestern Italy

  because they were situated on the fertile soil.  The next

  major objective for Rome was to subdued their old enemies

  of the peninsula, the Etruscans.

       By the end of BC 3rd century, Rome had gained

  tentative control of the entire Italian peninsula.  The

  Ligurians and Gallic Celts in the north regions refused to

  submit totally, and the Greeks of the south considered the

  Romans to be barbarians and tried to throw off the yoke of

  oppression by bringing an army from Epirus under Pyrrhus.

       Roman activities in the south brought them into

  conflict with their former allies, the Carthaginians.  This

  led to three Punic wars which saw the end of Carthaginian

  influence and the beginning of Roman expansion outside

  Italy during BC 2nd century.  The Romans now controlled

  territory in southern Gaul, Iberia, and North Africa.

       During BC 1st century a revenge-driven Caesar

  mercilessly conquered most of Celtic Gaul, annihilating

  entire tribes.  The Germani on the other side of the Rhine

  had their ranks swelled by fleeing Celtic warriors.  During

  the next few centuries, all the areas touching the

  Mediterranean and Europe including England and Wales fell

  to the Roman program of domination and domestication.

       Between AD 98-117 Trajan, the soldier-emperor, Rome

  reached its greatest extent geographically.  Ireland,

  Scotland, Netherlands, Poland, Czech, Slovakia and most of

  Germany were the only western European countries with

  Celtic populations to remain free of the Roman yoke.

       By AD 476 Rome was dead as an empire, weakened both

  from internal rot and from continuous attacks from the

  Germani tribes that they admired as warriors but had always

  feared.

 

 

NAME         Sarmatian

ALTERNATIVE  Sarmatae

EVOLVED FROM Indo-Iranian or Slav

COUNTRY      Ukraine / Russia

TERRITORY    central Asia

LANDMARKS    Urals / Don River / Black Sea / Carpathians /

AGE          Iron

DATES        BC 6th c / BC 5th c / BC 4th c / BC 2nd c /

             AD 1st c / AD 2nd - 4th c / AD 370

DEITIES      fire

SIGNATURE    herders / horse warriors / archers / lances /

             swords / male and female warriors / matriarchal

             / fire worshippers / horse sacrifice / traders /

SEE ALSO     Dacian / Germani / Greek / Scythian

REMARKS      During BC 6th century the Sarmatian tribes

  migrated, possibly from central Asia, to the western

  foothills of the Ural mountain range.  By BC 5th century

  they were established on the great plain north of the Black

  Sea from the Urals to the Don river.  During BC 4th century

  they crossed the Don river and engaged the Scythians in

  their own territory.  By the end of BC 2nd century, the

  Sarmatians had conquered most of southern Russia and

  Ukraine to the Carpathians.  By AD 1st century they had

  control of the majority of the Scythian territory.

       The Sarmatians were semi-nomadic cattle herders and

  spent most of their time hunting and tending their cattle.

  They were horse warriors who fought from the backs of their

  horse using both sharp-pointed long lances and long swords

  as well as bows and arrows.  Unlike the Scythians,

  Sarmatian society was matriarchal and the females were

  champion warriors who could not marry until they had killed

  an enemy in battle.

       The Sarmatians worshipped fire and sacrificed horses.

  Their early graves were simple but later, as they became

  more sedentary (as they settled), they became richer with

  grave goods.  Grave sites of female warriors near the Don

  river river have contained such items as scaled trousers,

  horse armor and composite bows.  The graves may have held

  Sarmatian or Amazon warriors.  It is possible that the two

  groups had a common ancestry.

       The Sarmatians had artisans who excelled in pottery,

  metal-smithing and the tanning of hides.  They also traded

  honey, furs, grain, fish and metal between the Greek

  colonies on the north shore of the Black Sea and the

  borderlands of China.

       In AD 2nd-4th century, the Sarmatians became allies

  with the Germani and raided the Dacian tribes in Romania.

  In AD 370, the invading Huns eliminated many of the

  Sarmatians in Russia and the rest fled westward and were

  assimilated into other cultures.

 

 

NAME         Scythian

COUNTRY      Russia / Ukraine / Hungary / Germany

TERRITORY    Scythia {Sithia}

LANDMARKS    Altai Mountains / Volga / Carpathians / Black

             Sea / Caucasus / Russian-Ukraine steppes /

             Balkan Peninsula / Hungarian Plain

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 9th c / BC 8th c / BC 611 / BC 6th c / BC 512

             / BC 4th-3rd c / BC 3rd c

DEITIES      Tabiti-Hestia

SIGNATURE    horse warriors / torcs / archers / chain mail /

             round shields / leg knife / throwing axe / spear

             / shamans / fishers / head & scalp hunters /

             hemp inhalers / skull-cup / nomads / yurts /

             covered wagons / fire worship / richly

             ornamented articles / male-oriented society

SEE ALSO     Celtic / Cimmerian / Germani / Hallstatt /

             Kurgan / La Tène / Sarmatian / Thracian

REMARKS      The Scythians were Indo-European speaking horse-

  warriors.  In BC 9th century they were dislodged from their

  territory east of the Altai Mountains by the Hsiung-nu and

  the Massagetai peoples who were retreating before a Chinese

  army.  Unlike most horse warriors of the time, the

  Scythians preferred to fight from the back of the horse

  rather than dismounting for combat.  They were superior

  horsemen, keeping herds of Mongolian ponies and the highly-

  prized Fergana horses, which they decorated with gold and

  other ornamented horse trappings.  They sat on decorated

  saddles made of felt cushions mounted on wooden frames, and

  they rested their feet in leather supports.

       The Scythians wore torcs, bronze helmets and chain

  mail.  They carried swords with curved blades and decorated

  hilts and cross-guards.  Their swords and sometimes the

  scabbards were made of bronze or gold, depending on the

  time period.  Their shields were usually round and made of

  leather, wood or iron decorated with animal designs in

  sheet gold.  They wore short daggers strapped to the left

  leg, carried socketed kelt throwing axes and spears or

  standards that were decorated with real and imaginary

  animals.  Their main weapon was the unequal recurved bow

  carried in a case on the horse.  They shot a 3-sided

  arrowhead made of bronze, iron or bone.  The Scythians were

  deadly accurate from horseback and had a trick of firing to

  the rear while they were riding away.

       The Scythians had a blood brotherhood and lived a

  semi-nomadic life style that revolved around fishing,

  hunting, herding and warring.  They were nature worshippers

  with tribal shamans and their main deity was a female named

  Tabiti-Hestia, the patron of fire and beasts.  The

  Scythians praticed a purification ritual which they held in

  a small tent of leather or felt.  A small cauldron of hot

  stones was placed in the tent, hemp was thrown onto the

  stones and the vapor was inhaled.

       Scythian clothing was embroidered, appliqued and

  decorated with embossed gold plaques.  They wore gold

  torcs, armlets, tall caps, trousers tucked into high soft

  boots and cloaks of animal skins.  They carried a ritual

  cup on their belt made from the skull of an enemy.  They

  ornamented the skull with gold and used it for the ritual

  drinking of blood with their brothers.  They also collected

  scalps.

       Their homes were felt-covered yurts outfitted with

  wall-hangings, felt cushions, mattresses, woven carpets,

  wooden tables with carved legs and wooden blocks for stools

  and headrests.  The women occupied an underprivileged

  position in Scythian society.  When on the move they lived

  in oxen-drawn covered wagons with solid wheels.  They herded

  cattle, ate wild animals, horse, oxen haggis, beans, onions,

  and soured mares' milk, and cooked in metal cauldrons on

  pedestals over a fire.

       By BC 8th century, the Scythians were situated around

  the mouth of the Volga river and began to migrated west

  across the Russian-Ukraine steppes and into the territory

  of the Cimmerians (the Caucasus and the plains north of the

  Black Sea) where they displaced them.  Some tribes migrated

  farther west across the Carpathians and into the Hungarian

  Plain.

       Scythian tribes allied themselves with the Assyrians

  and raided as far south as Egypt in BC 611.  In BC 512 they

  used the scorched-earth tactic to hold off an invasion of

  Hungary by Darius the Persian.  In BC 6th century,

  Scythians travelled north and west into the territory of

  the Hallstatt and the Germani.  This may have been a

  catalyst for the development of the Celtic La Tène culture.

       Around BC 4th-3rd century the Scythians invaded the

  southern Balkans and mixed with the Thracians, bringing

  about a Thraco-Scythian style of art.  In BC 3rd century,

  eastward-moving tribes of the La Tène culture mixed with

  Scythians, producing Celto-Scythian culture.  By AD 1st

  century the time of the Scythians was over and they were

  being driven out of their territory by the Sarmatian.

 

 

NAME         Tartessian

ALTERNATIVE  Tartessus / Tartessos / Tarshish

EVOLVED FROM Goidel / Thracian / Phoenician

COUNTRY      Spain

REGION       Valencia / Andalucía / Murcia

LANDMARKS    Atlantic / Mediterranean / Guadiana /

             Guadalquivir / Gates of Baal / Sierra Nevada

SITES        Alalia / Seville

CENTERS      Tartessus / Cartagena (Mastia)

AGE          Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 12th c / BC 7th c / BC 600 / BC 535 / BC 500

LEADERS      Tartessos / Arganthonios

SIGNATURE    sea traders / miners / manufacturers / glass /

             silver

SEE ALSO     Carthage / Celtic / Etruscan / Greek /

             Phoenician / Thracian

REMARKS      The Tartessian culture claimed two origins: that

  it evolved from a colony of Phoenicians from Tyre, founded

  by Tartessos in BC 12th century in the vicinity of present-

  day Seville in southern Spain, and that it was founded by

  Thracians from Bithynia on the Asia Minor side of the

  strait of Bosporus (Bistones).  It is probable that both

  are true and that each had a trading center which

  contributed to a mixed culture.  The western end of the

  territory was already settled by Goidel Celts, with whom

  they intermingled.

       The territory expanded to include all of southern

  Spain from Mastia (Cartagena) on the Mediterranean coast,

  along the Guadalquivir river to the Gulf of Cadiz on the

  Atlantic side.  It included one of the gates of Baal

  (Hercules) in the middle at the southern point.

      The southern tribes traded mostly with the Phoenicians

  and the centers on the eastern coast came under the

  influence of the Greeks in BC 6th century as they expanded

  into the western Mediterranean.

       The Tartessian territory was rich in copper, silver

  and gold.  They mined the metals, then manufactured and

  exported finished goods such as metal vessels, jewelry,

  richly decorated weapons, bronze sculptures, items of glass

  and objects of ivory.

       The Tartessian influence began to decline in BC 7th

  century when the Carthaginians began to develop their

  empire along the Mediterranean coast of Spain.  The

  Tartessians came under the rule of the Celtic chieftain

  Arganthonios around BC 600.  He ruled for eighty years and

  was rich enough from the famous silver mines to help the

  Phoenician by supporting the Greek Phoceans against Persia

  in a war on the island of Cyprus.

       The Tartessian culture was further weakened in BC 535

  when they and the Phocean Greeks lost a naval battle of

  Alalia in Corsica against the Etruscans and the

  Carthaginians.  Tartessus, the Tartessian capital, was

  destroyed by their kin the Carthaginians around BC 500.

 

 

NAME         Thracian

EVOLVED FROM Danubian / Yamnaya / Tumulus-Urnfield

COUNTRY      Bulgaria / Greece / Turkey / Spain

TERRITORY    Thrace / Bithynia

LANDMARKS    Bosporus / Balkan Peninsula

CENTERS      Adra / Polystilo or Asperosa / Tyle

AGE          Neolithic / Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 3000 / BC 15th-12th c / BC 12th c / BC 8th c

             / BC 7th c / BC 5th-4th c / BC 4th c / BC 3rd c

             / BC 101 / BC 1st c.

SIGNATURE    wife buried with chieftain / chariot burials /

             grave goods / tattoos / hillfort-villages /

             horse warriors / chariot warriors / goldsmiths

SEE ALSO     Celtic / Cimmerian / Danubian / Hittite /

             Illyrian / Neolithic / Phoenician / Pictish /

             Roman / Scythian / Tartessian / Tumulus /

             Urnfield / Yamnaya

REMARKS      The Proto-Thracian culture began to form around

  BC 3000 on the southeastern Balkan Peninsula when the

  Neolithic population (Danubian) was invaded by tribes of

  the Yamnaya culture from the Russian steppes.  The Irish

  Lebor Gabála Érenn mentions that the Thracians descented

  from Thiras son of Iafeth.  The Thracian culture developed

  into a warrior society headed by chieftains with religious

  leaders and practices similar to those of the Brahmins of

  India, the Magi of the Persians and the Druids of Ireland.

       Thracian tumulus graves of chieftains reveals a

  practice of the ritual death of the chieftain's head wife,

  an indication of sacrifice.  Chariot burials were

  accompanied by grave goods including iron swords, bronze

  arrows, drinking vessels and gold jewelry.  Thracian

  artisans were highly sought after for their gold work, a

  profession practiced in the area of the Black Sea near

  Varna, Bulgaria since BC 5th millenium.

       Thracians used horses both for riding and to pull

  four-wheeled wagons.  They lived in villages within

  hillforts and, like the Picts and Illyrians, tattooed their

  bodies.

       Between BC 15th-12th century, Tumulus-Urnfield

  warriors passed through Thracian territory on their way to

  Anatolia.  It is highly probable that young Thracian

  warriors joined with them and were members of the Sea

  People who raided the Hittite and Egyptian empires.

       The Bistones, a Thracian tribe from near Abdera

  (Polystilo or Asperosa) in Bithynia, Turkey were credited

  with the founding of the Tartessian culture in southern

  Spain around BC 12th century, probably in conjunction with

  Phoenicians from Tyre.  The town of Abdera (present-day

  Adra) in Almeria suggests that the Bistones were in control

  of the central/eastern part of the new territory.

       By the end of BC 8th century, the Thracians were

  feeling the effect of the Scythian push against the

  Cimmerians to the northeast.  The incoming Cimmerians gave

  them new information in art and weaponry, and the time

  period is known as Thraco-Cimmerian.  In BC 7th century,

  Thracian warriors joined with Cimmerian warriors in Turkey

  to attempt to fight off the Scythians.  The Thraco-

  Cimmerians conqurered a territory across the Strait of

  Bosporus on the Asia Minor side.

       During BC 5th-4th centuries, the Scythians made a

  violent intrusion into Thracian territory.  The fusion

  resulted in a Thraco-Scythian art form plus new technology

  in iron working.  In BC 4th century, Philip II of Macedonia

  conquered land in Thrace and used its gold mines as a

  source of revenue.

       By BC 3rd century, some of the La Tène Celts were

  invading the Balkan Pensinula on their way to Anatolia, and

  mingled with the Thracians when some settled at Tyle.  In

  BC 101, Thracians and Celts raided the Phocean Greek

  sanctuary of Delphi, sacking it for whatever treasures were

  left.  At the end of that century, the Thracians were

  fighting a losing battle against Rome, and by BC 1st

  century they had become a province of the Roman Empire and

  their culture came to an end.

 

 

NAME         Torc Bearer

EVOLVED FROM Neolithic

COUNTRY      Lebanon / Syria / Yugoslavia / Czech / Slovakia

             / Hungary / Austria / Germany / Italy

REGION       Bohemia

LANDMARKS    Adriatic

CENTERS      Ras Shamra (Ugarit) / Jebeil (Byblos)

AGE          Chalcolithic / Bronze

DATES        BC 2100 / BC 1800

SIGNATURE    metal-workers / massive copper torcs / spiral

             motif

SEE ALSO     Celtic / Hittites / Mycenaeans / Scythian /

             Unetice

REMARKS      The Torc Bearers were metal workers who were

  named for the massive copper torcs which they wore around

  their necks.  These were made from 1/4" (6 mm) round rods

  with the ends flattened and rolled into a curl.

       In BC 2100, the Chalcolithic Torc Bearers were living

  in Ugarit (Ras Shamra), Syria and Byblos (Jebeil), Lebanon.

  Here they specialized in the production of spiral

  bracelets, club-shaped pins of gold and silver and the

  massive ingot torcs of copper.  The city of Ugarit was a

  Phoenician trading center with early connections to the

  Hittites and Mycenaeans.

       Around BC 1800, natural disasters started these people

  moving up the Adriatic and into central Europe.  They

  carried with them their metal-working abilities into the

  early Bronze Age of the Unetice culture.  Their influence

  was felt in Czech, Slovakia, Hungary, former Yugoslavia,

  Austria, Germany and Italy.  The Scythians, Celts and

  others copied their torcs as neckware.

 

 

NAME         Tumulus

ALTERNATIVE  Hugelgraberkultur

EVOLVED FROM Unetice

COUNTRY      Czech / Germany / Austria / Switzerland /

             Belgium / Netherlands / England / Wales /

             Scotland / Ireland / France / Hungary / Spain ?

LANDMARKS    Alps / Channel / North Sea / Baltic Sea

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 1800-1200 / BC 15th-12th c

DEITIES      sun god / fire goddess

SIGNATURE    single grave tumuli / horse warriors / cattle-

             herders / fortified villages / swastika

SEE ALSO     Aremorican / Celtic / Goidel / Kurgan /

             Phoenician / Unetice / Urnfield / Wessex

REMARKS      The Tumulus culture was recognized for its use

  of the single grave with a covering mound.  The warriors of

  the Tumulus culture were highland horse-riding cattle-

  herders and lived in fortified villages.  Like their

  predecessors the Unetice, the Tumulus culture was well-

  situated to receive stimuli from other regions via the

  established overland trade routes.

       Between BC 1800 to BC 1200, Unetice-Tumulus highland

  warriors began to appear in the west of Europe.  They were

  well-armed and they spread the use of the tumulus from

  Bohemia to the Rhine north of the Main, then into

  Switzerland, Belgium, Britain and Ireland.  The tumulus was

  in vogue for most of Europe during the Middle Bronze Age.

       The tumuli of the Tumulus culture were very similar to

  those of the Goidel, Unetice, Wessex and Aremorican in form

  but in content and number they were quite different.  Grave

  evidence has shown that the four groups were different

  cultures practicing a similar burial style.

       The Bavarian group was recognized for its bronze

  swords with solid hilts.  Excavation of the tumuli of

  Hungary exposed battle axes, while the Danube groups were

  noted for sickle-shaped dress pins and baked clay altars

  with decorations of horn, boats and triangles.  The tumuli

  of eastern France revealed bodies lying on their back in an

  east-west direction with the head toward the rising sun.

  Grave goods included pottery with designs reminiscent of

  the older wooden cups.  Boars were an important part of the

  grave goods in France.  In the north, objects of sun

  worship have been found.

       The early tumulus graves contained inhumed bodies but

  later graves contained cremated bodies as the transition to

  the Urnfield culture began.  The gods were shown as symbols

  rather than abstracted images.  The sun god was represented

  by the sun wheel or the left-facing swastika of the Kurgan

  culture, which was used by the Celts and others from India

  to Ireland.  The fire goddess was represented by the

  triangle or the right-facing swastika.

       The people of the Tumulus culture developed a

  profitable bronze industry in weapons, jewelry and tools.

  During BC 15th-12th centuries, Tumulus-Urnfield warriors

  raided east through Thrace and Illyria, crossed the Strait

  of Bosporus to Anatolia, then wreaked havoc in Syria,

  Palestine, and Egypt.

       The Egyptians referred to this group as the Sea People

  and many of them worked as mercenaries for the Phoenicians

  who were developing their commercial trade route throughout

  the Mediterranean and into the Atlantic.  They were

  described as ferocious warriors who wore their hair in a

  very stiff style.

 

 

NAME         Unetice

ALTERNATIVE  Aunjetitz

EVOLVED FROM Yamnaya / Bell Beaker / Ligurian / Torc Bearers

COUNTRY      Germany / Czech / Slovakia

REGION       Rhine Valley / Bohemia

LANDMARKS    Alps

SITES        Unetice

CENTERS      Prasklice

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 3000 / BC 1800-1200 / BC 1500

DEITIES      bee goddess

SIGNATURE    round barrows / single burial / burial jars /

             ochre death powder / pastoral / lost wax process

             / honey bees / mead / wooden stake defense walls

             / hillforts / Q-Celt / horse warriors / stone

             and wooden plows / copper ingot torcs /

             geometric design / moon-shaped neck ware /

             abstract art

SEE ALSO     Aremorican / Argaric / Battle Axe / Bell Beaker

             Celt / Goidel / Kurgan / Ligurian / Mycenaean /

             Torc Bearer / Tumulus / Wessex / Yamnaya

REMARKS      Sometime after BC 3000, warriors of the Yamnaya

  (Kurgan) culture passed through Bohemia, Czech.  Not long

  after the Unetice culture was born in the "Celtic Cradle".

  The "Celtic Cradle" was the land mass between the Elbe and

  the Rhine rivers stretching from the North Sea lowlands

  into the highland surrounding the Danube of Germany and

  Czech.  The oldest site found so far is at the present-day

  village of Prasklice and it is now believed that they

  developed their own independent Bronze Age separate from

  that in the Aegean.

       Their highland territory was in the center of east-

  west and north-south overland trade routes, providing

  access to innovations of different regions.  Because of

  their location, the Unetice people were influenced by the

  cultures of the Bell Beaker, Torc Bearer, Mycenaean and

  Ligurian.

       Between BC 1800-1200, well-armed highland herders of

  the Unetice-Tumulus cultures began to appear in western

  Europe.  They spread the use of bronze and the use of

  tumuli-covered graves from Bohemia to the Rhine north of

  the Main, then into Switzerland, Belgium, Britain and

  Ireland.

       The Unetice culture depended largely on cattle and

  farming as well as their metal-working.  They also raised

  goats, pigs and horses.  Horses were used for riding as

  well as for pulling wagons.  Stone and wooden plows were

  still being used, and hunting provided deer, boar and

  rabbit.  People fished with hooks, caught turtles and

  collected mussels.  Due to the use of the lost-wax process

  for casting bronze, bee-keeping and the gathering of wild

  honey became increasingly important, probably stimulating

  mead production as well.

       Villages were built on slopes and hilltops and

  excavations in Slovakia have revealed that they were well-

  designed with streets 8 ft (2.5 m) wide.  Defences were

  provided by wooden stake palisades and ditches.  One

  thermal spring had a wooden construction built over it.

       Their dwellings, up to 33 ft (10 m) long, were of wood

  and daub construction.  Some dwellings were two-roomed with

  one hearth while others were two-roomed with two hearths.

  The hearth was pounded earth and the floor was of wood.

  Inside walls were plastered and covered with geometric

  designs and supported special shelves or niches for objets

  d'art.  It is believed that the houses may have been burnt

  after the death of the occupants.

       The art of the Unetice culture was of an abstracted

  variety, as shown by clay animal figurines which could have

  been toys or offerings.  Some sculptures have been found

  depicting humans wearing moon-shaped neckware.

       The Unetice people buried their dead under round

  barrows similar to those of the Goidel, Wessex and

  Aremorican cultures.  A number of tumuli have revealed

  bodies buried in hollowed-out tree trunks.  Some skeletons

  wore amulets made from segments of skull.  Cremated babies

  have been found in some graves with adult skeletons.

  Servants may have been sacrificed with their masters.

  Animal offerings were present, as well as segments of their

  homes.  One male was buried with the heads of five oxen.

  Some burials were in clay jars and others in graves,

  covered with a tumulus.  The bodies were covered with

  powdered ochre and buried in small chests or 33 in (85 cm)

  graves.  This style of burial was found mostly in the Near

  East during the early Bronze Age.

       The Unetice developed the bronze flanged axes,

  rivetted daggers and halberds decorated with geometric

  patterns.  Scabbards were made from leather, cloth and

  decorated bronze.  Their pins had holes, knot heads, rings

  and clover-leaf designs.  Jewelry also included gold

  spirals, crescent pendants, basket-shaped earrings, and

  beads.  Massive copper torcs were worn around the neck.

  Clay cups were produced with handles attached to the center

  and base.  They acquired Egyptian blue glass faience beads

  and were in contact with the Mycenaean and Wessex cultures

  as well as being involved in the amber trade.

       The Unetice culture had a profound effect on Europe as

  their goods were highly sought after during the early

  Bronze Age.  By BC 1500, the Unetice culture began to fade

  and was dominated by or evolved into the Tumulus Culture.

 

 

NAME         Urnfield

EVOLVED FROM Neolithic / Kurgan / Tumulus

COUNTRY      Hungary / Romania / Czech / Slovakia / Germany /

             Austria / France / Scotland / Belgium / Spain /

             Netherlands / Italy / Yugoslavia / Poland /

             Switzerland / Ireland

LANDMARKS    Alps / Danube

SITES        Kisapostag / Cirna / Val Camonica

AGE          Copper / Bronze

DATES        BC 3rd mill / BC 2000 / BC 15th-12th c /

             BC 1100 / BC 9th c / BC 850 / BC 800-500

             / BC 800

DEITIES      sun god

SIGNATURE    Alpine stock / cremation urns / lost-wax process

             / honey bees / mead / timber-framed ramparts /

             log houses / slings / sacrifices / miners /

             bronze plow / bronze-rimmed spoked wheel

SEE ALSO     Celtic / Etruscan / Hallstatt / Kurgan /

             Neolithic / Tumulus

REMARKS      During BC 3rd millenium, settlers of the Kurgan

  culture arrived on the Balkan Peninsula and were a heavy

  influence on the indigenous Neolithic hunter population.

       Around BC 2000, the Urnfield culture began to develop

  in the present-day area of Hungary-Romania.  Two of the

  oldest sites were at Kisapostag, Hungary and Cirna,

  Romania.  They were of the Alpine group and their culture

  was named for the burial urns used to hold the ashes of

  their cremated dead.  The urns were then buried in flat

  fields (no mounds) quite close to each other.  Sometimes

  the urns were placed in caves and sometimes they even

  appear in grave sites that were used by other cultures who

  buried their dead in different ways.  They displayed sun

  wheels and sun cult wagons and venerated the stag, boar and

  the horse, symbolizing fire.  The urns were made with the

  use of the potter's wheel, which the Urnfield culture

  popularized throughout Europe.  They had a custom of

  performing sacrifices at river fords.

       The Urnfield people lived in rectangular houses

  constructed of logs within hillforts or promontory forts

  protected by timber-framed ramparts.  These settlements

  could hold populations of up to 350 people.  Ammunition

  dumps of sling-stones are often found at such sites.

       The Urnfield people were miners of metals and salt, as

  well as being traders and raiders.  Their culture brought

  the late Bronze Age to its height and developed bronze as

  an industry.  By BC 800, mining techniques and smelting by

  charcoal were so developed that they could produce a pure

  copper.  Lead was being added to swords at 4-5% and 15% in

  axes.  Lead made casting easier and tin was becoming

  scarce.  The importance of the smith's role is shown by a

  carving from Val Camonica in Italy which depicts a smith

  wearing the feathered headdress of a shaman.  Because the

  lost-wax process was used in casting bronze, bee-keeping

  was important.  The gathering of wild honey and the

  production and drinking of mead were by-products of this

  activity.

       In the area of weaponry, the Urnfield artisans

  developed the rapier, tanged leaf swords, heavy slashing

  swords, antennae-handled sword (late), better metal

  shields, solid bronze armor, helmets with crests, and leg

  guards.  Socketed tools, curved knives, chisels, and a

  heavy bronze axe-head facilitated carpentry.  The quantity

  of bronze razors found indicates a preference for shaving

  and they produced bronze pins to keep their clothing in

  place.  High quality sheet bronze was developed for the

  making of cauldrons and other equipment, and special bronze

  knives were made for food preparation.

       The Urnfield culture was also responsible for the

  development of the bronze plow and a spoked wheel with a

  bronze hub and rim.  These, along with their superior

  sickles, helped the progress of agriculture and

  transportation.  A sacrificial wagon model has been found

  that shows one front wheel and three at the back.  They

  also made high quality decorative horse trappings.

       From BC 15th-12th century, Bronze Age warriors from

  the Tumulus-Urnfield cultures passed through the Balkan

  Peninsula, crossed the strait of Bosporus and raided Syria,

  Palestine and Egypt.  They mixed with many cultures as they

  travelled and were sometimes referred to the as the Sea

  People.

       After BC 1100, the Celtic Urnfield culture was a major

  influence in Poland, Germany, Austria, Switzerland,

  Belgium, Netherlands, Scotland, England, Ireland, France

  and Italy (later in Spain/Portugal).  The tribes that moved

  into the Po Valley and Etruria were called the Villanovans

  and formed the basis for the Etruscan culture.

       The Urnfield-Hallstatt period from the 9th-7th century

  was a transitional time when many cultures were changing

  from bronze weapons to iron and adopting the chariot burial

  as a funerary rite (BC 800-500 in Spain/Portugal).  By BC

  850 the true Hallstatt culture had been born in the Czech-

  German highlands of the "Celtic Cradle".

 

 

NAME         Wessex

EVOLVED FROM Goidel / Unetice / Tumulus

COUNTRY      England

REGION       Wiltshire

TERRITORY    Wessex

AGE          Bronze

DATES        BC 1600-1500

SIGNATURE    round barrows / Stonehenge / traders / faience

             beads

SEE ALSO     Aremorican / Celtic / Goidel / Mycenaean /

             Tumulus / Unetice

REMARKS      The Wessex culture seems to have developed from

  the migration of Unetice-Tumulus herders who intermingled

  with the Goidel in Britain.

       The Wessex group buried their dead in round barrow

  graves similar to the other Celtic Aremorican, Goidel and

  Unetice cultures.  Their territory had good farming and

  they dominated the local agricultural people.  Quantities

  of tin and copper were available from Cornwall.  They

  imported gold and gold goods from Ireland.

       Grave goods from Wessex include flanged axes,

  triangular daggers, gold, amber, jet, faience beads copied

  from the Egyptian which suggests trade with the eastern

  Mediterranean, and objects which suggest export to the

  Mycenaean.  The Wessex people were involved in the

  rebuilding of Stonehenge in its final form (phase III)

  between BC 1600-1500.

 

 

NAME         Yamnaya

ALTERNATIVE  Luvian

EVOLVED FROM Neolithic / Kurgan

COUNTRY      Russia / Turkey / Pakistan

LANDMARKS    Volga / Don / Caspian Sea / Caucasus / Plateau

             of Phrygia / Pamirs / Indus Valley

AGE          Neolithic / Bronze / Iron

DATES        BC 3000 / BC 2300 / BC 2000 / BC 1600

SIGNATURE    Alpine stock / horses / chariots / cattle /

             Vedic religion - Rig-Veda / zero

SEE ALSO     Goidel / Harappan / Hittite / Kurgan / Neolithic

             / Unetice

REMARKS      The Yamnaya were alpine warriors that developed

  out of the Kurgan culture along the Volga and Don rivers of

  southern Russia on the great plains north of the Caspian

  Sea.  They were of the Aryan language group, with tame

  horses and semi-domesticated cattle.  Women had a position

  of equality within the tribe and were held in high esteem.

  The leader of each family was also a priest.

       In BC 3000, horse warriors of the Yamnaya culture left

  their homeland on the Volga river north of the Caspian Sea,

  crossed the Caucasus, spread through Turkey, over the

  Strait of Bosporus into the Balkan Peninsula and westward

  into Europe.  The Yamnaya brought knowledge of bronze,

  horses, cattle, solid wheels, the Aryan language and the

  Vedic religion.  One major cultural spinoff from their

  advancement into Europe was the Unetice culture of Czech.

       In BC 2300 warriors of the Yamnaya tribes who had

  settled in the Caucasus Mountains used their fast-moving

  spoked-wheel chariots to invade present-day Turkey and

  Syria.  The Yamnaya chariot warriors developed the

  blitzkreig as a form of warfare.  They settled the Plateau

  of Phrygia and out of this culture came the children of the

  sons of Iafeth.  Out of these people came the Partholean,

  Nemedians and the Goidel who later conquered Ireland.  Also

  from this conquest the Hittite Empire was established.

       Around BC 2000, other tribes of Yamnaya chariot

  warriors crossed the Pamirs and invaded the Indus valley of

  Pakistan where they affected the Harappan culture.  By BC

  1600 Yamnaya chariot warriors with iron weapons conquered

  the territory of the Indus valley, where they introduced

  many hymns of the Rig-Veda from which Brahmanism was born.

  Yamnaya Vedic scholars developed the concept of zero

  sometime between BC 1500 and BC 1200.